goat willow (bredina, rakita) - salix caprea l.
Willow Family - Salicaceae
Botanical characteristics. A tree or shrub. The bark is young greenish-gray, later brown, fissured. Young shoots serous, with large buds. The leaves vary greatly in size and shape on the same plant: ovoid, rounded, elliptical, oblong-lanceolate, often wavy, notched, dense, wrinkled, naked above, dark green, gray-bottom from below. The flowers are yellowish-gray, collected in drooping brush earrings. It blooms before the leaves appear. The fruit is a box. Wavy seeds, gray.
Spread. It grows in streams, in forests, glades, among shrubs.
Used plant parts. Medicinal raw materials are bark, leaves, flowers, earrings, collected at different times in the usual way.
Chemical composition. Goat willow bark is abundant, and leaves - less tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol glucosides (salicin and its derivatives).
The leaves and inflorescences contain vitamins, organic acids, saponins, nitrogen-containing compounds, proanthocyanidins, essential oil, catechins, lipids (triacetylglycerides), in acid hydrate (lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, margarine, arachidic, genoicosanic, and mariozoic acid).
Application. Willow preparations have a hemostatic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, wound-healing, tonic effect. Glycoside salicin under the action of the enzyme salipase is split into glucose and alcohol saligenin, which in the body is oxidized to salicylic acid.
In folk medicine, a decoction of willow bark is used for rheumatism, whooping cough, headache, fever, various bleeding, gout, malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, neuralgia, as a sedative, anthelmintic; externally - for rinsing, lotions, baths, powders for ulcers, wounds, boils, sweating.
In Azerbaijan, willow in the form of decoctions and infusions is used as an antipyretic, sedative, diuretic, astringent. Alcoholic extracts of inflorescences and the total preparation of willow polyphenolic compounds are recommended for functional disorders of the cardiovascular system: tachycardias, angiospastic pains.
The peoples of many countries, goat willow preparations are used as a substitute for quinine, aspirin, and this is not an accident: for the first time aspirin was obtained from willow.
Nanai young plants are used to treat diseases of a rheumatoid nature. Willow bark is part of the diaphoretic tea used in various diseases, mainly for colds. Fresh juice of bark and leaves - an effective remedy for the treatment of corns; decoction of bark and leaves - for growth and strengthen hair.
- To obtain a decoction, 20 g of bark are crushed, 200 ml of boiling water is poured, insisted on a boiling water bath for 30 minutes, cooled for 10-15 minutes, filtered. Take 2 tbsp. spoon 3-4 times a day.
- For an infusion, 10 g of inflorescences are poured over 200 ml of boiling water, infused on a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cooled for 45 minutes, filtered. Take 2 tbsp. spoon 3-4 times a day.