water chestnut (flyer) - trapa natans
Rogulnik Family - Tgarasea
Other names: rogue, chili, damn nut.
Botanical characteristic. A grassy annual plant, maybe a perennial. A flexible stalk floating in the water is attached to the bottom, like an anchor, last year's nut, as well as threadlike brownish roots.
When the water level rises, the water nut breaks off the ground and turns into a free-floating plant. Swimming in shallow water and reaching a suitable depth, he again takes root.
First of all, threadlike, early falling leaves appear on the stem. On the water surface, the hazelnut develops one or more rosettes of rhombic serrated leaves arranged mosaicly due to the different lengths of the petioles. In the upper part of the petioles there are swellings filled with airy tissue that support the rosette of leaves afloat. Single flowers with white or transparent petals. It blooms in May - June. The fruit is single-seeded, stone fruit, black-brown with curved horns. Ripe fruits in the sludge last up to 10 years or more, without losing germination.
Spread. Water chestnut has an extensive geographical area. It grows in still, fresh waters, lakes and elders, sometimes thickets.
Hazelnut was known to man from ancient times because of its edible tasty fruits, the core of which contains up to 50% starch. It was widely consumed. Today cultivated in China, Japan, India. Ancient peoples used nut for various diseases.
Used parts of the plant. The raw material is the whole plant, but more often the fruits.
Chemical composition. All parts of the plant contain carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids, tannins, vitamins, nitrogen compounds, mineral salts. The fruits found starch, fatty oil, carbohydrates, a large set of vitamins and minerals.
Application. Nuts are baked and boiled. To taste, they resemble roasted chestnuts.
Fresh, it is widely used in Tibetan, Chinese, Japanese medicine for impotence, as a general strengthening agent after serious illnesses, as a diuretic, for kidney diseases, dyspepsia.
In China and India, all parts of the plant are used as an astringent, fixing, tonic, antispasmodic, sedative, diaphoretic, choleretic agent.
Fresh juice of leaves and flowers in folk medicine is used to treat eye diseases, as an antiseptic for gonorrhea, whites, various tumors, and for snake and insect bites.
In the experiment, the complex of phenolic compounds and carbohydrates isolated from water nut showed the ability to increase the body's resistance to adverse conditions, and has a pronounced antiviral effect.
- To obtain the infusion, take 20 g of leaves and flowers, pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist on a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cool for 45 minutes, filter. Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day before meals. For external use, increase the concentration by 2-3 times.
- Juice for the treatment of eye diseases must be diluted 1:10. Inside - 30-40 drops per reception 3-4 times a day before meals; for other external use - 1: 3.