water nut (rogulnik) - trapa natans
Rogulnikov family - Tgaraseae
Other names: rogulnik, chilim, damn nut.
Botanical characteristics. Herbaceous annual plant, may be perennial. A flexible stem floating in the water is attached to the bottom as an anchor, last year's nut, and also filiform brownish roots.
When the water level rises, the water nut detaches from the ground and turns into a free-floating plant. Floating in shallow water and reaching the appropriate depth, it takes root again.
First of all, filiform, early falling leaves appear on the stem. On the water surface, a water chestnut develops one or more rosettes of rhombic jagged leaves, arranged mosaically due to the different length of petioles. In the upper part of the petioles there are swellings filled with an airborne tissue that support the rosette of leaves afloat. Flowers solitary with white or transparent petals. It blooms in May - June. The fruit is single-seeded, bony-like, black-brown with curved horns. Mature fruits in sludge are stored up to 10 years or more, without losing germination.
Spread. Water chestnut has a wide geographic range. It grows in stagnant, fresh waters, lakes and oxbows, sometimes thickets.
The water nut was known to man since ancient times because of its edible tasty fruits, the core of which contains up to 50% of starch. It is widely used in food. Today they are cultivated in China, Japan, India. The ancients used walnut in various diseases.
Used plant parts. Medicinal raw material is the whole plant, but more often the fruit.
Chemical composition. All parts of the plant contain carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids, tannins, vitamins, nitrogenous compounds, mineral salts. Starch, fatty oil, carbohydrates, a large set of vitamins and trace elements are found in the fruits.
Application. Nuts are consumed in baked and boiled form. They taste like roasted chestnuts.
In fresh form it is widely used in Tibetan, Chinese, Japanese medicine for impotence, as a general tonic after serious illness, as a diuretic, for kidney disease, dyspepsia.
In China and India, all parts of the plant are used as an astringent, anchoring, tonic, antispasmodic, sedative, diaphoretic, choleretic agent.
Fresh juice of leaves and flowers in folk medicine is used for the treatment of eye diseases, as an antiseptic for gonorrhea, leucorrhoea, various tumors, snake bites and insects.
In the experiment, a complex of phenolic compounds and carbohydrates, isolated from a water nut, showed the ability to increase the body's resistance to adverse conditions, exhibits a pronounced antiviral effect.
- To get the infusion, take 20 g of leaves and flowers, pour 200 ml of boiling water, leave for 15 minutes in a boiling water bath, cool for 45 minutes, filter. Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day before meals. For external use, increase the concentration by 2-3 times.
- Juice for the treatment of eye diseases must be diluted 1:10. Inside - 30-40 drops per reception 3-4 times a day before meals; for other external use - 1: 3.