Valeriana officinalis - valeriana officinalis l.
Valerianaceae Family - Valerianaceae
Botanical characteristics. Perennial herbaceous plant. It grows in meadows, forest glades, among shrubs.
The rhizome is short, thick, hollow inside, with cord-like long roots. The stem is straight, grooved, hollow, branched at the top. Leaves are pinnate, opposite whole or large-toothed with 5-11 pairs of leaflets, lower - petiolate, upper - sessile. The flowers are small, pale pink, fragrant, collected in a thyroid whisk. The fruit is an ovoid seed, with a tuft. It blooms from May to August, the fruits ripen in July - September.
Spread. Distributed in most parts of Russia, except for the Far North. It grows in wet meadows, on the banks of reservoirs. It is widely cultivated as a valuable medicinal plant.
Used plant parts. Medicinal raw materials are the roots and rhizomes, less often the aerial part of the plant. The roots are harvested in autumn or early spring, dried in a dryer at a temperature not higher than 35 ° C. Stored tightly closed, keeping away from cats. The above-ground part is assembled in the usual way.
Chemical composition. All parts contain carbohydrates and related compounds (glucose, sucrose, valeroside), organic acids, esters of isovaleric and valeric acids, essential oil, iridoids, alkaloids, higher aliphatic hydrocarbons, phenol carboxylic acids and their derivatives, flavonoids, vitamins, phytoncides.
All preparations of valerian have antibacterial properties.
Application. Herbal medicines are used as a sedative, hypotensive, choleretic, antispasmodic, coronary-dilating agent. They are used for nervous excitement, neurosis, spasms of the gastrointestinal organs, insomnia, epilepsy, neurasthenia, angina pectoris, hypertension, liver and biliary tract diseases; are part of soothing, carminative and gastric charges, Zelenin drops, drugs: Corvalol, Valocordin, Validol, Valasedrin, Valhedrin, Valocormid, Cardiovalen.
In medical practice, valerian is used in chronic functional disorders of the central nervous system, hysteria, convulsions, in coronary circulation disorders, for the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris, heart defects, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with impaired secretory function and disorders of the endocrine glands, in case of hyperfunction thyroid, diabetes insipidus, menopausal disorders, beriberi; positive effect on sexual activity; applied externally in the treatment of lichen planus, in cosmetics, to reduce perspiration.
In folk medicine in many countries, valerian preparations are used as a sedative, with headaches, dizziness, chorea, to improve vision, as a detoxification, with paralysis, rectal wounds; outwardly - in the form of baths for epilepsy; for washing the eyes, as well as gargling, wash the head with a headache.
In the experiment, valerian preparations in small doses stimulate the central nervous system, and in large doses, they reduce reflex activity; strengthen the activity of cranial nerves and spinal reflexes, accelerate blood clotting. Essential oil shows an anticonvulsant effect, dilates coronary vessels, lowers the tone of smooth muscles, shows a sedative effect.
In Tibetan medicine, valerian is used for pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis, hemoptysis, neurasthenia, purulent wounds; in Mongolian, as an antipyretic and analgesic agent; in Korean, for toothache, to strengthen the gums, to remove freckles and pigment ones.
Fresh plant juice is effective for facial cramps, helps with sunburn and chapping.
Valerian extracts are part of the drink "Olympia".
Cooking Herbal medicines are dosed by drops as prescribed by a doctor. At home, you can make a decoction of the roots of the aerial parts of the plant, for which you take 20 g of crushed raw materials, pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist on a bath for 30 minutes, cool for 10 minutes, filter and bring to 200 ml with water. Take 1 tbsp. spoon 2 times a day. Children - a teaspoon 3 times a day.
- To make this infusion : pour 1 tablespoon of roots into a thermos, pour 1 cup boiling water. Take the next day. Dosage is individual. Take one tablespoon of infusion 3-4 times a day, or, with increased excitability, drink the whole infusion for 3 times 1/3 cup.
- You can take valerian root powder in a dose of 1-2 g 3-4 times a day on an empty stomach.
Pharmacies sell ready-made preparations of valerian.
- Valerian tincture: apply 15-20 drops per dose, 2 times a day. Children have as many drops as a child’s age.
- Ethereal valerian tincture - 15–30 drops 2-3 times a day.
- Zinc valerian - 1–2 powders or pills 3 times a day.
- Valerian extract is thick - 1–3 pills 2–3 times a day.
- Drops of lily of the valley-valerian with adonizid - 15-20 drops 2-3 times a day.
- Soothing tea (1 part of valerian root, 2 parts of mint leaves, 2 parts of watch and 1 part of hops) - infuse 1 tablespoon of the mixture with 2 cups boiling water, drink the infusion 2-3 times a day.
- Valerian is also included in the composition of valkordin, Zelenin drops, in the composition of gastric and carminative teas, etc.
Contraindications. The therapeutic effect of valerian is purely individual. In some patients with the systematic use of valerian root comes a significant and persistent improvement in health and, conversely, there are patients who do not tolerate valerian.
In chronic enterocolitis valerian can cause exacerbation.
More than one and a half to two months without a break valerian should not be taken, as there may be feelings of discomfort, headaches, anxiety, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.