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Characteristics of a group of vitamins and other biologically active substances

Характеристика группы витаминов и других биологически активных веществ

Vitamins (from Lat. Vita - "life") - a group of low molecular weight organic compounds of relatively simple structure and diverse chemical nature. This is a group of organic substances combined by chemical nature, united on the basis of their absolute necessity for a heterotrophic organism as an integral part of food. Autotrophic organisms also need vitamins, getting them either by synthesis, or from the environment. So, vitamins are part of nutrient media for growing phytoplankton organisms. Vitamins in food (or in the environment) in very small quantities, and therefore belong to micronutrients.

Minerals - inorganic substances that are formed in the bowels of the earth. The content of minerals in food varies geographically, that is, it all depends on the content of the soil on which a particular product has grown.

Vitamins are involved in a variety of biochemical reactions , performing a catalytic function as part of the active centers of a wide variety of enzymes or acting as informational regulatory mediators, performing the signal functions of exogenous prohormones and hormones. Vitamins are not an energy supplier for the body, but vitamins play an important role in metabolism. The concentration of vitamins in the tissues and the daily need for them are small, but with insufficient intake of vitamins in the body, characteristic and dangerous pathological changes occur. Most vitamins are not synthesized in humans. Therefore, they must regularly and in sufficient quantities be ingested with food or in the form of vitamin-mineral complexes and nutritional supplements. The exceptions are vitamin K, a sufficient amount of which is normally synthesized in the human large intestine due to the activity of bacteria, and vitamin B3, synthesized by intestinal bacteria from the amino acid tryptophan.

Three principal pathological states are associated with the violation of the intake of vitamins: a vitamin deficiency - hypovitaminosis, a lack of vitamin - vitamin deficiency, and an excess of vitamin - hypervitaminosis. About fifteen vitamins are known. Based on the solubility, the vitamins are divided into fat soluble - A, D, E, F, K and water soluble - all the rest (B, C, etc.). Fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in the body, and their depot are adipose tissue and liver. Water-soluble vitamins in significant quantities are not deposited (do not accumulate) and are excreted with water in excess. This explains the fact that hypovitaminosis is often found in relatively water-soluble vitamins, and hypervitaminosis is more often observed in fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins differ from other organic food substances in that they are not included in the structure of tissues and are not used by the body as an energy source (they do not have calorie content).

Minerals play a very important role in the health of each person. Minerals - the nutrients necessary for our body, which contribute to the functioning of all organs. Few people understand exactly how minerals affect our body. Minerals help the body process the food we eat. Thanks to minerals, a new energy and strength appears in the human body, the tissues of the body are regenerated and regenerated. Practically all the minerals enter the human body along with the food and water that we consume. The body itself does not produce nutrients and minerals. Good nutrition allows you to get all kinds of minerals and nutrients from meat, fruits, vegetables, grains and dairy products.

There are two types of minerals: Macrominerals. Macro from Greek is big. The human body needs large quantities of macrominerals, and smaller quantities of trace elements. The group of macrominerals includes: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfur. Trace elements Micro from Greek is small. Trace elements are also very important and necessary, although the body needs macrominerals in greater quantities. Scientists are still arguing how many minerals this group needs a person daily. This group of minerals includes: iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, selenium.

Minerals perform three main functions in the human body: Ensuring the formation of bone tissue and teeth. Support normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neural conduction, acid-base balance. Cellular metabolism regulation: minerals become part of the enzymes and hormones that regulate cellular activity.

Magnesium - a mineral for heartburn, prevents or reduces the formation of acid in the stomach. It also helps to break up kidney stones, helps with prostatitis, treats aggressive behavior in alcoholics, protects against radiation, helps with heart problems and epilepsy (reduces the frequency of attacks). Daily intake of magnesium - 270 - 300 mg. Products that contain magnesium: nuts, spinach, bread, fish, meat.

Calcium is a mineral that is necessary for muscle contraction, blood coagulation, and cell wall protection. The proper functioning of the human heart depends on the calcium content in the body. Prevents the most devastating effects of menopause: loss of bone mass, which in turn leads to bone fractures, curvature of the spine, tooth loss. Daily intake of calcium - 700 mg. Calcium-containing foods: milk, cheese and other dairy products, green leafy vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, but not spinach), soybeans, tofu (bean curd), nuts, fish (in which you can eat bones, for example, sardines) .Magnesium and calcium absorb the action of each other, because calcium is necessary acid, and magnesium prevents the formation of acid.

Sodium - a mineral that is rich in sea salt, helps oxygen and nutrients penetrate into the cells of the body. Sodium prevents or reduces pain in muscles that has arisen from intense physical exertion. Have you ever noticed that there is pain in the side or a spasm in the leg while running? The more you sweat, the more sodium comes out of the body, so there are cramps and cramps. The daily intake of sodium is 6 g. Products that contain sodium: finished products (which are salted during cooking), meat finished products (bacon), cheese, canned vegetables. With an exclusive protein diet will not be enough fiber, vitamins and minerals. What can be the cause of many serious diseases. Do you need it?

Potassium is an adversary of sodium, but both minerals help control the body's water balance. Potassium prevents muscle atrophy, helps regulate heartbeat and blood pressure. The daily rate of potassium is 3,500 mg. Products that contain potassium: sunflower seeds, bananas, beef, shrimp, oysters, chicken, turkey, milk.

Iodine is a mineral due to which the body is provided with energy, and the thyroid gland functions without failures. Lack of iodine can lead to severe weight loss. Daily iodine intake is 14 mg. Products that contain iodine: sea fish and seafood, cereal products.

Iron is a mineral that provides the pink color of the cheeks and shine in the eyes. When the body lacks iron, anemia occurs. With iron, oxygen is distributed throughout the body, iron is very important for the formation of hemoglobin. Daily intake of iron - 9 - 15 mg. Products that contain iron: liver, beef, beans, nuts, dried fruit (dried apricots, raisins), brown rice, tuna, eggs, baked potatoes, broccoli.

Manganese is a mineral that helps with diabetes, multiple sclerosis and severe myasthenia gravis. The daily rate of manganese is 0.5 mg. Products that contain manganese: tea, bread, nuts, green vegetables (peas, green beans).

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