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Characterization of a group of vitamins and other biologically active substances

Характеристика группы витаминов и других биологически активных веществ

Vitamins (from lat. Vita - “life”) - a group of low molecular weight organic compounds of relatively simple structure and diverse chemical nature. This is a group of organic substances by their chemical nature, united on the basis of their absolute need for a heterotrophic organism as an integral part of food. Autotrophic organisms also need vitamins, getting them either by synthesis or from the environment. So, vitamins are part of nutrient media for growing phytoplankton organisms. Vitamins are found in food (or in the environment) in very small quantities, and therefore are micronutrients.

Minerals are inorganic substances that form in the bowels of the earth. The content of minerals in food products varies geographically, that is, it all depends on the content of the soil on which a particular product grew.

Vitamins participate in many biochemical reactions , performing a catalytic function as part of the active centers of a large number of various enzymes or acting as information regulatory intermediaries, performing signaling functions of exogenous prohormones and hormones. Vitamins are not an energy supplier for the body, but vitamins play a crucial role in metabolism. The concentration of vitamins in tissues and the daily need for them are low, but with insufficient intake of vitamins in the body, characteristic and dangerous pathological changes occur. Most vitamins are not synthesized in the human body. Therefore, they must regularly and in sufficient quantities enter the body with food or in the form of vitamin-mineral complexes and food additives. The exceptions are vitamin K, a sufficient amount of which is normally synthesized in the human large intestine due to the activity of bacteria, and vitamin B3, synthesized by intestinal bacteria from tryptophan amino acids.

Three fundamental pathological conditions are associated with a violation of the intake of vitamins: deficiency of the vitamin — hypovitaminosis, lack of vitamin — vitamin deficiency, and excess vitamin — hypervitaminosis. About a dozen vitamins are known. Based on solubility, vitamins are divided into fat-soluble ones - A, D, E, F, K and water-soluble - all the rest (B, C, etc.). Fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in the body, with their depot being adipose tissue and liver. Water-soluble vitamins in significant quantities are not deposited (do not accumulate) and in excess are excreted with water. This explains why hypovitaminoses are quite common with respect to water-soluble vitamins, and hypervitaminoses are more often observed with respect to fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins differ from other organic food substances in that they are not included in the structure of tissues and are not used by the body as an energy source (do not have caloric content).

Minerals play a very important role in the health of every person. Minerals - nutrients necessary for our body, which contribute to the functioning of all organs. Few people understand exactly how minerals affect our bodies. Minerals help the body process the food we eat. Thanks to minerals, new energy and strength appear in the human body, body tissues are restored and regenerated. Almost all minerals enter the human body along with the food and water that we consume. The body itself does not produce useful substances and minerals. Nutrition allows you to get all kinds of minerals and nutrients from meat, fruits, vegetables, cereals and dairy products.

There are two types of minerals: Macrominerals. Macro from Greek - large. The human body needs large amounts of macrominerals, and smaller amounts of trace elements. The macromineral group includes: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfur. Trace elements. Micro from Greek is small. Trace elements are also very important and necessary, although the body needs more macrominerals. Scientists are still arguing how many minerals of this group a person needs every day. This group of minerals includes: iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, selenium.

Minerals perform three main functions in the human body: Ensuring the formation of bone and tooth tissue. Supporting normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neural conductivity, acid-base balance. Regulation of cell metabolism: minerals become part of enzymes and hormones that regulate cellular activity.

Magnesium is a mineral from heartburn that prevents or reduces the formation of acid in the stomach. It also helps to crush kidney stones, helps with prostatitis, treats aggressive behavior in alcoholics, protects against radiation, helps with heart problems and epilepsy (reduces the frequency of attacks). The daily rate of magnesium is 270 - 300 mg. Products that contain magnesium: nuts, spinach, bread, fish, meat.

Calcium is a mineral that is necessary for muscle contraction, blood coagulation, and protection of the cell membrane. It is on the calcium content in the body that the proper functioning of the human heart depends. Prevents the most devastating effects of menopause: bone loss, which in turn leads to bone fractures, curvature of the spine, tooth loss. The daily norm of calcium is 700 mg. Products that contain calcium: milk, cheese and other dairy products, green leafy vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, but not spinach), soybeans, tofu (bean curd), nuts, fish (in which you can eat bones, for example, sardines) .Magnesium and calcium absorb each other, because calcium needs acid, and magnesium prevents the formation of acid.

Sodium - a mineral rich in sea salt, helps oxygen and nutrients to penetrate the cells of the body. Sodium prevents or reduces muscle pain that has arisen from intense physical exertion. Have you ever noticed that there is pain in the side or spasm in the leg while running? The more you sweat, the more sodium leaves the body, so cramps and cramps occur. The daily rate of sodium is 6 g. Products that contain sodium: prepared foods (which salt out during cooking), meat prepared foods (bacon), cheese, canned vegetables. With exclusively protein nutrition, fiber, vitamins and minerals will not be enough. What can be the cause of many serious diseases. Do you need it?

Potassium is an adversary of sodium, but both minerals help control the body's water balance. Potassium prevents muscle atrophy, helps regulate heartbeat and blood pressure. The daily norm of potassium is 3,500 mg. Products that contain potassium: sunflower seeds, bananas, beef, shrimp, oysters, chicken, turkey, milk.

Iodine is a mineral due to which the body is provided with energy, and the thyroid gland functions without failures. A lack of iodine can lead to severe weight loss. The daily norm of iodine is 14 mg. Products that contain iodine: sea fish and seafood, cereal products.

Iron is a mineral that provides pink cheeks and sparkle in the eyes. When the body lacks iron, anemia occurs. With the help of iron, oxygen is distributed throughout the body, iron is very important for the formation of hemoglobin. The daily iron norm is 9-15 mg. Products containing iron: liver, beef, beans, nuts, dried fruits (dried apricots, raisins), brown rice, tuna, eggs, baked potatoes, broccoli.

Manganese is a mineral that helps with diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and severe myasthenia gravis. The daily norm of manganese is 0.5 mg. Products that contain manganese: tea, bread, nuts, green vegetables (peas, green beans).

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