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Characteristics of a group of vitamins and other biologically active substances

Характеристика группы витаминов и других биологически активных веществ

Vitamins (from Latin vita - "life") - a group of low-molecular organic compounds relatively simple structure and a diverse chemical nature. This is a group of organic substances in the chemical nature, united on the basis of their absolute necessity for the heterotrophic organism as an integral part of the food. Autotrophic organisms also require vitamins, either by synthesis or from the environment. So, vitamins are included in the composition of nutrient media for the cultivation of phytoplankton organisms. Vitamins are contained in food (or in the environment) in very small quantities, and therefore belong to micronutrients.

Minerals are inorganic substances that form in the bowels of the earth. The content of minerals in food varies geographically, that is, everything depends on the soil content on which this or that product has grown.

Vitamins participate in a variety of biochemical reactions , performing a catalytic function in the active site of a large number of various enzymes or acting as information regulatory intermediaries, performing signaling functions of exogenous prohormones and hormones. Vitamins are not an energy supplier for the body, but vitamins play a crucial role in metabolism. The concentration of vitamins in the tissues and the daily need for them is low, but with insufficient intake of vitamins, the body comes with characteristic and dangerous pathological changes. Most vitamins are not synthesized in the human body. Therefore, they must regularly and in sufficient quantities enter the body with food or in the form of vitamin-mineral complexes and food additives. Exceptions are vitamin K, a sufficient amount of which is normally synthesized in the human large intestine due to the activity of bacteria, and vitamin B3, synthesized by intestinal bacteria from the amino acid tryptophan.

With the infringement of the intake of vitamins, three principal pathological conditions are associated with the body: a deficiency of vitamin-hypovitaminosis, a lack of vitamin-beriberi, and an excess of vitamin-hypervitaminosis. About one and a half dozen vitamins are known. On the basis of solubility, vitamins are divided into fat-soluble - A, D, E, F, K and water-soluble - all the rest (B, C, etc.). Fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in the body, and their depots are fatty tissue and liver. Water-soluble vitamins in significant quantities are not deposited (do not accumulate) and when excess are withdrawn with water. This explains the fact that hypovitaminosis is often found with respect to water-soluble vitamins, and hypervitaminosis is more often observed with respect to fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins differ from other organic food substances in that they are not included in the tissue structure and are not used by the body as an energy source (they do not have caloric content).

Minerals play a very important role in the health of every person. Minerals are nutrients necessary for our body, which contribute to the functioning of all organs. Few people understand how minerals affect our body. Minerals help the body process food we eat. Thanks to the minerals, a new energy and strength appears in the human body, the body tissues are regenerated and regenerated. Practically all the minerals enter the human body together with the food and water we consume. The organism itself does not produce useful substances and minerals. Full nutrition allows you to receive all kinds of minerals and nutrients from meat, fruits, vegetables, cereals and dairy products.

There are minerals of two types: Macrominerals. Macro from Greek is great. The human body needs large amounts of macro-minerals, and in lesser amounts of trace elements. The macrominerals group includes: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfur. Microelements. Micro from Greek is small. Microelements are also very important and necessary, although the body needs more macro-minerals. Scientists are still arguing how many minerals this group needs a person daily. This group of minerals includes: iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, selenium.

Minerals perform three basic functions in the human body: Providing the formation of bone and teeth tissues. Support for normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neuronal conduction, acid-base balance. Regulation of cellular metabolism: minerals become part of enzymes and hormones that regulate cellular activity.

Magnesium is a mineral from heartburn, prevents or reduces the formation of acid in the stomach. Also, it helps to crush stones in the kidneys, helps with prostatitis, treats aggressive behavior in alcoholics, protects against radiation, helps with heart problems and epilepsy (reduces the frequency of seizures). The daily norm of magnesium is 270 - 300 mg. Products that contain magnesium: nuts, spinach, bread, fish, meat.

Calcium is a mineral that is necessary for muscle contraction, blood clotting, cell wall protection. It is from the calcium content in the body that the correct functioning of the human heart depends. Prevents the most devastating effects of menopause: loss of bone mass, which in turn leads to fractures of bones, curvature of the spine, tooth loss. The daily rate of calcium is 700 mg. Products that contain calcium: milk, cheese and other dairy products, green vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, but not spinach), soy beans, tofu (soy cottage cheese), nuts, fish (in which you can eat bones, for example, sardines) . Magnesium and calcium absorb the action of each other, because calcium needs acid, and magnesium prevents the formation of acid.

Sodium - a mineral rich in sea salt, helps oxygen and nutrients penetrate the cells of the body. Sodium prevents or reduces pain in the muscles, which has arisen from strong physical exertion. Have you ever noticed that there is pain in the side or spasm in the leg during running? The more you sweat, the more sodium comes out of the body, so there are spasms and cramps. The daily norm of sodium is 6 g. Products containing sodium: ready-made foods (which will be high during cooking), meat products (bacon), cheese, canned vegetables. With exceptionally protein nutrition, there will not be enough fiber, vitamins and minerals. What can be the cause of many serious diseases. Do you want it?

Potassium - the opponent of sodium, but both minerals help to control the body's water balance. Potassium prevents muscle atrophy, helps regulate heartbeat and blood pressure. The daily norm of potassium is 3,500 mg. Products that contain potassium: sunflower seeds, bananas, beef, shrimp, oysters, chicken, turkey, milk.

Iodine is a mineral, thanks to which the body is provided with energy, and the thyroid gland functions without failures. Lack of iodine can lead to severe weight loss. The daily norm of iodine is 14 mg. Products that contain iodine: sea fish and seafood, cereals.

Iron is a mineral that provides pink cheeks and shine in the eyes. When the body lacks iron, anemia occurs. With the help of iron, oxygen spreads throughout the body, iron is very important for the formation of hemoglobin. The daily norm of iron is 9-15 mg. Products that contain iron: liver, beef meat, beans, nuts, dried fruits (dried apricots, raisins), brown rice, tuna, eggs, baked potatoes, broccoli.

Manganese is a mineral that helps with diabetes, multiple sclerosis and severe myasthenia gravis. The daily norm of manganese is 0.5 mg. Products that contain manganese: tea, bread, nuts, green vegetables (peas, green beans).

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