How muscles work in different exercises. The most complete visual information!
Muscles or muscles (from lat. Musculus - muscle (mus - mouse, small mouse)) - organs of the body of animals and humans, consisting of elastic, elastic muscle tissue that can contract under the influence of nerve impulses. Designed to perform various actions: body movement, contraction of the vocal cords, breathing.
Muscles allow you to move parts of the body and express in action thoughts and feelings. A person performs any movement - from such simple ones as blinking or smiling, to subtle and energetic, which we observe in jewelers or athletes - due to the ability of muscle tissue to contract. Not only the mobility of the body, but also the functioning of all physiological processes depends on the proper functioning of the muscles consisting of three main groups. And the work of all muscle tissues is controlled by the nervous system, which ensures their connection with the brain and spinal cord and regulates the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy.
There are 640 muscles in a human body (depending on the method of calculating differentiated muscle groups, their total number is determined from 639 to 850). The smallest are attached to the smallest bones located in the ear. The largest are the large gluteal muscles; they move the legs. The strongest muscles are the calf and chewing muscles. The man’s longest muscle, the tailor muscle, starts from the anterior superior iliac wing (the anteroposterior pelvic bone), spirally throws anteriorly through the thigh and is attached by the tendon to the tibial tuberosity (upper tibia).
Muscles are very diverse in shape. The most common spindle-shaped muscles characteristic of the limbs, and the wide muscles - they form the walls of the body. If the muscles have a common tendon, and the heads are two or more, then they are called two-, three- or four-headed. Muscles and skeleton determine the shape of the human body. An active lifestyle, a balanced diet and exercise contribute to the development of muscles and reduce the amount of adipose tissue.
All this knowledge will be an important milestone on the road to building a beautiful body relief. Well, we are starting ...
Why do muscles grow?
It is known that due to the contraction of muscle fibers (more precisely myofibrils, which are responsible for it), the muscle itself also contracts. The signal comes from the motor neurons of the spinal cord and goes along the axon and, branching, joins the muscle fibers. Myofibrils are composed of sarcomeres, which contain myosin and actin protein (see image).
During the contraction of muscle fiber, the bands of myosin with the help of processes pull together actin filaments. The processes contain an ATP molecule, and they receive a signal to contract (1). Then, under the action of the enzyme, ATP on the process passes into ADP + F (2).
The myosin process is connected to the actin filament (3) and the actin filaments are “pulled” to each other due to the release of energy from the ATP molecule (4). However, the appendix is still linked to the actin filament, but already without energy molecules. Then a new ATP molecule arrives, and the myosin process is already detached from the actin filament (5).
This is exactly what the process of muscle contraction looks like. Understanding the process of muscle contraction will make it easier to understand how muscles grow. So, in every cell there is a nucleus (muscle fiber contains many nuclei), which contains DNA - information about the structure of the cell. In case of muscle damage (their microtraumas under heavy load), thanks to this “memory disk”, new tissue is built at the site of damage. Moreover, the recovery process proceeds in supercompensation mode, i.e. superstructure of additional material over injured structures is carried out.
Microtrauma in muscles occurs when the necessary ATP molecule is missing to disconnect the processes of myosin from the actin filaments. It turns out that microtrauma is nothing more than a separation of the aforementioned process. After such a detachment (and there are a lot of them, because there are thousands of processes in the muscle of the muscle):
- The body restores its pristine structure by reconstructing damaged processes;
- Thanks to a good protective reaction (and a survival mechanism) to stress, the body seeks funds to build additional processes of myosin. Thus, the next time such a weight of its burden is hardly “shocking”, which means that the working weight will increase and the muscle will increase in volume.
Muscle atlas and muscle groups
And to begin with, a few words about the concept itself - an atlas of muscles. This is a certain generalized picture of muscle groups belonging to all parts of the human body. In accordance with the latter, the muscles are divided into:
- Back muscles
- Chest muscles
- Shoulder muscles
- Arm muscles
- Abdominal muscles
- Leg muscles
In each part of the body, their own muscle groups are distinguished - a complex consisting of several muscles that perform the same motor function. Very often, with the same movement, almost all muscles from one muscle group are involved in exercises, therefore they operate with the names of muscle groups. Although, the latter can sometimes be omitted and replaced with the name of the largest muscle of this group, for example, the front surface of the thigh is often “called” with quadriceps (quadriceps).
- Man has over 680 different muscles
- The jaw muscles develop a force of 80 kg
- The fastest muscle is the muscle of the century responsible for blinking
- The largest muscle is the gluteus (in some, just very large
- The smallest muscle - the stapes (3 mm), regulates the sensitivity of the ear to sound
- The strongest muscle is the gastrocnemius, capable of supporting weight up to 150 kg
- The functionality of the muscles of the thumb is 75% of the functionality of all the muscles of the hand