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Handbook of diseases (letter P)


FALLS - one of the most common problems in the elderly, often leading to injury. Repeated falls often indicate an imbalance in the mechanisms for maintaining balance (postural reflexes) .... more

PANARIUM - acute inflammation of finger tissue. It usually develops when the causative agents of purulent infection hit the finger tissue during microtrauma (shots, abrasions, cracks, etc.). On the palm surface of the skin fingers ... more

PANCREATITIS - inflammation of the pancreas. There are acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis - an acute inflammatory necrotic lesion of the pancreas - takes the 3rd place in terms of frequency ... more

PAPILLOMA is a benign tumor that develops from the epithelium; has the appearance of papillary growth. In most cases, papillomas are viral in nature. Papillomas are found on the skin, the mucous membrane of the cavity ... more

PARALICH - disorder of voluntary movements due to a violation of muscle innervation. Paralysis may be manifested by the absence or violation of spontaneous movements or by a decrease in muscle strength, which is detected when ... more

PARAMETRITIS - inflammation of parametrium (circulatory tissue). Occurs as a result of penetration into the parametrias (usually through the lymphatic ducts) of Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, and other microorganisms .... more

PARANOID SYNDROME indicates a significant depth of mental disorder, which captures all spheres of mental activity, changing the behavior of the patient. The syndrome is characterized by the predominance of figurative delusions, closely ... more

PARANOUAL SYNDROME - a system of overvalued ideas or delusional judgments in the absence of hallucinations and changes in consciousness, as well as no marked personality changes. In his delusional constructions the patient relies on real facts ... more

PARAPROKTITIS - inflammation of pararectal (peri-rectal) fiber. As a rule, it is caused by mixed microflora (staphylococcus in combination with E. coli). Acute paraproctitis. Its cause is the introduction ... more

PARAPSYCHOLOGY (psychotronic, bioinformation) is a field of research that studies psychophysical phenomena that occur without the involvement of the senses: the so-called extrasensory perception (telepathy, clairvoyance, ... more

Paratypes - acute intestinal infectious diseases caused by some bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Paratyphoids A and B are isolated. Their manifestations are similar to typhoid fever. Registered everywhere. The source of pathogens ... more

Paraphimosis - the infringement of the glans penis narrowed foreskin. It occurs, as a rule, in children with onanism, against the background of physiological or moderate cicatricial constriction of the foreskin; in adults is possible with ... more

PARKINSONISM is a syndrome associated with a lesion of the basal ganglia and their connections and manifested by akinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and instability when changing posture (postural instability). In 80% of cases ... more

PARODONTITIS - a disease of periodontal tissues, accompanied by the destruction of periodontal and bone tissue of the alveolar process. The process is characterized by reactive inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) with the occurrence of periodontal ... more

Pasteurella - an infectious disease belonging to the group of zoonoses; proceeds in the form of local purulent processes or sepsis. The causative agent, Pasteurella multocida, is a short wand with rounded ends, devoid of ... more

PEDICULOSIS (syn .: lice) - parasitism on human skin with lice. Under adverse epidemiological conditions, lice can be carriers of pathogens of typhus and relapsing fever. There are head ... more

PELLAGRA - a disease caused by insufficient intake or incomplete absorption of nicotinic acid (vitamin PP). It occurs when an unbalanced diet with a predominance of carbohydrates in the food, as well as ... more

OVERHEATING OF THE ORGANISM (syn .: hyperthermia) in humans occurs under the influence of high environmental temperatures at work or in conditions that impede heat transfer from the body surface, as well as in areas with hot climates .... more

OVERLOADED STOP - see Marching Foot

Fractures - damage to the bone in violation of its integrity. Traumatic fractures usually occur as a result of the sudden impact of a significant mechanical force on a healthy bone, for example, in road traffic ... more

RETREATING PREGNANCY - pregnancy lengthening for 10-14 days or more after the expected term of delivery. With a true, or biological, prolonged gestation period usually exceeds 290 - 294 days, the fetus reaches a higher ... more

PERICARDITIS - inflammation of the pericardium. It occurs more often with rheumatism or tuberculosis, less often with other diffuse diseases of the connective tissue and infectious diseases (for example, systemic lupus erythematosus, scarlet fever, ... more

PERFORATION (syn .: perforation) - the formation of a hole in the wall of a hollow organ; one of the serious complications of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, destructive forms of cholecystitis and appendicitis, tumor ... more

Hepatic insufficiency is a pathological condition characterized by disorders of various types of metabolism in the body and intoxication of products of protein metabolism due to lack of liver function. Endogenous ... more

Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory inflammatory disease in which the renal pelvis, calyx and kidney parenchyma are involved in the pathological process. First of all, the interstitial kidney tissue is affected. To refer ... more

Pyloric stenosis - congenital constriction of the pylorus in children. More common in boys. The main symptom. - Abundant ("fountain") vomiting, which appears at the 2-3rd week of life. The volume of emetic masses, as a rule, exceeds ... more

PIOMETRA - accumulation of pus in the uterus, resulting from the penetration into the uterus of pyogenic microflora (streptococcus, staphylococcus, E. coli) and the violation of the outflow of purulent exudate. More often seen in acute ... more

PIOSALPINKS - see Adnexitis

FOOD TOXICO INFECTIONS - acute intestinal infectious diseases resulting from eating foods in which microorganisms have multiplied and accumulated their toxins; characterized by a sudden onset ... more

FOOD POISONINGS (syn .: food intoxication) arise from the consumption of food containing substances that are toxic to the body of microbial or non-microbial origin; proceed with a picture of acute gastroenteritis and ... more

PLACENTAL POLYP is a portion of placental tissue that lingers in the uterus after incomplete removal of the ovum during an abortion or after delivery due to pathological attachment of the placenta or irrational management ... more

Pleurisy - inflammation of the pleura with the formation of fibrinous plaque on its surface (dry pleurisy) or accumulation of fluid (effusion) in the pleural cavity (exudative pleurisy). In most cases ... more

PLEXITIS - damage to the nerve plexus formed by the anterior branches of the spinal nerves; characterized by sensitive, motor and trophic disorders. It may be contagious (with flu, ... more

PNEUMOMYCOSIS - respiratory diseases caused by pathogenic fungi. The cause can be widespread mold, radiant and yeast-like fungi. Often there are mixed pneumomycosis, caused by ... more

Baldness - see alopecia

PNEUMOKONIOSIS are occupational lung diseases caused by prolonged inhalation of mineral dust and characterized by the development of diffuse interstitial fibrosis. May occur in mining workers, ... more

PNEUMONIA is a large group of various in etiology, pathogenesis and morphological characteristics of inflammatory, often infectious, processes in the lungs with a predominant lesion of their respiratory departments. At the same time ... more

PNEUMOSCLEROSIS - diffuse or focal proliferation of connective tissue in the lung as a result of various pathological processes. The development of pulmonary fibrosis can lead to nonspecific lung diseases (bronchitis, ... more

PNEVMOTORAX - accumulation of air in the pleural cavity due to a violation of the tightness of the lung or damage to the chest wall. If the flow of air into the pleural cavity stops quickly due to the closure ... more

GODDER is a disease associated with impaired purine metabolism, an increase in the blood uric acid (hyperuricemia) and the deposition of urates in the tissues. Risk factors for the development of gout are hereditary ... more

MOBILE KIDNEY - see Nephroptosis

SPINAL SPINAL INJURY. Spinal cord injury in trauma may be the result of an injury (with a gunshot wound or comminuted vertebrae fracture), compression (due to displacement or fracture of the vertebrae), ischemia (with ... more

POSITIONAL SYNDROME - see Prolonged Squeezing Syndrome

POLYANEUROPATHY - a group of diseases of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by diffuse lesions of peripheral nerve fibers that make up various nerves. Clinically, polyneuropathy manifests itself ... more

POLYURIA - increase in the amount of urine excreted (more than 2000 ml per day). Polyuria is usually associated with the convergence of edema, the administration of diuretics, a large amount of liquid, is noted in sugar and non-sugar ... more

POLYCITHEMIA (syn .: erythremia) is a chronic disease of the hematopoietic system, characterized by a persistent increase in the number of red blood cells, circulating blood volume, an enlarged spleen and increased production in ... more

Pollakiuria - frequent urination, a symptom of a variety of pathological conditions. At the heart of pollakiuria is an increased sensitivity of the mucous membrane of the walls of the bladder and the back of the urethra, which has developed ... more

Pollinosis (syn .: pollen allergy, hay fever) is an allergic disease caused by pollen and characterized mainly by acute inflammatory damage to the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract ... more

Sexual deviations - a group of violations and perversions of sexual behavior, which includes a disorder of sexual desire in relation to the object or method of satisfaction, as well as some violations of sexual ... more

Heart defects - congenital or acquired morphological changes in the valvular apparatus, partitions, walls of the heart or large vessels extending from it, violating the movement of blood within the heart or more and ... more

POSTBIRTH DISEASES arise in the postpartum period (in the first 6–8 weeks after birth) and are directly related to pregnancy and childbirth. There are infectious and non-infectious postpartum diseases. Infectious ... more

LOTS - a skin disease characterized by the appearance of nodules and vesicles with intense sweating. Its development is facilitated by overheating with excessive wrap, especially infants or weakened and ... more

KIDNEY INSUFFICIENCY - a pathological condition in which the kidneys partially or completely lose the ability to maintain the constancy of the chemical composition of the internal environment of the body. As a result, the body breaks down ... more

PLACENTA POSITION is a pathological condition characterized by improper attachment of the placenta to the wall of the uterus, in which part of it is located in the region of the internal uterine mouth. More often observed in pregnant women ... more

PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME - a symptom complex of neuropsychiatric, vegetative-vascular and metabolic-endocrine disorders that occur in the premenstrual days. Most often, signs of this syndrome appear 2-10 days before menstruation and ... more

PREVENTIONAL PSYCHOSES AND DEMENTIA - a group of mental illnesses that occur predominantly between the ages of 45 and 60 years. The main types are: presenile depression (involutional melancholia), presenile nonsense of damage and persecution, illness ... more

PREMATURE PLACENTAL DRAINAGE - placental abruption during pregnancy or at birth before the birth of the fetus. Distinguish premature detachment normally located and predlagayas placenta. Violation of the connection of the placenta with the uterine wall leads to ... more

PREMATURE EMISSION OF NEAR FETAL WATER — rupture of the fetal membranes and rupture of the amniotic fluid prior to the onset of labor. The frequency of this complication in full-term pregnancy is 12 - 15%, with premature - 30 - 53% of the number of births. With ... more

PREMATURE BIRTH - childbirth occurring during gestation from 28 to 37 full weeks, counting from the first day of the last menstruation. Spontaneous abortion during this period is called the miscarriage, ... more

PRIAPISM - prolonged (from several hours to several days) painful erection, not associated with sexual arousal and not disappearing after sexual intercourse. Priapism can occur in inflammatory patients ... more

Perforation - see perforation


PROSTATITIS - inflammation of the prostate gland. Most often occurs between the ages of 20 to 45 years, but often manifests itself in old age with the development of prostate adenoma, the progression of congestive ... more

PSEVDOARTROZ - see. False joint

PSITTAKOZ - see Ornithosis

MENTAL DISEASES - diseases in which due to disorders of the brain activity the correct perception and awareness of the environment is disturbed and the behavior changes. Mental illness entails a partial ... more

PSYCHOGENES - mental disorders caused by psycho-traumatic experiences. If light reactive states can pass after psychotherapeutic conversations, then heavy ones - psychogenic shock, reactive ... more

The PSYCHOORGANIC SYNDROME is a psychopathological symptom complex , the main manifestations of which are disorders of the intellect, memory and affective sphere. Occurs with atrophic processes (at the age of predestination) and vascular ... more

PSYCHOPATHY - congenital and persistent anomalies of character, a pathological warehouse of personality to a greater or lesser extent, preventing the person from adapting to society. The main diagnostic criteria are: 1) ... more

PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS (psychosomatosis) - the emergence of somatic disorders as a result of changes in mental state. It is believed that the factors causing anxiety and stress, with inadequate patient response contribute ... more

PSORIAZ is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a monomorphic papular rash; joints and nails are also affected. Hereditary, viral, neurogenic, exchangeable genesis is assumed ... more

PTOZ - the omission of the upper eyelid, is congenital and acquired. It can be caused by muscle diseases, impaired neuromuscular transmission, damage to the oculomotor nerve and its nucleus, impaired ... more

BUBBLING - See Trophoblastic disease

PULPITIS - inflammation of the tooth pulp. As a rule, it occurs due to penetration of microflora from the carious cavity of the tooth into the pulp during the progression of the carious process. The causes of pulpitis can be toxic ... more

PULSE - periodic jerky vibrations of the walls of blood vessels (arteries, veins) caused by contractions of the heart. The arterial pulse is formed by pressure fluctuations and blood filling in the arteries in ... more

DUSTY ALLERGY - see Pollinosis