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Handbook of diseases (the letter D)


DISTANCE (syn .: hypermetropia) is an optical deficiency of the eye, in which the ability to see clearly at close range is impaired. In this case, the focus of the rays coming from the object in question, after refraction into ... more

DAUNA ILLNESS - a chromosomal disease in which the lag in mental and physical development is combined with the peculiar appearance of patients and the insufficiency of the functions of the endocrine glands (usually the thyroid ... more


ORIENTATION - a violation of orientation in a place, time, and self caused by a disorder of consciousness, delusional perception of reality, or a violation of memory. Patients look confused, notes ... more

DELIRIUM (syn.: Delirious syndrome) is an acute impairment of consciousness with disorientation and fear, visual hallucinosis, marked motor agitation, often with aggressive or suicidal ... more

Dementia is a form of acquired dementia; persistent reduction in mental, primarily intellectual, activity. Alcoholic, atherosclerotic, paralytic, traumatic, ... more

DEPERSONALIZATION is a mental disorder in which a feeling of alteredness of one's thoughts, feelings, movements, one’s own body appears. As a rule, these phenomena occur against the background of untamed consciousness and ... more

DEPRESSIONS (syn .: depressive syndrome) - a combination of melancholy mood with a decrease in mental and physical activity. Depressive syndrome can occur in schizophrenia, epilepsy, reactive psychosis, ... more

REALIZATION - a mental disorder in which the perception of the surrounding is changed; it seems dull, gray, "not alive", sounds are perceived as muffled, heard as "through cotton". With a pronounced ... more

DERMATITIS - inflammatory skin diseases resulting from direct exposure to physical or chemical factors, as well as substances of plant origin. The peculiarity of dermatitis ... more

DERMATOPOLYMOSIT - a systemic progressive disease with a primary lesion of muscles and skin; refers to diffuse connective tissue diseases. Occurs at any age, women predominate among patients ... more

CHILD CEREBRAL PARALYSIS develops as a result of brain damage, in utero, during childbirth or in the early period of a child's life as a result of infections, intoxications, vascular disorders or injuries. More common ... more

DIABETES DIABETES (syn .: diabetes insipidus) - a disease characterized by a sharp increase in the amount of urine excreted, constant thirst and dehydration of the body. Occurs with reduced secretion and ... more

DIETASES - a group of conditions characterized by a predisposition to certain diseases. Have a family character. The risk of a disease that occurs only when exposed to a predisposed organism is inherited ... more

DYSENTERIA (syn .: shigellosis) is an infectious disease that occurs with intoxication, mainly affecting the distal colon, which is manifested by cramping abdominal pain and frequent loose stools with ... more

DIPLOPIA - doubling the image of the object under consideration as a result of deviation of the visual axis of one of the eyes. Causes of diplopia can be damage to the eye muscles, violations of their innervation, pathological processes, ... more

DISBACTERIOSIS (syn .: dysbiosis) - changes in the composition and quantitative ratios of microflora, which normally populate hollow organs that communicate with the environment (for example, upper respiratory tract, intestines), and human skin .... more

Dyspepsia - a violation of the processes of digestion. Depending on the cause of digestive disorders, dyspepsia is caused due to dysfunction of one of the parts of the digestive system and insufficient production of those ... more

CHILDREN DYSPEPSIA is a digestive disorder resulting from the disparity between the volume or composition of food and the physiological capabilities of the child’s gastrointestinal tract. It is usually observed in children of the first year of life .... more

DISSEMINATED INTRA-VASCULAR COAGULATION WITH THE SYNDROME (DIC) is caused by an intensive flow of substances into the bloodstream that cause intravascular coagulation of the sprinkling. It develops with all types of shock, extensive injuries (prolonged squeezing syndrome, etc.), ... more

DISSIMULATION - characteristic of patients with certain types of mental disorders, the desire to hide or diminish the manifestations of their illness (for delusional reasons or for fear of recognizing them as "crazy"). In connection with ... more

Dysphagia is a disorder of swallowing due to a violation of the passage of food through the esophagus from the pharynx to the stomach. Patients complain about the feeling of food “getting stuck” on the way down, which is often painful. The reason may be: ... more

DIPPHORIA - depressed mood with a hint of gloom, melancholy, grim discontent with malicious irritability; peculiar to patients with epilepsy, often preceding an epileptic seizure, as well as sick ... more

DIPHYLBOTRIOSIS - helminthiases from the group of cestodoses, the causative agents of which are tapeworms belonging to the genus Di-phyllobothrium. In Russia, they are found in the basins of northern rivers and large reservoirs. Foci ... more

DIPHTERIA - an acute infectious disease with an airborne mechanism of transmission of the pathogen; characterized by fibrinous inflammation in the oropharynx, airways, less often in other organs, toxic damage ... more

LONG PRESSURE SYNDROME (syn .: long crush syndrome, crash syndrome) develops as a result of prolonged crushing of the limbs (usually lower) with earth, heavy objects, debris. It occurs in victims of ... more