ALOPETIA ( synonym : baldness , baldness) - diffuse (common) or limited hair loss.
Distinguish between congenital, nesting, premature, or presenile, and symptomatic alopecia. Congenital alopecia is the congenital absence of hair or its thinning. Sometimes it is combined with changes in nails, teeth, skin. It is rare and may be family in nature.
Alopecia areata - complete hair loss in sharply limited areas of the skin, often in the scalp, beard, mustache, less often on the eyebrows and eyelashes, in the armpits. It is noted mainly in young and middle-aged people. It can be caused by infectious diseases, endocrine and neuropsychiatric disorders, exposure to x-ray radiation, etc. The hair loss areas are round or oval in shape, of various sizes, their number ranges from 1 to 3 - 5 or more. Merging, bald patches often form large foci with irregular outlines. The skin in the foci of alopecia areata is shiny, smooth. At the beginning of the disease, the openings of the mouths of the hair follicles are visible, later they are smoothed. In the early stages of the disease, hair closest to the border of baldness is easily removed. The duration of the disease is from 2 months to 1.5-2 years or more. Varieties of alopecia areata are malignant, or total, alopecia, in which the hair falls out completely, and marginal alopecia, in which hair loss occurs along the edge of the scalp (often symmetrically in the back of the head); the course of these varieties of alopecia is long.
Premature or presenile alopecia is hair loss on the head in men, usually young and middle-aged, which often occurs against the background of seborrhea and is associated with hereditary features of hair growth and development. Hair loss usually begins with the frontal or parietal region, gradually progressing. At various times (usually after a few years), complete baldness occurs, or hair remains only along the edges of the scalp. At places of baldness, the skin becomes shiny, thins. In women, premature alopecia is usually expressed only by more or less thinning of the hair.
Symptomatic alopecia develops as a result of various pathological processes, for example syphilis, lupus erythematosus, tuberculosis of the skin, as well as a result of fungal hair damage (microsporia, trichophytosis, favus, etc.) and is temporary or permanent depending on skin changes caused by the underlying disease .
Treatment . For alopecia areata, corticosteroids, drugs that improve microcirculation (compliance, etc.), vasodilators (for example, no-shpa , nikoshpan), B vitamins, sedatives, etc. are used. Ointments with corticosteroids, for example, prednisolone ointment, oxycort , also apply ultraviolet radiation in combination with photosensitizing drugs (psoralen, etc.), reflex physiotherapy to the cervical sympathetic nodes. With premature alopecia, irritating agents are rubbed into the scalp, for example, an alcoholic solution of salicylic acid, massage, ultraviolet irradiation, vitamins are prescribed. In symptomatic alopecia, treatment is directed to the underlying disease.
The prognosis depends on the form of alopecia. With congenital and in some cases with total alopecia, hair growth cannot be achieved. With premature alopecia, you can stop the progression of the process.