ALOPECIA (syn .: baldness , baldness) - diffuse (widespread) or limited hair loss.
There are congenital, epigastric, premature, or presenile, and symptomatic alopecia. Congenital alopecia - congenital absence of hair or thinning them. Sometimes it is combined with changes in nails, teeth, skin. It is rare and can be family in nature.
Alopecia areata - complete hair loss on sharply limited areas of the skin, usually in the scalp, beard, whiskers, less often on eyebrows and eyelashes, in the armpits. It is noted mainly in young and middle-aged people. It can be caused by transferred infectious diseases, endocrine and neuropsychiatric disorders, exposure to X-ray radiation, etc. Alopecia patches have a round or oval shape, varying in size, their number varies from 1 to 3 - 5 or more. Merging, areas of baldness often form large lesions with irregular contours. The skin in the nidus of alopecia areata is shiny, smooth. At the beginning of the disease, the openings of the mouths of the hair follicles are visible, later they are smoothed out. In the early stages of the disease, the hair closest to the border of baldness is easily removed. Duration of illness from 2 months to 1.5 —2 years or more. Varieties of alopecia areata are malignant, or total, alopecia, in which the hair falls out completely, and regional alopecia, in which hair loss occurs along the edge of the scalp (often symmetrically in the back of the head); the course of these varieties of alopecia is long lasting.
Premature or presenile alopecia is hair loss on the head in men, usually young and middle-aged, often occurring against the background of seborrhea and associated with hereditary features of hair growth and development. Hair loss usually begins with the frontal or parietal region, gradually progressing. In various terms (more often in a few years) complete baldness occurs, or the hair remains only at the edges of the scalp. On bald spots, the skin becomes shiny, thinning. In women, premature alopecia, as a rule, is expressed only by more or less hair thinning.
Symptomatic alopecia develops as a result of various pathological processes, such as syphilis, lupus erythematosus, skin tuberculosis, as well as as a result of fungal hair lesions (microsporia, trichophytosis, favus, etc.) and is temporary or permanent depending on the skin changes caused by the underlying disease .
Treatment . For nesting alopecia, corticosteroids, microcirculation enhancing drugs (complamine, etc.), vasodilators (for example, no-shpa , nikoshpan), group B vitamins, sedatives, etc. are used. ultraviolet radiation is also used in combination with photosensitizing drugs (psoralen, etc.), reflex physiotherapy for cervical sympathetic nodes. In case of premature alopecia, irritating agents such as salicylic acid alcohol solution are rubbed into the skin of the scalp, massage, ultraviolet radiation, vitamins are prescribed. With symptomatic alopecia, treatment is directed to the underlying disease.
The prognosis depends on the form of alopecia. With congenital and in some cases with total alopecia, hair growth cannot be achieved. With premature alopecia, it is possible to halt the progression of the process.