ANOREXIA - lack of appetite in the presence of physiological nutritional needs. The causes of anorexia are excessive emotional arousal, mental illness, endocrine disorders, acute and chronic infections, intoxications, metabolic disorders, digestive diseases (acute gastritis , exacerbation of chronic gastritis, gastric cancer, etc.), irregular monotonous nutrition, as well as poor taste food quality, poor food intake. Anorexia can lead to the use of unpleasant taste medications that suppress the secretory function of the gastrointestinal tract or affect the central nervous system. With prolonged anorexia, the body's resistance decreases and its susceptibility to various diseases increases.
Anorexia in children is due to the same reasons as in adults, but it has its own characteristics. More often it develops in young children due to increased excitability of the central nervous system and poor adaptability of the gastrointestinal tract. Anorexia can occur when changing the usual conditions of feeding, care, regimen. Violation of the basic rules for the introduction of complementary foods can cause the so-called protective anorexia in the child, forced feeding also contributes to its development. In older children, the extinction of the excitability of the food center in most cases is due to a violation of the diet, as well as the use of a monotonous tasteless food.
Treatment is directed to the underlying disease. It is also necessary to organize a diet, the introduction of a variety of dishes into the diet. Appetite-stimulating drugs are prescribed. In severe anorexia with exhaustion, multivitamins and anabolic hormones are indicated. With the neurotic form, psychotherapy and the appointment of psychopharmacological agents are of primary importance. In exceptional cases, there is a need for artificial nutrition and parenteral administration of saline solutions.
Anorexia nervosa occupies a special place and represents a pathological condition, manifested in the conscious restriction of food for weight loss. Occurs at the age of 15 - 25 years, more often in women. There is an obsessive idea of overweight and the need to lose weight. The patient begins to limit himself in food, to resort to other ways to lose weight, for example, he is intensely involved in sports, physical labor, causes vomiting after eating, and takes laxatives. At first, the appetite is not disturbed, a person may even experience a feeling of hunger, in connection with which sometimes overeating occurs. Body weight rapidly drops. There are mood swings from high to low, increased motor activity, the desire to examine your body in the mirror.
If the patient reveals the described symptoms, the paramedic should refer him to a psychiatrist.