MASTOPATHY - dishormonal breast disease, which is based on the overproduction of estrogen. Multiple abortions, gynecological diseases, pathology of the endocrine system (primarily the thyroid gland) are of some importance. By the nature of the lesion, diffuse and nodular forms are distinguished. The dynamics of symptoms, which coincides with the menstrual cycle, is characteristic.
The clinical picture . Patients age 20 - 50 years; bilateral lesion is more often observed. Engorgement and pain in the mammary glands, intensifying before menstruation, sometimes discharge from the nipple, are noted. Against the background of densified tissue, the glands determine more dense formations, often located in the upper outer quadrant. Axillary lymph nodes may be enlarged, but soft. In the middle of the menstrual cycle, there is a decrease in both pain and regression of local changes in the mammary gland.
Bloody discharge from the nipple due to papillary growths of the mucous membrane of the excretory ducts of the gland; the risk of malignancy in such cases increases sharply.
With each densification of breast tissue, cancer should be excluded. To do this, a mammogram is performed, a puncture biopsy with a thick needle with a cytological examination of the obtained material. With localized forms of mastopathy, surgical treatment is indicated - sectoral resection of the mammary gland with an urgent histological examination of the excised area.
Conservative treatment for diffuse forms - treatment of gynecological diseases, thyrotoxicosis. With the nodal form, surgical treatment is indicated.
The prognosis in most cases is favorable, but there is a great tendency to relapse, due to hormonal disorders.