MYOSITIS is an inflammation of the muscles of various etiologies, manifested by muscle pain and muscle weakness. There are acute, subacute and chronic myositis, as well as limited (local) and diffuse (generalized). Acute and chronic purulent processes, chronic infectious diseases, viral diseases, autoimmune processes, parasitic infections can be the cause of myositis.
Acute purulent myositis occurs more often as a complication of chronic purulent processes (for example, osteomyelitis). At the same time, necrotic and purulent processes develop in the muscles. Clinically marked local pain, aggravated by movements and palpation of the muscles. The affected muscles are swollen, their strength is reduced. Often there are chills, fever, leukocytosis .
Infectious nonpurulent myositis occurs in tuberculosis, brucellosis, syphilis, and viral infections such as influenza and enterovirus diseases. It is manifested by severe pain, general and muscular weakness.
Myositis often develops in autoimmune diseases, and in some of them is the main manifestation of the disease (polymyositis, dermatopolimiositis). Polymyositis refers to the most severe forms of myositis. It is characterized by pain in the muscles and their progressive weakness. Muscle atrophy, accompanied by the disappearance of tendon reflexes, are observed only with a very severe course of the disease. Polymyositis may be accompanied (especially in children) by damage to the heart, lungs, blood vessels, skin (myocarditis, pneumonia , vasculitis).
In parasitic infections, myositis is caused by the development of reactive toxic-allergic changes in the muscles in response to the introduction of various parasites. Often occurs with trichinosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, toxoplasmosis. At the same time, pain syndrome, puffiness and muscle tension dominate in the clinical picture. Often marked malaise, chills, subfebrile body temperature, eosinophilic leukocytosis in the blood. The disease can occur in waves, which is associated with the cyclical life of the parasites.
Ossifying myositis is a special form of myositis, in which there is deposition of calcium salts in the connective tissue. Muscle weakness and progressive muscle atrophy are combined with a mild pain syndrome. The muscles in this form of myositis are very dense to the touch, with their palpation calcinates are detected.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of the clinical picture, characteristic changes in the blood, electromyography data.
Treatment includes specific effects on the main process (antibacterial agents, antiparasitic drugs, etc.) and anti-inflammatory therapy. Mandatory symptomatic therapy - the appointment of vascular drugs and painkillers. Important patient care, medical gymnastics, proper nutrition of the patient with the introduction of a sufficient amount of easily digestible proteins.