MYOSITIS - inflammation of the muscles of various etiologies, manifested by muscle pain and muscle weakness. There are acute, subacute and chronic myositis, as well as limited (local) and diffuse (generalized). The cause of myositis can be acute and chronic purulent processes, chronic infectious diseases, viral diseases, autoimmune processes, parasitic infections.
Acute purulent myositis occurs more often as a complication of chronic purulent processes (for example, osteomyelitis). In this case, necrotic and purulent processes develop in the muscles. Clinically observed local pain, aggravated by movements and palpations of the muscles. The affected muscles are swollen, their strength is reduced. Often there are chills, fever, leukocytosis .
Infectious non-purulent myositis is found in tuberculosis, brucellosis, syphilis, as well as viral infections - influenza, enterovirus diseases. It is manifested by severe pain, general and muscle weakness.
Myositis often develops with autoimmune diseases, and in some of them it represents the main manifestation of the disease (polymyositis, dermatopolimiositis). Polymyositis is one of the most severe forms of myositis. It is characterized by pain in the muscles and their progressive weakness. Muscle atrophies, accompanied by the disappearance of tendon reflexes, are observed only with a very severe course of the disease. Polymyositis can be accompanied (especially in children) by damage to the heart, lungs, blood vessels, skin (myocarditis, pneumonia , vasculitis).
In parasitic infections, myositis is due to the development of reactive toxico-allergic changes in the muscles in response to the introduction of various parasites. Often found in trichinosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, toxoplasmosis. Moreover, pain, swelling and muscle tension dominate the clinical picture. Malaise, chills, low-grade fever, and eosinophilic leukocytosis in the blood are often noted. The disease can occur in waves, which is associated with the cyclical activity of parasites.
Ossifying myositis is a special form of myositis in which calcium salts are deposited in the connective tissue. Muscle weakness and progressive muscle atrophy are combined with a mild pain syndrome. Muscles with this form of myositis are very dense to the touch, with their palpation calcifications are detected.
The diagnosis is established on the basis of the clinical picture, characteristic changes in the blood, and electromyography data.
Treatment includes specific effects on the main process (antibacterial agents, antiparasitic drugs, etc.) and anti-inflammatory therapy. Mandatory symptomatic therapy - the appointment of vascular drugs and painkillers. Important care for the patient, therapeutic exercises, proper nutrition of the patient with the introduction of a sufficient amount of easily digestible proteins.