POLLINOSIS (syn: pollen allergy , hay fever) is an allergic disease caused by pollen from plants and is characterized mainly by acute inflammatory damage to the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. With a hereditary predisposition, plant pollen causes sensitization of the body, i.e. production of antibodies to pollen allergen (see. Allergy). Allergenic properties are also possessed by the stems, leaves and fruits of plants.
Pollinosis has a clearly repeating seasonality of clinical manifestations, coinciding with the flowering period of certain plants. There are 3 periods of the course of hay fever: spring, caused by pollen from trees and shrubs; summer - pollen of cereal grasses; summer-autumn - pollen of weeds.
A classic manifestation of hay fever is conjunctivitis and rhinitis , which can be complicated by sinusitis. In severe cases, pollen bronchial asthma joins them. The so-called pollen intoxication is also possible: fatigue, irritability, insomnia, sometimes an increase in body temperature. Rare manifestations include diseases of the nervous system (arachnoiditis, encephalitis), damage to the optic and auditory nerves, the development of Meniere's syndrome. In some cases, skin manifestations are observed: urticaria , Quincke's edema, dermatitis, eczema .
In the period of exacerbation of hay fever, antihistamines are recommended in the form of tablets, injections, eye and intranasal drops. For prophylaxis of pollen bronchial asthma, Intal is used, zadit. Treatment of developed pollen bronchial asthma is carried out in the same way as bronchial asthma of another etiology. In severe cases of hay fever, corticosteroid therapy is prescribed. The prognosis is often favorable.
Pre-season specific hyposensitization of the identified allergen is prophylactically indicated. If possible, patients are advised to travel to another climatic zone during the flowering time of the plant, the pollen of which causes the disease.