SARCOMA - malignant non-epithelial tumors of various histogenesis. More common at a young age. There are angiosarcoma - a tumor of vascular tissue; myosarcoma - muscle tissue; osteosarcoma - bone tissue; lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma - hematopoietic and reticular tissues; neurogenic sarcoma — nerve tissue. In the frequency of primary localization of sarcoma in various organs and tissues, bone tissue occupies the first place; soft tissue, lymphoid organs, female genitals, etc. follow.
The clinical picture of soft tissue sarcoma is characterized primarily by the appearance (usually on the extremities) of a tumor formation without clear boundaries, which, depending on the growth rate, increases slowly (over months) or quickly (over several weeks). Pain is sometimes noted. The temperature of the skin above the tumor usually does not differ from the temperature of the surrounding tissues. Bone sarcoma is more characteristic of early pain, worse at night, impaired limb function.
Sarcomas are prone to infiltrative growth, sprouting into the nearest anatomical formations, skin, bones, nerve trunks, blood vessels or adjacent organs, which is manifested by the corresponding symptoms. Most sarcomas are characterized by a pronounced tendency to metastasize both hematogenously and lymphogenously. Relapses often occur, including after radical removal of the tumor .
Diagnosis is based on data from a clinical examination, the results of x-ray (angiography, tomography), ultrasound and morphological (cytological, histological) studies.
The treatment is complex. Surgical removal of sarcomas of soft tissues is carried out in an integral muscular-fascial case within healthy tissues. In bone sarcomas, amputation or exarticulation of the limb is usually performed, the level of which is determined depending on the location, extent of the lesion and the tasks of the upcoming prosthetics. Most sarcomas of soft tissues and bones are weakly sensitive to the action of ionizing radiation, which is usually used in the preoperative period. With radiosensitive sarcomas (Ewing's sarcoma, primary bone reticulosarcoma), combined treatment is performed: radiation and chemotherapeutic, surgery is usually not used. Anticancer drugs are widely used in treatment: adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, imidazole-carboxamide, etc. Complete regression with prolonged remission is achieved in single patients. See also Tumors .