SARCOMA - malignant non-epithelial tumors of various histogenesis. Most often occur at a young age. There are angiosarcoma - a tumor of vascular tissue; Myosarcoma - muscle tissue; Osteosarcoma - bone tissue; Lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma - hematopoietic and reticular tissues; Neurogenic sarcoma of nervous tissue. According to the frequency of primary localization of sarcoma in various organs and tissues, the first place is occupied by bone tissue; Followed by soft tissues, lymphoid organs, female genital organs, etc.
The clinical picture of soft tissue sarcoma is characterized primarily by the appearance (more often on the limbs) of tumor formation without clear boundaries, which, depending on the growth rate, increases slowly (within months) or rapidly (within a few weeks). Sometimes there is pain syndrome. The temperature of the skin above the tumor usually does not differ from the temperature of the surrounding tissues. For sarcomas of bones, early pain worse at night, impaired limb function, is more characteristic.
Sarcomas are prone to infiltrative growth, germination into the nearest anatomical formations, skin, bones, nerve trunks, vessels or adjacent organs, which is manifested by the corresponding symptomatology. For most sarcomas, there is a pronounced tendency to metastasize both hematogenous and lymphogenous pathways. There are often relapses, including after radical removal of the tumor .
Diagnosis is based on clinical examination data, radiographic (angiography, tomography), ultrasound and morphological (cytological, histological) studies.
Treatment is complex. Surgical removal of soft tissue sarcomas is performed in a holistic muscle-fascial box within healthy tissues. In sarcomas of bones, amputation or exarticulation of the limb is usually performed, the level of which is determined depending on the location, extent of the lesion and the tasks of the forthcoming prosthesis. Most sarcomas of soft tissues and bones are insensitive to the action of ionizing radiation, which is usually used in the preoperative period. In radiosensitive sarcomas (Ewing sarcoma, primary reticulosarcoma of bone), combined treatment is carried out: radiation and chemotherapeutic, surgery is usually not used. Antineoplastic drugs are widely used in treatment: adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, imidazole-carboxamide, etc. Complete regression with long-term remission is achieved in single patients. See also Tumors .