GANGRENA is one of the forms of necrosis (necrosis) of tissues. The cause of gangrene is more often damage to large arterial vessels, clogging with a thrombus or embolus, vascular lesions with atherosclerosis, obliterating endarteritis, etc. The development of gangrene is promoted by prolonged vasospasm, increased blood coagulation, chronic intoxication (alcohol, phosphorus, nicotine), starvation, frostbite endocrine diseases, especially diabetes mellitus , vitamin and cardiovascular insufficiency. Gangrene can occur in various tissues and organs, but gangrene of the extremities is more often observed.
There are dry and wet gangrene. With dry gangrene, a picture of coagulation necrosis is noted, mummification of the affected organ or tissue occurs. Wet gangrene occurs when a dead putrid infection develops in dead tissue. Under the influence of proteolytic enzymes, the tissues melt and take on the form of an offensive dirty gray mass. With wet gangrene, intoxication is pronounced.
When treating dry gangrene, it is recommended to wait for the formation of a demarcation line (a clear boundary between necrotic and healthy tissues), and then amputate within healthy tissues. With gangrene of small areas of the body (the nail phalanx, tip of the nose, part of the auricle), dead tissue can separate on its own. With progressive wet gangrene, early amputation is needed amid detoxification therapy.