HEMOLYSIS - destruction of red blood cells, accompanied by the release of hemoglobin. At the same time, the blood or suspension of red blood cells turns into a transparent red liquid (lacquer blood). The causes of hemolysis may be abnormalities of the erythrocytes themselves or the influence of external factors (serum antibodies, damage to erythrocytes, infectious agents). The physical factors that cause hemolysis include high and low temperatures, ultrasound, chemical - hemolytic poisons, certain drugs, etc. autoantibodies directed against erythrocyte antigens, and when using certain drugs (antibiotics, quinine, isoniazid, dopegita, etc.).
Hemolysis can occur in the blood (intravascular hemolysis) and organs (intracellular hemolysis). Normally, mainly intracellular hemolysis is observed, with some of the red blood cells being destroyed daily, mainly in the bone marrow and spleen, and the released hemoglobin is converted into bilirubin. With increased hemolysis, the formation of bilirubin and its excretion with bile increases, as well as the release of urobilin, stercobilin and other urobilinoids with feces and urine; jaundice and splenomegaly are clinically often observed. If hemoglobin is released a lot during intra-hemolytic hemolysis and the haptoglobins system does not cope with its processing, hemoglobinemia and hemosiderinemia occur, sometimes hemoglobinuria. Intravascular hemolysis may be accompanied by fever, chills, tachycardia, back pain. A direct consequence of hemolysis is hemolytic anemia, which can be combined with changes in the number of leukocytes, platelets, the formation of blood clots in the bloodstream, the development of cholelithiasis. A sharp increase in the degree of hemolysis (hemolytic crisis) usually leads to the development of anemia or its deepening.