HEMORRHAGIC DIATHESIS is a group of diseases characterized by increased bleeding, which occurs spontaneously or can be caused by trauma, including surgery.
There are hereditary and acquired hemorrhagic diathesis . Hereditary manifestations in children (for example, hemophilia), acquired occur at any age, more often they are a complication of other diseases, such as diseases of the liver, blood systems with impaired formation of platelets. Increased bleeding can occur with an overdose of heparin, indirect anticoagulants (fenilina and others), thrombolytic drugs, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin).
There are 5 types of bleeding: hematomal, capillary (microcirculatory), mixed (hematomatic and capillary simultaneously), purple and microangiomatous. With hematoma type, which is characteristic of hemophilia, hemorrhages in the joints are noted (see Hemarthrosis), massive hematomas of various localization, postoperative hemorrhage. Capillary bleeding occurs in thrombocytopenia and thrombocytopathy. It is characterized by small hemorrhages on the skin (petechiae and ecchymosis), nasal, gingival (see Gingivitis) and uterine bleeding, possible haemituria and stomach bleeding, hemorrhages in the substance of the brain (see Stroke). The mixed type of bleeding is manifested by the formation of hematomas, petechial-spotted rash on the skin, nasal, gingival and uterine bleeding. Most often it is observed in thrombohemorrhagic syndrome, as well as overdose of anticoagulants. In the case of the purple type of bleeding, small hemorrhages in the form of a rash are noted symmetrically predominantly located on the lower limbs. This type of bleeding is detected in hemorrhagic vasculitis. Microangiomatous type of bleeding in the form of persistently recurring bleeding of the same localization is due to hereditary, less commonly acquired disorders of the development of small vessels.
Treatment for hereditary hemorrhagic diathesis is carried out with the help of means that eliminate the deficiency of certain factors of the blood coagulation system. Acquired hemorrhagic diathesis is treated according to the reasons for their development. Be sure to cancel those drugs that caused bleeding, inject antidotes.
In the prevention of hereditary hemorrhagic diathesis, medical and genetic counseling is of great importance, and acquired - the prevention of diseases that contribute to their occurrence, the rational use of funds that reduce blood coagulation.