HYDRONEPHROSIS is a persistent expansion of the renal pelvis and kidney cups with atrophy of the renal parenchyma caused by impaired outflow of urine. It develops with urolithiasis, urinary tract tumors, tumors and diseases of the prostate gland and pelvic organs, accompanied by compression of the ureter. In connection with the violation of the outflow of urine, the renal pelvis and calyx expand, the pressure that urine exerts on the renal parenchyma gradually leads to its atrophy and, accordingly, impaired renal function. Violation of urine outflow also creates favorable conditions for the adherence of the inflammatory process.
Most often, patients complain of pain in the kidney area of varying intensity (from constant aching pain to renal colic). Often, sometimes the only clinical symptom of hydronephrosis is hematuria ; pyuria and fever appear in case of infection. In some cases, hydronephrosis develops asymptomatically and is detected by chance: a fluctuating tumor-like formation is detected during abdominal palpation. If you suspect hydronephrosis, the patient should be referred to a urologist.
The treatment is aimed at the underlying disease and the removal of obstacles to the outflow of urine. The prognosis depends on the stage of the process, its etiology and the condition of the other kidney. In the initial stage of unilateral hydronephrosis, surgical intervention helps to restore normal kidney function. Aggravating the prognosis of pyelonephritis , bilateral lesion, as well as other diseases of the second kidney; but in these cases the complex treatment (antibacterial, anti-inflammatory therapy and surgery) allows the patient to remain able to work for a long time.