HYMENOLEPIDOSIS - helminthiasis from the group of cestodoses caused by tape helminths Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm) and H. diminuta (rat tapeworm). Distributed everywhere, mainly in the south. More often children are ill.
The greatest clinical and epidemiological significance is hymenolepidosis, the causative agent of which is dwarf tapeworm (the length of the helminth is 0.5 - 5 cm, its body consists of 160-1000 segments and a head with four suction cups and hooks). The source of invasion is a sick person, with whose feces mature helminth eggs are secreted. Helminths are transmitted through contaminated household items, toys, and food. The transmission of the pathogen by flies is possible. Infection occurs by swallowing eggs. Of these, larvae hatch in the intestine, which penetrate the villi of the mucous membrane, are released and develop into cysticercoids. After 6-8 days, cysticercoids enter the intestinal lumen, where they turn into mature helminths. Repeated self-infections are possible if personal hygiene rules are not followed.
Rat tapeworm is up to 60 cm long. Adult helminths parasitize in the intestines of rats and mice, occasionally in humans, and larvae in bread moths, cockroaches, and fleas. Human infection is rare when eating dough and poorly baked bread that contains insects.
The disease is manifested by abdominal pain, nausea, hypersalivation, loss of appetite, headache, dizziness, and often diarrhea; in some cases, epileptiform seizures, moderate eosinophilia, sometimes anemia; often asymptomatic. Usually the disease lasts 1-3 months, but in a number of patients (most often young children), a prolonged stubborn course of invasion is observed. The diagnosis is made when tapeworm eggs are found in feces.
Hymenolepidosis is treated with phenasal. Praziquantel is also effective. After treatment, the patient remains under observation for at least 6 months, during which 4 to 6 control studies of feces on helminth eggs are carried out. Patients who, after this period, find helminth eggs in their feces, continue to observe up to one year. It is advisable to carry out fecal control tests (up to 8-10 times) after repeated courses of treatment (6 tests during the first half of the year - monthly, 2-4 tests - during the second half of the year).
Prevention consists in observing personal hygiene rules (washing hands before eating and after visiting the restroom), identifying and treating patients. Prevention of rat chain infestation includes, in addition, deratization, pest control of flour, extermination of cockroaches, fleas,