EXCLUSIVE CONDITIONS - a group of temporary disorders of mental activity, combined by such common symptoms as a sudden onset, short duration (minutes, rarely hours), the presence of a frustrated consciousness with complete or partial forgetting of events that occurred during this period. Exceptional conditions always represent a short-term psychosis, which can often be expressed in the form of pathological intoxication and pathological affect.
Pathological intoxication is a twilight stupefaction that usually occurs after taking a small dose of alcohol (50-150 g). External symptoms characteristic of intoxication are absent; the patient’s movements are accurate and confident, the gait is firm, speech is clear, actions are consistent and may not even attract the attention of others. However, often under the influence of frightening hallucinations and delusions accompanying a dull consciousness, patients commit acts of violence that are dangerous to themselves and others. In these cases, motor and speech arousal is noted. Pathological intoxication lasts from several minutes to several hours and ends with a deep sleep followed by amnesia.
Pathological affect occurs after a sudden, intense and stunning mental trauma. It is manifested by a sharp motor excitement, which is accompanied by aggressive actions directed not only against the person who caused the patient a mental trauma, but also against random persons.
Exceptional conditions occur mainly in people who have undergone an organic central nervous system disease (traumatic brain injury, meningitis), alcohol abusers, in psychopathic individuals. Of great importance are temporarily acting exhausting factors - mental and physical overwork, lack of sleep. Exceptional conditions are often accompanied by the commission of socially dangerous acts and entail a subsequent trial. Because of their short duration, they are usually not subject to direct medical supervision. Therefore, to solve the diagnostic assessments arising before the examination, the information of persons who observed a pattern of abnormal behavior that suddenly occurred is very important. A health care provider who finds out about this fact should, as soon as possible and in detail, question all who witnessed the incident. A person who has experienced an exceptional condition should be immediately referred with an accompanying person to a consultation with a psychiatrist.