KOLIKA - a sudden attack of sharp cramping pains that occur in diseases of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space, caused by a prolonged convulsive spasm of the muscles of these organs. There are intestinal, hepatic, pancreatic (pancreatic) and renal colic.
More common intestinal colic. It occurs when eating abundant hard-to-digest food, the presence of inflammatory processes, scarring and adhesions in the abdominal cavity. Intensive fermentation or putrefactive processes in the intestine contribute to gas formation and stretching of the intestinal walls, which can also cause intestinal colic. It is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and discomfort (see Meteorism). When pressing on the abdomen spastic pains are reduced. Species of intestinal colic are appendicular and rectal (rectal) colic. For appendicular colic, prolonged pains of increasing strength in the right iliac region are characteristic, for rectal pain, frequent, including false, painful urge to defecate (tenesmus).
When lead poisoning develops lead intestinal colic, characterized by bouts of severe pain, while the stomach is retracted, the abdominal wall is tense. There are prolonged constipation , on the gums gray fringe, other signs of lead intoxication are detected.
When hepatic colic pain occurs in the right hypochondrium, localized mainly in the upper half of the abdomen, often given in the right shoulder and right subscapularis area. Attacks may be accompanied by dry mouth, a feeling of bitterness, nausea, vomiting, and an increase in body temperature. Their duration is from several minutes to several hours, sometimes days. Often, seizures occur at night, overeating, ingestion of fatty or spicy foods can be a triggering factor. On palpation, it is possible to identify tension and pain in the right hypochondrium, pain at the point of the gallbladder (in the corner between the costal arch and the outer edge of the right rectus abdominis muscle). Hepatic colic occurs more often with cholelithiasis, acute cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia.
When pancreatic colic pains are localized mainly in the upper abdomen, radiating to the left side, are shingles. Perhaps a combination of pain with other signs of indigestion (vomiting, belching , diarrhea, etc.). The stomach is often swollen, there is a diffuse soreness, mainly in the pancreatoduodenal region. Pancreatic colic occurs when pancreatitis, pancreatic tumors.
Renal colic is manifested by unusually severe pains in the abdomen and lumbar region, which usually give to the groin and genitals, accompanied by frequent painful urination. The patient is restless, rushing around in search of a comfortable posture. Renal colic occurs with urolithiasis, acute pyelonephritis. Attacks often occur after physical exertion, shaking away. There are constipation, bloating, and sometimes some tension in the anterior abdominal wall, with sharp pain in the lumbar region, often pronounced.
Before starting treatment of colic, it is necessary to find out its cause. If intestinal colic is sometimes resolved under the influence of thermal procedures, then these activities can lead to serious complications of appendicular colic. Hot bath is effective with renal colic and completely unacceptable with pancreatic.
To alleviate the condition of the patient, you can use papaverine, no- silo , halidor , platifillin. It should be remembered that long-term use of antispasmodic and painkillers is possible only after determining the cause of colic and determining the general medical tactics, since quite often under the influence of these agents a clear symptom is lost. Therefore, the paramedic, having provided the patient with first aid, should refer him to a doctor to clarify the cause of colic and provide adequate treatment.