COLIC - a sudden attack of sharp cramping pain that occurs with diseases of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space, due to prolonged convulsive spasm of the muscles of these organs. There are intestinal, hepatic, pancreatic (pancreas) and renal colic.
More common intestinal colic. It occurs when consuming plentiful indigestible food, the presence of inflammatory processes, scars and adhesions in the abdominal cavity. Intensive fermentation or putrefactive processes in the intestine contribute to gas formation and expansion of the intestinal wall, which can also cause intestinal colic. It is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, bloating and a feeling of fullness (see Flatulence). With pressure on the stomach, spastic pain decreases. Types of intestinal colic are appendicular and rectal (rectal) colic. Appendicular colic is characterized by prolonged pain of increasing strength in the right iliac region, and rectal colic is characterized by frequent, including false, painful urges to defecate (tenesmus).
In lead poisoning, lead intestinal colic develops, characterized by bouts of severe pain, the abdomen is retracted, and the abdominal wall is tense. Long constipation is observed, a gray border on the gums, other signs of lead intoxication are detected.
With hepatic colic, pain occurs in the right hypochondrium, is localized mainly in the upper abdomen, and is often given to the right shoulder and the right subscapular region. Attacks may be accompanied by dry mouth, a feeling of bitterness, nausea, vomiting, and a rise in body temperature. Their duration is from several minutes to several hours, sometimes days. Often attacks occur at night, provoking factors can be overeating, eating greasy or spicy foods. On palpation, it is possible to identify tension and pain in the right hypochondrium, pain at the point of the gallbladder (in the corner between the costal arch and the outer edge of the right rectus muscle). Hepatic colic is observed more often with gallstone disease, acute cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia.
With pancreatic colic, pains are localized mainly in the upper abdomen, radiate to the left side, are girdle-like. Perhaps a combination of pain with other signs of digestive upset (vomiting, belching , diarrhea, etc.). The abdomen is often swollen, diffuse soreness is noted, mainly in the pancreatoduodenal region. Pancreatic colic occurs with pancreatitis, tumors of the pancreas.
Renal colic is manifested by unusually strong pains in the abdomen and lumbar region, which are usually given to the groin and genitals, accompanied by frequent painful urges to urinate. The patient is anxious, rushing about in search of a comfortable posture. Renal colic is observed with urolithiasis, acute pyelonephritis. Attacks often occur after physical exertion, shaking a ride. Constipation, bloating, sometimes some tension of the anterior abdominal wall are noted, with shaking along the lumbar region, sharp pain is often revealed.
Before starting treatment for colic, it is necessary to find out its cause. If intestinal colic is sometimes resolved under the influence of thermal procedures, then these measures can lead to serious complications with appendicular colic. A hot bath is effective for renal colic and completely unacceptable for pancreatic.
To alleviate the condition of the patient, you can use papaverine, no- shpu , halidor , platifillin. It should be remembered that prolonged use of antispasmodic and painkillers is possible only after establishing the cause of colic and determining the general therapeutic tactics, since often under the influence of these funds clear symptoms are lost. Therefore, the paramedic, having given the patient first aid, should send him to the doctor to clarify the causes of colic and conduct adequate treatment.