Monument Homeland - Mother (Kiev)
"Motherland" (Ukrainian Batkivshchyna-mother) - a monumental sculpture in Kiev on the right bank of the Dnieper. It is located on the territory of the “Museum of the History of Ukraine in World War II”. It was opened as part of the museum complex in 1981 on Victory Day. The complex was opened by Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee.
Monument Mother Motherland in Kiev
Monument Homeland - mother rises on the right bank of the Dnieper, being the highest monument in Ukraine and one of the highest in the world.
Mother motherland is visible almost everywhere from the left bank of the Dnieper, 102 meters of stone and stainless steel, such a grandiose monumental structure does not go unnoticed by anyone, and is one of the most popular monuments in Kiev (For example, the statue of liberty in New York rises only 93 m )
The sculpture of the Motherland itself without a pedestal reaches a height of 62 meters, the base - 40 meters, inside which is a museum of the history of the Second World War.
The weight of this colossus is 450 tons, the entire structure stands on a pedestal resembling a barrel of reinforced concrete with a diameter of 34 meters and a depth of 17.8 meters.
The iron structure was sheathed with stainless steel sheets measuring 50 x 50 cm and a thickness of 1.5 mm. Sheets were made at the Kiev plant "Name of the Paris Commune", experts on the Paton Electric Welding Institute gave recommendations on manufacturing and welded the entire structure.
The monument was assembled in large blocks of 20-30 tons, the length of all welds is about 30 kilometers.
For comparison: the shield, which the mother holds in her hand, mother 13 x 8 meters, weighs about 13 tons, and a 16-meter sword weighs 9 tons.
And annually about 750 thousand people visit the WWII memorial complex.
Inside the monument there are two elevators, one vertical rises to the head itself, the other rises at an angle of 75 degrees.
The sword has an observation deck, also in the shield at a height of 92 meters.
In 2002, they allowed the excursions to the observation deck, but in 2003, after an accident, the young man fell and crashed, deciding to put an end to his life, access was denied, subsequently it was allowed in 2010, the observation deck in the shield was equipped with a protective grill, and sightseers pass face control, pregnant women, elderly people, and children under 12 years old are not allowed, since part of the path must be climbed up the stairs.
The designers assure that the Motherland - the mother will stand for at least 150 years, and will be able to withstand seismological and dynamic loads.
For example, an earthquake of 9 points, the monument should be able to withstand, and to stabilize not only seismological but also against strong gusts of wind, a nine-ton pendulum stabilizer is installed in the sword.
According to his example, a similar one was installed in the monument of Independence of Ukraine.
To organize a museum dedicated to the participation of the Ukrainian people in World War II, arose even during the war, on June 12, 1942, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine approved a decision to create a museum of the history of the participation of the Ukrainian people in the Second World War, before the liberation of Ukraine from the Nazis, the exhibition was planned to be placed in Moscow, in the museum Lenin. But of the twelve directions of the museum’s compositions, 3 sounded like this: Stalin is a friend of the Ukrainian people, fraternal help from the Russian people, the Bolshevik party was the inspiration ... That is the whole idea was turned inside out, and showed, "who is the boss in the house." And for a long time they forgot about the museum, and not only did not remember it, but also purposefully let people forget about the consequences of the totalitarian regime during the war.
For example, after the parade of 1945, it was not in Kiev for almost 20 years, and May 9 was a working day. Only after the change in the galaxy of communist leaders, under Shcherbitsky, in 1974, a museum was created to liberate Ukraine from the Nazis, located in the Klovsky Palace.
The museum became so popular that for material reasons, it was decided to build a memorial complex dedicated to the participation of the Ukrainian people in the Second World War. And 7 million rubles were allocated.
Work on the design gave "Moscow senior comrades." The chief architect was appointed Eugene Vutechich - the author of the Motherland in Volgograd on Mama’s mound and the memorial to the soldiers liberators in Treptow Park in Berlin.
A project was developed, the main monument was a huge stella (made of iron, his previous work Mother calls for it, had big problems because it was made of concrete, and almost immediately began to crack) as if the head and arms grew out of it, extended forward with a sword and a shield, down from a 30-meter height, right up to the Dnieper, a waterfall would flow down, along the bean sides of the composition, crossing the Dnieper, military arms, partisans and rear troops, a tunnel of fear dedicated to the atrocities in the camps was also planned. And cover the whole main sculpture with gold leaf.
Entrance to the complex was planned from the side of the Dnieper (I, as a Kievite, can’t imagine how to rise to such a height, especially for elderly veterans) But Yevgeny Vutechich soon died, and Moscow sculptors did not want to go to the province, Vasily Zakharovich Boroday became the main sculptor of his mother’s homeland, co-authored with Vasily Vinaikin, Frid Sagonyan, with architects Viktor Elizarov, Nikolai Feschenko, George Kisly.
Boroday significantly changed the project, making it more peaceful, now she was not protected by a shield, and threatened with a sword, but raised her hands up, showing a triumph.
The construction began with the arrangement of the hill, part of it was demolished, and the ravines fell asleep. It was decided to make an entrance from the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the sculpture was not covered with gold, but they even refused to execute it from a light and durable, but expensive titanium.
The estimate was already prohibitively high, at the republican level, it was allowed to approve estimates of no more than 3 million rubles, for the entire complex of the Great Patriotic War memorial, estimates had to be approved in parts, for each part its own.
But on the statue of Rodina itself - a mother of 12 million rubles, the estimate was approved in Moscow, and signed by Heydar Aliyev, the future president of Azerbaijan.
For the construction of the Motherland, a 100-meter crane (the largest in the Republic) was specially brought in, the sculpture was assembled in parts at the Paris Parish factory, so that they would be placed under bridges during transportation.
By the time the monument was unveiled, the giant crane had no time to dismantle it, and then it was decided to simply cut it into pieces with autogenous, and parts of the crane were thrown into the Dnieper, where they still rust.
For welding, climbing teams were involved. They worked in three shifts, and for disrupting the schedule of contractors they threatened to expel them from the party, according to N. Feshchenko, sometimes by the morning they found the necessary materials.
As a model of the face of the sculpture Motherland in Kiev, Boroday portrayed his colleague, the sculptor Galina Kalchenko, talented and beautiful, but she passed away early. Museum staff still call her affectionately - Galey.
Initially, they planned to make the sword flat, look at the real one, but according to the bitter experience of the mother’s Motherland in Volgograd, she had to replace the concrete sword with a titanium one, due to intolerance to the loads created by the wind.
Kiev sculpture redid the sword into a volumetric - diamond-shaped. And for stability, a specially designed pendulum was installed inside, damping oscillatory processes.
The whole story, overgrown with legends, concerns the height of the entire monument. There were rumors that the Metropolitan of Kiev was negotiating with the Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, Shcherbitsky, that the monument should not be higher than the bell tower in the Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
In fact, the height of the bell tower is 96.5 meters, but due to the fact that it stands higher above sea level, the geographical position of the bell tower is higher than that of Rodia Mater.
The entire memorial complex is located on more than 10 hectares, it includes: a monument with a museum below Motherland - a mother, an area with an avenue of hero cities, sculptural compositions Forcing the Dnieper, Transfer of weapons, a gallery of heroes of the front and rear, an exhibition of military equipment, a cup with eternal flame , expositions Alien War and Tragedy and Valor of Afghanistan.
In this place every year on May 9 war veterans gather.
- The motherland’s sword, the mother after the approved project, it was decided to make another three meters shorter, after research in the wind tunnel, at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow.
- Homeland - a mother in Kiev could hold less belligerent objects in her hands, options were developed: with a child in her arms, with a bowl, with a laurel wreath. A total of 11 options were developed. But when the projects were brought to approval by Shcherbitsky, he said "Why do we need a woman with a broom." And they left the option, the one that we now see.
- After the installation of the sculpture, the Motherland is a mother in Kiev, it turned out that she is located with her back to the monument to Lesya Ukrainka (Pecherskaya metro), and that in turn, also has its back to it. Sharp Kiev languages immediately dubbed one of the most prestigious areas between these monuments "mezhzhopiye". Here, by the way, is the Central Executive Committee of Ukraine!
- After the construction was completed, the sculpture “underwent plastic surgery” to enlarge the nose, that is, to the bottom it looked out of proportion. They also noticed that the right breast is smaller than the left, but Boroday said this is a physiological process, when a woman raises her hand up, the breast stretches and becomes visually smaller.
- After the death of Vuchetich, the entire complex of the memorial to the history of the great Patriotic war was coordinated, but still the architect’s wife was paid a huge fee of 40 thousand rubles.
- Sculpture Motherland, one of the ten highest statues in the world.
When you see how much strength, physical and mental, our compatriots put into this creation, you involuntarily think about the past, making the undeniable conclusion that it’s not for nothing that these monuments were left to the next generations, so that our children would understand how hard and painful it is to survive the wars, and future generations did not make the mistakes of their ancestors.
If you liked the article, or have your thoughts and additions, leave a comment showing your attitude to the past mistakes of mankind.
The plan of the Museum of the Second World War
The memorial complex of the history of the Great Patriotic War is a colossal building with a museum fund of more than 300,000 exhibits, an exhibition of military equipment from the Second World War and the post-war period. The sculpture is crowned with a sculpture Rodina- mother with a height of 102 meters and the sixth highest sculpture in the world. This is a place visited by thousands of people who are not indifferent to the memory of people who shed blood and sweat, and even gave their lives for our future. Below is a plan diagram of the Second World War Museum, the first and second floors.
If you want to learn more about the contents of the museum’s expositions, then the plan of the WWII museum will help you.
How to get there, map
Official site - warmuseum.kiev.ua
You need to go to Lavrskaya Street 44, where there is an entrance to the Memorial of the Great Patriotic War.
You can get to the Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War by bus No. 24, or Trolleybus No. 38, from the Arsenalnaya metro station. To the final drive: Arsenalnaya metro station, bus number 24 or trolleybus number 38 - Museum of the Great Patriotic War.
We recommend that you walk the indicated route on the map. On the way from the Arsenalnaya metro station you will see: The Arsenal factory building with shelled walls during the revolution, walk through the Glory Park and see a beautiful view of the Dnieper and the left bank of the capital. You will see the monument to Leonid Bykov, visit the most important historical monument of Kiev - Kiev - Pechersk Lavra, and finally you will reach the memorial complex of the Great Patriotic War. This is a full-day excursion, if you wish and the remaining strength, you can go down to the monument to the Founders of Kiev. But don’t forget, you have to climb back
Via kievbum.com & wiki