Monument Motherland - Mother (Kiev)
"Motherland" (in Ukrainian Batkivshchyna-mother) is a monumental sculpture in Kiev on the right bank of the Dnieper. Located on the territory of the Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War. Opened as part of the museum complex in 1981 on Victory Day. The complex was opened by the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Leonid Brezhnev.
Monument Motherland mother in Kiev
Monument Motherland - the mother towers on the right bank of the Dnieper, being the highest monument in Ukraine and one of the highest in the world.
Motherland is visible almost everywhere from the left bank of the Dnieper, 102 meters of stone and stainless steel, such a grand monumental building does not go unnoticed by anyone, and is one of the most popular monuments in Kiev (For example, the Statue of Liberty in New York rises only 93 meters ).
The sculpture itself of the Motherland without a pedestal reaches a height of 62 meters, the base is 40 meters, inside of which there is a museum of the history of the Second World War.
The weight of this colossus is 450 tons, the whole structure stands on a pedestal, resembling a barrel of reinforced concrete with a diameter of 34 meters and a depth of 17.8 meters.
The iron structure was sheathed with sheets of stainless steel measuring 50 x 50 cm and 1.5 mm thick. Sheets were made at the Kiev factory named after the Paris Commune, recommendations for manufacturing were made and the entire construction was welded by the Paton Electric Welding Institute specialists.
They collected the monument in large blocks of 20-30 tons each, the length of all welds was about 30 kilometers.
For comparison: the shield that the Motherland holds in its hand is 13 x 8 meters, weighs about 13 tons, and the 16-meter-long sword weighs 9 tons.
And annually about 750 thousand people visit the memorial complex of the Great Patriotic War.
Inside the monument there are two elevators, one vertical rises to the head itself, the other rises at an angle of 75 degrees.
The sword has an observation deck, also in the shield at a height of 92 meters.
In 2002, they were allowed to take excursions to observation platforms, but in 2003, after an accident, the young man fell and crashed, deciding to end his life's accounts, access was denied, later allowed in 2010, the viewing platform in the shield, equipped with a protective grid, and sightseers go through face control, pregnant women, the elderly, and children under 12 are not allowed, as part of the way must be climbed up the stairs.
Designers assure that the Motherland - the mother will stand for at least 150 years, and will be able to withstand seismological and dynamic loads.
For example, the earth-cracking is 9 points, the monument should fully withstand, and to stabilize not only the seismological but also against strong gusts of wind, a nine-ton pendulum-stabilizer is installed in the sword.
By his example, a similar one was installed in the monument of Independence of Ukraine.
Organize a museum dedicated to the participation of the Ukrainian people in the Second World War, emerged during the war, 12 June 1942. The Politburo of the Communist Party of Ukraine approved the decision to create a museum of the history of the participation of the Ukrainian people in the Second World War, before the liberation of Ukraine from the Nazis, the exposition was planned to be placed in Moscow, in the museum Lenin. But from the twelve areas of the museum’s compositions, 3 sounded like this: Stalin is a friend of the Ukrainian people, fraternal assistance of the Russian people, the Bolshevik Party is the inspirer ... Ie the whole idea was turned out almost inside out, and showed “who is the boss in the house”. And for a long time they forgot about the museum, and not only did they not recall it, but also purposefully let people forget about the consequences of the totalitarian regime during the war.
For example, after the parade of 1945, in Kiev, almost 20 years it was not, and May 9 was a working day. Only after the change of the galaxy of communist leaders, under Shcherbitsky, in 1974, the Museum of the liberation of Ukraine from the Nazis was established, located in the Klovsky Palace.
The museum became so popular that for material reasons, it was decided to build a memorial complex dedicated to the participation of the Ukrainian people in the Second World War. And it was allocated 7 million rubles.
The work on the design was given to the “Moscow senior comrades”. Yevgeny Vutechich, the author of the Motherland in Volgograd, was appointed the main architect on the mummy and the memorial to the liberators in Treptow, a park in Berlin.
A project was developed, the main monument was represented by an enormous stella (made of iron, his previous work Motherland calls, had great problems because it was made of concrete, and almost immediately began to crack) the head and arms grew out of the stella forward with a sword and a shield, down from a 30-meter height, a waterfall would run down to the Dnieper, on the sides of the composition, forcing the Dnieper, the types of troops, partisans and rear personnel, a fear tunnel was also planned, dedicated to the atrocities committed in Kotslager. And all the main sculpture covered with gold leaf.
The entrance to the complex was planned from the side of Dnieper (I, like Kiyevlyanin, cannot imagine how to climb such a height, especially to elderly veterans). But Yevgeny Vutechich soon died, and the Moscow sculptors did not want to go to the province, Vasily Boroday became the main sculptor of the Motherland of the mother, co-author with Vasily Vinaikin, Frid Sagonyan, with architects Viktor Yelizarov, Nikolai Feschenko, Georgy Kisly.
Borodai significantly changed the project, making it more peaceful, now she did not defend herself with a shield, and threatened with the sword, but raised her hands up, showing triumph.
Began construction with the arrangement of the hill, part of it was dug, and the ravines fell asleep. It was decided to make the entrance from the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, they did not cover the sculpture with gold, but even refused to make it from a light and durable, but expensive titanium.
Estimates and so was prohibitively high, at the republican level, it was allowed to approve estimates of not more than 3 million rubles, for the whole complex of the Second World War memorial it was necessary to approve estimates in parts, for each part its own.
But on the very statue of the Motherland - a mother of 12 mln rubles, the estimate was approved in Moscow, and Heydar Aliyev signed it — the future president of Azerbaijan.
For the construction of the motherland, the mother, a 100-meter crane (the largest in the Republic) was specially brought, the sculpture was assembled in parts at the Parisian Commune plant, with the expectation that they would be placed under the bridges during transportation.
By the time the monument was opened, the giant crane did not have time to be disassembled, and then it was decided to simply cut it into autogenous pieces, and parts of the crane were thrown into the Dnieper, where they are rusting to this day.
For welding were involved brigade. They worked in three shifts, and for disrupting the schedule, contractors were threatened to be expelled from the party, according to N. Feshchenko, sometimes by morning the necessary materials were found.
As a model of the sculpture's face Motherland, Boroday portrayed his colleague, sculptor Galina Kalchenko, a talented and beautiful, but early deceased. The museum staff is still affectionately called her - Galya.
Initially, the sword was planned to be made flat, cool to the real one, but according to the bitter experience of the Motherland in Volgograd, she had to replace the concrete sword with a titanium sword, because of the intolerance to the loads created by the wind.
Kiev sculpture remade sword on the volume - diamond-shaped. And for stability, a specially designed pendulum, damping oscillatory processes, was installed inside.
The whole story, overgrown with legends, concerns the height of the entire monument. It was rumored that the Metropolitan of Kiev was negotiating with the secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, Shcherbitsky, that the monument would not be higher than the bell tower in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra.
In fact, the height of the bell tower is 96.5 meters, but due to the fact that it stands higher, above sea level, the geographical position of the bell tower is higher than that of the Motherland.
The whole memorial complex is located more than 10 hectares, it includes: a monument with a museum below Motherland, a square with an alley of heroes' cities, sculptural compositions Forcing the Dnieper, Weapon Transfer, a gallery of heroes of the front and rear, an exhibition of military equipment, a bowl with eternal fire , exposure to Alien War and the Tragedy and valor of Afgan.
It is in this place that war veterans gather every year on May 9th.
- The sword of the Motherland - the mother after the approved project, it was decided to make another three meters shorter, after research in the wind tunnel, at the central aerohydrodynamic institute in Moscow.
- Homeland - a mother in Kiev could hold less warlike objects in her hands, options were developed: with a child in her arms, with a cup, with a laurel wreath. A total of 11 options were developed. But when the projects were brought to Shcherbitsky for approval, he said, “Why do we need a woman with a broom”. And left the option, the one that we see now.
- After installing the sculpture Homeland - mother in Kiev, it turned out that it is located with its back to the monument to Lesja Ukrainka (Pechersk metro station), and she, in turn, also stands with her back to her. Acute Kiev languages immediately dubbed one of the most prestigious areas between these monuments "between the two". Here, by the way, is the CEC of Ukraine!
- After the construction was completed, the sculpture “underwent plastic surgery” to increase the nose, because it looked out of proportion to the bottom. We also noticed that the right breast is smaller than the left, but Boroday said, this is a physiological process, when a woman raises her hand up her chest stretches and becomes visually smaller.
- After the death of Vuchetich, the whole complex of the memorial of the history of the Great Patriotic War, was radically changed, but the architect’s wife was paid a huge fee of 40 thousand rubles.
- Sculpture Motherland mother, one of the ten highest statues in the world.
When you see how much strength, physical and mental, our compatriots have invested in this creation, involuntarily reflect on the past, making an undeniable conclusion - that such monuments are not for nothing left to next generations, so that our children would understand how difficult and painful it is to live through wars, and future generations did not make the mistakes of their ancestors.
If you liked the article, or have your own thoughts and additions, leave a comment, showing your attitude to the past mistakes of mankind.
Layout of the Museum of the Great Patriotic War
The memorial complex of the history of the Great Patriotic War is a colossal structure with a museum fund of more than 300,000 exhibits, exhibitions of military equipment of the Second World War and the post-war period, crowned by a sculpture of the Motherland 102 meters in height and the sixth highest sculpture in the world. This is a place that is visited by thousands of people who are not indifferent to the memory of people who shed blood and sweat, and even gave their lives for our future. Below are a plan of the museum of the Second World War, the first and second floors.
If you want to learn more about the contents of the museum, then you will be helped by the plan of the Museum of the Great Patriotic War.
How to get the map
Official site - warmuseum.kiev.ua
It is necessary to go to the street Lavra 44, there is the entrance to the Memorial of World War II.
You can get to the Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War, by bus number 24, or by trolleybus number 38, from the Arsenalnaya metro station. To the final ride: Arsenalnaya metro station, bus number 24 or trolley bus number 38 - the Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War.
We recommend that you follow the indicated route on the map on foot. On the way from the Arsenalnaya metro station, you will see: The building of the Arsenal plant with shelled walls during the revolution, walk through the Glory Park and see a beautiful view of the Dnieper and the left bank of the capital. You will see a monument to Leonid Bykov, visit the most important historical monument of Kiev - Kiev - Pechersk Lavra, and finally you will reach the memorial complex of the Great Patriotic War. This is a full day excursion, if you wish, and you have a preserved reserve of strength, you can go down to the monument to the Founders of Kiev. But do not forget, you will have to climb back
Via kievbum.com & wiki