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The Bible is the canonical collection of texts considered sacred in Judaism and Christianity. The Orthodox and Catholic texts of the Bible differ from the Protestant texts by the presence of additional books in the Old Testament, which are considered “non-canonical” or “devterocanonical” (in Catholicism).
There are also differences in the sequence of books in the Bible in different traditions. The Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) contains 3 sections of 24 books: 5 books of the Torah (“Teaching” or “Law”), Neviim (“Prophets”) and Ktuvim (“Scriptures”). In the Tanach, the “Prophets” (Neviim) precede the Scriptures (Ktuvim) and include the books of the “early prophets”: the books of Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel (1 and 2 Kingdoms) and 1 and 2 Kings (3 and 4 Kingdoms) which in the Christian tradition are regarded as historical, along with the books of Chronicles. In addition, in the Jewish tradition the book of Daniel is considered not as prophetic, but as part of the Scripture.
The contents of the Christian Bible vary from the Protestant canon (66 books) to the canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (81 books). The first part of the Christian Bible, the Old Testament, is basically a regrouped Hebrew Bible, divided into 39 books. The Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity also include deuterocanonical books in the Old Testament canon. The second part - the New Testament - consists of 27 books: 4 canonical Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, 21 Epistles of the Apostles and the Revelation of John the Divine.
The Old Testament idea of holiness, as an indispensable attribute of God, most fully revealed in the book of Leviticus, led to the spread among Christians of the names "Holy Bible" or "Holy Scripture." Many Christians consider the entire canonical text of the Bible a divine revelation. The oldest Greek manuscripts with the full text of the Christian Bible date back to the 4th century. n er The surviving manuscripts of the Tanakh, written in Hebrew and Aramaic, date back to the 10th century AD. Oe., but there is a Vatican Codex with the Septuagint, also attributed to the beginning of IV c. n er The Bible is divided into chapters by Stephen Langton (XIII century) and into verses by Robert Etienne (XVI century). Commonly cited by book, chapter and verse.
The Old Testament is written in Hebrew (Biblical Hebrew), with the exception of some parts written in Aramaic. The New Testament is written in ancient Greek (in the form of Koine).
The Bible is the best-selling book of all time, with an average annual sales of about 100 million copies, and has a tremendous impact on literature and history, especially in the West, becoming the first example of popular literature.