Map of all submarine cables that connect the Internet
Cables lying on the seabed, bring the Internet to the world. They transmit 99 percent of international data, make overseas communication possible immediately and serve as free authority for international trade that connects advanced economies.
The translation is semi-technical.
Their importance and rapid growth have inspired Telegeography to make a map of the cables that connect the Internet. The map displays 299 cables that are active and operational during construction or will be funded by the end of this year.
In addition to cables, you will find information about the “waiting time” at the bottom of the card (how long it takes to receive information and to transmit it) and “illuminated ability” in the corners (which shows how much movement the system can send, usually measured in terabytes) . You can view the full version of the map with the possibility of increasing here .
Cables are so widely used, as opposed to satellite transmission, because they are so reliable and fast: with high speeds and backup routes available, they rarely fail. And this means that they have become the key role of the world economy and the way in which the world is connected.
For example, try moving the slider between the 1912 map of trade routes and the map of telegeography cable cables today. Economic interdependence remains, but methods and meaning have changed:
Submarine cable card shows economic ties in developing countries as well. Cables between South America and Africa are much weaker than transatlantic and Pacific crossing routes:
Although the cable networks of developing countries are growing very fast, but to achieve full-fledged capacity, you need to do a lot of work. Also, Antarctica is not fully accounted for (scientists there receive their Internet from satellites).
There are many protests between submarine cables and historical trade routes: trade routes were determined by geography as well as economic interests, and economic incentives were significantly different then they are today. It would also be a mistake to miss the physical goods in favor of the Internet (just look at those giant container ships). But then and now, the way across the ocean requires investment, trading partners on both sides and a willingness to take risks. The sailors have taken a gamble in the past, and tech companies are taking it now.
Submarine cables receive large investments from companies looking to explore their own modern trade routes.
These cables carry information for the entire Internet, including corporate and consumer interest. That's why Google invested $ 300 million in crossing the Pacific cable system consortium to move data, Facebook put money into the Asian cable system consortium, and the financial industry invests the same way to shave a few milliseconds from trading times.
Other consortia regularly lay cables to transfer consumer Internet. Control of each submarine cable group is an advantage in information exchange between countries.
Submarine cables - a 150 year old idea with a new potency
The process for applying submarine cables has not changed much in 150 years — the ship crosses the ocean, slowly without recording a cable that goes down to the bottom of the ocean in a buffer file. The Eastern Great SS laid the first all-time successful transatlantic cable in 1866, which was used to transmit telegraphs. Later cables (starting in 1956) carried telephone signals.
Map of the underwater telegraph in 1858, although the attempt only worked for three weeks. (Commons)
Modern cables are surprisingly thin, considering how long they are and how deeply they go down. Each is usually about 3 inches across. They are actually thicker in smaller areas where they are often buried to protect them from contact with fishing boats, sea beds or other objects. At the deepest point in the Japan Gutter, cables are submerged 8,000 meters deep — which means submarine cables can go as deep as Mount Everest is high.
Optical fiber, which actually carries information, is connected within a larger cable shell:
- Mylar Ribbon
- Twisted Metal (Steel) Wires
- Aluminum water barrier
- Copper or aluminum tube
- Petroleum jelly (this helps protect cables from water)
- Optical fiber
These cables move videos, trades, gifs, and articles that bring the Internet around the world within milliseconds. And this is a type of advantage that any trader could appreciate - digital or analog.
Translation from www.vox.com/2015/3/13/8204655/submarine-cables-internet