Piri Reis Map - Antediluvian Map of Antarctica without ice
Tourists crossing the Dardanelles Strait in Canakkale are usually so keen on stories about the armies of Xerxes and Alexander the Great, who crossed the Dardanelles many centuries ago, that they completely ignore the modest bust installed on the European side of the strait next to the crossing. Few people know that the modest signature “Piri Reis” under the bust connects this place with one of the most intriguing mysteries of history.
In 1929, a map dated 1513 was discovered in one of the ancient Constantinople palaces. The map could not have aroused great interest if it were not for the image of both Americas on it (one of the earliest in history) and the signature of Turkish admiral Piri Reis. Then, in the 1920s, in the wake of the national boom, it was especially important for the Turks to emphasize the role of the Turkish cartographer in creating one of the earliest maps of America. The map began to be closely studied, as well as the history of its creation. And that's what became known.
In 1513, the Turkish fleet admiral Piri Reis completed work on a large world map for his geographical atlas “Bahriye”. He himself did not travel much, but, making up the map, used about 20 map sources. Of these, eight cards belonged to the times of Ptolemy, some belonged to Alexander the Great, and one, as Piri Reis writes in his book “Seven Seas”, “made up a recently unfaithful name Colombo”. And then the admiral says: “A wrong named Colombo, a Genoese, discovered these lands. One book came into the name of Colombo, in which he read that on the edge of the West Sea, far in the West, there are shores and islands. They found all sorts of metals and precious stones. The aforementioned Colombo studied this book for a long time ... He also learned about the passion of the natives for glass ornaments from this book and took them with him to exchange them for gold. ”
For the time being we leave aside Columbus and his mysterious book, although a direct indication that he knew where he was swimming is already amazing. Unfortunately, neither this book nor the map of Columbus has reached us. But several sheets of the map from the atlas “Bahriye” were miraculously preserved and in 1811 were published in Europe. But then they did not attach much importance. Only in 1956, when the Turkish naval officer presented maps as a gift to the US Marine Hydrographic Administration, American military cartographers conducted a study to confirm or deny what seemed impossible: the map showed the coastline of Antarctica 300 years before its discovery!
Soon a report was received: “The statement that the bottom of the map shows Princess Martha’s Coast [part] of Queen Maud Land in Antarctica, as well as the Palmer Peninsula, has a foundation. We found this explanation the most logical and possibly correct. The geographic details depicted at the bottom of the map are in excellent agreement with the seismic survey data carried out through the ice cap of the Swedish-British Antarctic Expedition in 1949. This means that the coastline was mapped before it was covered with ice. The ice in this area is approximately 1.5 km thick. We have no idea how this data could be obtained at the estimated level of geographical knowledge of 1513. "
So the Piri Reis map began to reveal its secrets. Here are some of them.
The map accurately shows the coastline of Antarctica!
Antarctica as a continent was discovered in 1818, but many cartographers, including Gerard Mercator, believed until that time in the continent in the extreme south and put its supposed outlines on their maps. The Piri Reis map, as already mentioned, with high accuracy displays the coastline of Antarctica - 300 years before its discovery!
But this is not the biggest mystery, especially since several ancient maps are known, including the Mercator map, which, as it turned out, shows, and very precisely, Antarctica. Previously, this was simply ignored, because the “appearance” of the continent on the map can be greatly distorted depending on the map projections used: it is not so easy to project the surface of the globe onto a plane. The fact that many ancient maps reproduce with high accuracy not only Antarctica, but also other continents, became known after calculations carried out in the middle of the last century, taking into account various projections used by old cartographers.
But the fact that the Piri Reis map shows the coast of Antarctica, not yet covered with ice, is difficult to comprehend! After all, the modern look of the coastline of the southern continent is set by a powerful ice sheet that goes far beyond the limits of real land. It turns out that Piri Reis used the sources that were made up of people who saw Antarctica before the glaciation? But this can not be, because these people would have to live millions of years ago! The only explanation of this fact accepted by modern scientists is the theory about the periodic change of the poles of the Earth, according to which the last such change could occur about 6,000 years ago, and it was then that Antarctica began to become covered again with ice. That is, we are talking about seafarers who lived 6,000 years ago and compiled maps, on which (as with the Piri Reis map) the modern ones were refined? Incredible ...
Map tied to Cairo
Interestingly, the Piri Reis map also provides an answer to the question of where these ancient navigators lived. (Or not seafarers, if they used other means of transportation?) The fact is that a professional cartographer, studying the ancient map and comparing it with modern ones, can determine which type of projection the map creator used. And when the Piri Reis map was compared to the modern one, drawn up in a polar, equal-size projection, they found their almost complete similarity. In particular, the map of the Turkish admiral of the XVI century literally repeats the map drawn up by the US Air Force during the Great Patriotic War.
But a map drawn up in a polar equal-sized projection must have a center. In the case of the American map, it was Cairo, where during the war years there was an American military base. And from this, as shown by the Chicago scholar Charles Hepgood, who thoroughly studied the Piri Reis map, it directly follows that the center of the ancient map, which became the prototype of the admiral's map, was located exactly there, in Cairo, or its surroundings. That is, the ancient cartographers were Egyptians who lived in Memphis, or their more ancient ancestors, who made this place a point of reference.
Mathematical apparatus of cartographers
But whoever they were, they skillfully owned their craft. As soon as the researchers began to study the extant fragments of the Turkish Admiral's map, they were confronted with the question of the authorship of its original source. The Piri Reis map is the so-called portulan, a sea map that allows you to build "lines between ports", that is, to sail between port cities. In the 15th – 16th centuries, such maps were much more perfect than sushi maps, but, as A.E. Nordenskiöld, one of the leading scholars in this field, noted, they did not develop. That is, the maps of the 15th century were of the same quality as the maps of the 14th century. This, from his point of view, indicates that the skill of cartographers was not acquired, but borrowed, that is, simply speaking, they simply redrawed more ancient maps, which in itself is natural.
But what doesn’t fit in the head is the accuracy of the constructions and the mathematical apparatus, without which these constructions are simply impossible to accomplish. I will cite just a few facts.
It is known that to build a geographic map, that is, to display a sphere on a plane, it is necessary to know the dimensions of this sphere, that is, the Earth. Even in ancient time, the circumference of the globe was able to measure Eratosthenes, but did so with great error. Until the XV century, these data no one specified. However, a thorough study of the coordinates of objects on the Piri map indicates that the dimensions of the Earth were taken into account without error, that is, the map authors had at their disposal more accurate information about our planet (not to mention the fact that they represented it as a ball). The researchers of the Turkish map also convincingly showed that the compilers of the mysterious ancient source owned trigonometry (the Reis map was drawn using plane geometry, where latitudes and longitudes are at right angles. But it was copied from a map with spherical trigonometry! Ancient cartographers not only knew that Earth there is a ball, but they also calculated the length of the equator with an accuracy of about 100 km!) and cartographic projections that were not known to either Eratosthenes, or even Ptolemy, but they could theoretically vatsya ancient maps are stored in the Library of Alexandria. That is, the original source of the map is definitely more ancient.
Both Americas are shown on the map.
The Piri Reis map is one of the first to include both Americas. It was compiled 21 years after the voyage of Columbus and the "official" discovery of America. And on it is marked not only the exact coastline, but also the rivers, and even the Andes. And this is despite the fact that Columbus America itself did not map, sailed only to the Caribbean islands!
The mouths of some rivers, in particular the Orinoco, on the Piri Reis map are shown with an “error”: the river deltas are not indicated. However, this is more likely to say not about an error, but about the expansion of deltas over time, as was the case with the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia in the last 3,500 years.
Columbus knew where he was going
Piri Reis claimed that Columbus knew well where he was going, thanks to the book that fell into his hands. The fact that Columbus’s wife was the daughter of the Grand Master who had already changed its name to the Order of the Templars, which had significant archives of ancient books and maps, points to a possible way of acquiring a mysterious book (much has been written about the fleet of the Templars and the high probability of their regular voyages in America).
There are many facts that indirectly confirm that Columbus owned one of the cards that served as the source for the Piri Reis map. For example, Columbus did not stop the ships at night, as was customary because of the fear of hitting reefs in unknown waters, but going under full sail, as if knowing for sure that there would be no obstacles. When the revolt started on the ships due to the fact that the promised land did not show everything, he managed to convince the sailors to suffer another 1000 miles and was not mistaken — exactly 1000 miles later, the long-awaited shore appeared. Columbus was carrying with him a supply of glass jewelry, hoping to exchange them for gold from the Indians, as recommended in his book. Finally, each ship had a sealed package with instructions on what to do if the ships lose sight of each other during a storm. In short, the discoverer of America knew well that he was not the first.
Piri Reis Card is not the only one
And the card of the Turkish admiral, the source for which served including the maps of Columbus, is not the only one of its kind. If you set a goal, as Charles Hepgood did, compare the images of Antarctica on several maps compiled before her “official” discovery, then there will be no doubt about the existence of their common source. Hapgud meticulously compared the maps of Piri, Aranteus Finaus, Haji Ahmed and Mercator, created at different times and independently of each other, and determined that they all used the same unknown source, which with the greatest certainty depicted the polar continent long before it was discovered.
Most likely, we will not know for sure who created this original source and when. But its existence, convincingly proved by researchers of the Turkish Admiral's card, indicates the existence of some ancient civilization with a level of scientific knowledge comparable to modern, at least in the field of geography (the Piri map, as already mentioned, made it possible to clarify some modern maps). And this casts doubt on the hypothesis of a gradual linear progress of mankind in general and of science in particular. It seems that the greatest knowledge about nature, as if obeying an unknown law, at a certain stage becomes available to humanity, in order to be lost and ... be revived again when the time comes. And who knows how many discoveries will be hidden in the next find?