Ecological maps of Ukraine
Map of living conditions of the population
Map of living conditions of the population in Ukraine.
Ukraine has a temperate continental climate. Also on the territory of Urainy - the best soil on the planet - black soil. This combination allows you to grow a full range of crops. In Ukraine, favorable conditions for the population. In Ukraine, the northwestern movement of air masses prevails. During the year, about 46 cyclones and 37 anticyclones pass over Ukraine.
The river network of Ukraine (has approximately about 72 thousand rivers), it is rather dense and extensive (0.25 km / km2). The rivers belong mainly to the Black and Azov Seas and partly to the Baltic.
The ecological and geochemical conditions of the landscapes of Ukraine under the powerful influence of technogenic activity have changed significantly in recent times ...
The climatic conditions of Ukraine are an important natural resource. Favorable climatic conditions, landscapes rich in flora and fauna are the most important recreational resource, and there are many such regions in Ukraine.
Man-made relief changes map
Map of anthropogenic changes in the relief of Ukraine.
Anthropogenic relief - terrain is called modified or created by human activity. Anthropogenic landforms for the first time people began to change even at that time, when hunting tribes began to dig holes for catching animals, caves, etc. When cattle farming began to appear pockets of erosion and sands opening due to the cattle slaughter. The greatest distribution in Ukraine and throughout the world, anthropogenic relief received with the development of agriculture. There are spontaneously arising anthropogenic relief and consciously created anthropogenic relief. The elements of the first are mainly “weeds of relief”, which are formed as a result of improper management of agriculture and forestry, mining, construction, and laying of roads: ravines, debris cones, shoals, subsidence, moving sands. In a number of countries, the development of these forms radically changed the appearance of the terrain, worsened the water regime, reduced the area of arable land and reduced their fertility.
The conscious transformation of the relief is carried out during reclamation (terracing and embankment of slopes, construction of drainage and irrigation, networks, field planning), construction (embankments, excavations, canals, dams), etc. The inevitable, though harmful forms also belong to anthropogenic reliefs: quarries, dumps, etc. Anthropogenic relief is a component of the anthropogenic landscape.
Map of the state of modern landscapes
Map of the state of modern landscapes of Ukraine.
The geochemical landscapes of Ukraine are represented by the landscapes of four bioclimatic zones: forest-swamp landscapes of Polesie in the north, forest-steppe landscapes of Polesie, Volyn-Podolsk Upland and the Dnieper plain; landscapes of the northern steppes of the slopes of the Volyn-Podolsk and Central Russian Upland; landscapes of the southern steppes, developed on the area of the Black Sea Lowland and the Prisivash depression; forest-meadow mountain landscapes of the Carpathian and Crimean mountains and foothill plains.
The development of the mining and processing industries in Ukraine, as well as the intensive agro-industrial use of the territories, leads to significant and often irreversible changes in the geochemical and ecological conditions of landscapes.
The territory of Ukraine is characterized by the following landscape zones, which are caused by:
- High self-cleaning ability and low degree of pollution. These include the Transcarpathian region, the south-western part of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk regions (with the exception of areas of the north-east), the south-western part of Chernivtsi region and the mountain Crimea.
- The average degree of self-purification and pollution. These include the south of the Zhytomyr region, the south-western part of Kiev, the north and north-east of Vinnitsa, Cherkasy and part of the Dnipropetrovsk region, the south of Donetsk and Zaporozhye regions.
- Low self-cleaning ability and low pollution level: the north of the Lviv region, the south of Volyn, Ternopil, Mykolaiv, Kharkiv, the south of Vinnytsia, the north of Odessa, the north of Kharkov, Lugansk regions and the Crimea, and the low ability of self-purification and the high level of contamination of the industry with pollution from the Dnipropetrovsk, southern Odessa, Zaporizhia regions.
- The territory in which the accumulation of industrial pollution prevails is the largest part of Kiev, Chernihiv, Sumy, Poltava, and eastern parts of Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Zaporizhzhya regions and the south of Lugansk region.
- Zones of Polesia, Kiev, Chernihiv, Cherkasy regions, zones of traces of the Chernobyl NPP accident, which belong to the variable zones of accumulation and self-purification.
Map of the natural radioactivity of the territory
Map of natural radioactivity in Ukraine.
Natural radioactivity, as not sadly has been around for billions of years, it is present literally everywhere. Ionizing radiation existed on Earth long before the birth of life on it and are present in space. And Ukraine is no exception. Radioactive materials became part of the Earth since its birth. Any person is radioactive: in the tissues of the human body one of the main sources of natural radiation is potassium-40 and rubidium-87, and there is no way to get rid of them.
A modern person spends up to 80% of his time indoors - at home or at work, where he receives the main dose of radiation: although buildings protect from radiation from outside, the building materials of which they are built contain natural radioactivity. Radon and its decay products make a significant contribution to human exposure.
Map of especially valuable soils of Ukraine
Map of especially valuable soils of Ukraine.
The fertile soils of Ukraine are the most important resource potential of this country. The most fertile are soils with a humus content of 3 to 7% and a humus layer thickness of about 1 meter (there are about 10% of them in Ukraine).
The most valuable lands include: non-eroded non-salt chernozems on loess rocks; meadow-chernozem non-saline, unsoldered loamy soils; podzolized dark gray and codzolized chernozem on loess and clay; brown mountain-forest and deep-sodden-soddy-soddy-soddy; sod-podzolic loamy soil; peatlands with a peat depth of more than one meter and drained regardless of depth; brown soils of the southern coast of Crimea; deep turf soils of Transcarpathia; lands of experimental fields of research institutions and educational institutions; lands of nature reserve fund; lands of historical and cultural destination.
Map of soil contamination with pesticide residues and heavy metals
Map of soil contamination with residues of pesticides and heavy metals of Ukraine.
The soils of Ukraine are polluted by various chemicals, pesticides, agricultural waste, industrial production and household utilities. Chemical compounds that enter the soil accumulate and lead to a gradual change in the chemical and physical properties of the soil, reduce the number of living organisms, impair its fertility.
Soil pollution and disruption of the normal circulation of substances occurs as a result of non-dosed application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides. In a number of branches of agriculture, pesticides are used in large quantities for plant protection and weed control. Their annual application, often several times a season, leads to their accumulation in the soil and its poisoning. Compounds of metals, such as iron, mercury, lead, copper, etc., accumulate in soils. Soil contamination in Ukraine.
Soil degradation map of Ukraine
Soil degradation map of Ukraine.
The soil is the keeper of fertility and life on Earth. It takes 100 years to form its 1 cm thick layer. But he can be lost in just one season of mindless exploitation of the earth by man. According to geologists, before a person began to engage in agricultural activity, rivers annually carried 9 billion tons of soil into the ocean. With human assistance, this figure increased to 25 billion tons per year. The phenomenon of ground erosion is becoming more and more dangerous, since the soil becomes less fertile on the planet and it is vital to preserve at least those that exist at the moment, to prevent the disappearance of this single layer of the Earth's lithosphere on which plants can grow.
Under natural conditions, there are several reasons for soil erosion (weathering and leaching of the upper fertile layer), which are further enhanced by man. Millions of hectares of soil are lost due to:
- industrialization, construction of buildings and roads;
- improper exploitation, aimed at maximally squeezing out of the ground all that is possible, and then throwing a waste land unfit for anything;
- chemical and industrial pollution;
- deforestation that protects the soil from weathering and leaching;
- constructions of dams GES, before which there is a waterlogging, and after which - drying of the soil;
- the extraction from the depths of the earth of tons of rocks, in the composition of which - almost the entire periodic table, including radioactive substances.
Map of emissions of pollutants into the air by settlements
Map of emissions of pollutants into the atmospheric air of urban settlements of Ukraine.
Most of all pollute the nature of energy facilities, primarily CHP and TPP. Absorbing a huge amount of oil products, gas and coal, they eject into the atmosphere millions of cubic meters of harmful gases, aerosols, soot, occupy hundreds of hectares of land with slag and ash.
Another source of pollution in the nature of Ukraine is transport — road, air, water, and rail. In all large cities of Ukraine, the mass fraction of air pollution from motor transport recently accounts for 70-90% of the total mass of pollution.
All sources belonging to a specific territory of an enterprise are stationary sources of emission of harmful (polluting) substances into the atmospheric air.
Stationary sources of emission of harmful (polluting) substances into the air are divided into two types:
- sources of organized emissions;
- unorganized emission sources.
The most commonly used short form of these terms is “organized source” and “unorganized source”.
Under the organized emission refers to emissions entering the atmosphere through specially constructed ducts, ducts and pipes; Unorganized emission is defined as the emission that enters the atmosphere in the form of non-directional gas flows as a result of equipment leakage, lack of or unsatisfactory operation.
Map of acidity of precipitation of Ukraine
Map of acidity of precipitation of Ukraine.
One of the most pressing global problems of our time and foreseeable future is the problem of increasing acidity of precipitation and soil cover. The areas of acidic soils do not know droughts, but their natural fertility is low and unstable; they are quickly depleted and yields are low.
Acid rain does not only cause acidification of surface waters and upper soil horizons. Acidity with downward flows of water extends over the entire soil profile and causes significant acidification of groundwater. Acid rain occurs as a result of human activities, accompanied by the emission of colossal amounts of sulfur oxides, nitrogen and carbon.
These oxides, entering the atmosphere are transported over long distances, interact with water and turn into solutions of a mixture of sulfurous, sulfuric, nitrous, nitric and carbonic acids, which fall in the form of "acid rain" on land, interacting with plants, soils, and waters.
The main sources in the atmosphere are the burning of shale, oil, coal, gas in industry, agriculture, and everyday life. Human economic activity almost doubled the flow of sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. Naturally, this has affected the increase in the acidity of precipitation, ground and groundwater. To solve this problem, it is necessary to increase the amount of systematic representative measurements of compounds of atmospheric pollutants in large areas.
Map of surface water pollution in Ukraine
Map of pollution of surface waters of Ukraine.
Surface water quality depends on a combination of climatic and geological factors.
The main climatic factor is the amount and frequency of precipitation, as well as the environmental situation in the region. Falling precipitation carries with it a certain amount of undissolved particles, such as dust, volcanic ash, plant pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, and sometimes larger microorganisms. The ocean is a source of various salts dissolved in rainwater. It can detect ions of chloride, sulfate, sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium. Industrial emissions into the atmosphere also "enrich" the chemical palette, mainly due to organic solvents and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, which cause "acid rain". Contribute and chemicals used in agriculture.
Among the geological factors is the structure of the river bed. If the channel is formed by limestone rocks, the water in the river is usually clear and hard. If the channel of impermeable rocks, such as granite, then the water will be soft, but muddy due to the large number of suspended particles of organic and inorganic origin.
In general, surface waters are characterized by relative softness, high organic content.