Do free gas at home yourself!
A manual for the manufacture of a small-sized apparatus for the home manufacture of a 100% substitute for gasoline of any brand from water and domestic gas entering the apartment, as well as a description of the technology for its manufacture.
The liquid obtained using this description is methanol (methyl alcohol).
In its pure form, methanol is used as a solvent and as a high-octane additive to motor fuel, as well as the highest-octane (octane number is 150) gasoline. This is the same gasoline that fuel the tanks of racing motorcycles and cars. As foreign studies show, an engine running on methanol lasts many times longer than when using conventional gasoline, its power rises by 20% (with a constant engine displacement). The exhaust of an engine running on this fuel is environmentally friendly and there are practically no harmful substances when checking it for toxicity.
A small-sized apparatus for producing this fuel is simple to manufacture, does not require special knowledge and scarce parts, and is trouble-free in operation.
Its performance depends on various reasons, including the size.
The device, the circuit diagram and assembly description of which we bring to your attention, at D = 75mm gives three liters of finished fuel per hour, has a weight of about
Caution: methanol is a strong poison. It is a colorless liquid with a boiling point of 65 ° C, has an odor similar to that of ordinary drinking alcohol, and mixes in every way with water and many organic liquids. Remember that 30 milliliters of drunk methanol is deadly !
The principle of operation and operation of the apparatus
Tap water is connected to the “water inlet" (15) and, passing further, is divided into two streams: one stream through the faucet (14) and the hole (C) enters the mixer (1), and the other stream through the faucet (4) and the hole (G) goes to the refrigerator (3), passing through which water, cooling the synthesis gas and gas condensate, leaves through the hole (Yu).
Domestic natural gas is connected to the “Gas Inlet” pipeline (16). Then the gas enters the mixer (1) through the hole (B), in which, mixed with water vapor, it is heated on the burner (12) to a temperature of 100 - 120 ° C. Then, from the mixer (1) through the hole (D), the heated mixture of gas and water vapor enters through the hole (B) into the reactor (2). The reactor (2) is filled with catalyst No. 1, consisting of 25% nickel and 75% aluminum (in the form of chips or grains, industrial grade GIAL-16). In the reactor, the formation of synthesis gas occurs under the influence of temperature from 500 ° C and above, obtained by heating the burner (13). Next, the heated synthesis gas enters through the opening (E) into the refrigerator (3), where it must be cooled to a temperature of 30-40 ° C or lower. Then, the cooled synthesis gas through the opening (I) leaves the refrigerator and through the opening (M) enters the compressor (5), which can be used as a compressor from any household refrigerator. Next, the compressed synthesis gas with a pressure of 5-50 through the hole (N) leaves the compressor and through the hole (O) enters the reactor (6). The reactor (6) is filled with catalyst No. 2, consisting of shavings of 80% copper and 20% zinc (composition of the company "ICI", brand in Russia SNM-1). In this reactor, which is the most important unit of the apparatus, synthesis gasoline vapor is formed. The temperature in the reactor should not exceed 270 ° C, which can be controlled by a thermometer (7) and regulated by a faucet (4). It is advisable to maintain the temperature within 200-250 ° C, and can be lower. Then, gasoline vapors and unreacted synthesis gas exit the reactor (6) through the opening (6) and enter the refrigerator (3) through the opening (L), where gasoline vapors condense and exit the refrigerator through the opening (K). Next, the condensate and the unreacted synthesis gas enter through the opening (Y) into the condenser (8), where the ready gas accumulates, which leaves the condenser through the opening (P) and the faucet (9) into any container.
The hole (T) in the condenser (8) is used to install a pressure gauge (10), which is necessary to control the pressure in the condenser. It is maintained within 5-10 atmospheres or more mainly with the help of a faucet (11) and partially a faucet (9). A hole (X) and a faucet (11) are required to exit the condenser from unreacted synthesis gas, which is recycled back to the mixer (1) through the hole (A). The faucet (9) is adjusted so that pure liquid gasoline without gas constantly exits. It would be better if the level of gasoline in the condenser will increase than decrease. But the most optimal case is when the gasoline level will be constant (which can be controlled by means of built-in glass or some other way). The faucet (14) is adjusted so that there is no water in the gasoline / and less than more is formed in the mixer of the steam.
Open gas access, water (14) is still closed, burners (12), (13) are working. The faucet (4) is fully open, the compressor (5) is turned on, the faucet (9) is closed, the faucet (11) is fully open.
Then, the water access tap (14) is opened, and the desired pressure in the condenser is controlled by the tap (11), controlling it with a manometer (10). But in no case do not close the faucet (11) completely !!! Then, after five minutes, the temperature in the reactor (6) was adjusted to 200-250 ° C using a valve (14). Then, slightly open the faucet (9), from which a stream of gasoline should go. If it goes constantly, open the faucet more; if it will run gasoline mixed with gas, open the faucet (14). In general, the more you tune the device for better performance, the better. The water content in gasoline (methanol) can be checked with an alcohol meter. The density of methanol is 793 kg / m3.
This device is preferably made of stainless steel or iron.
All parts are made of pipes, copper tubes can be used as thin connecting pipes.
In the refrigerator, it is necessary to keep the ratio X: Y = 4, that is, for example, if X + Y = 300 mm, then X should be equal
Well, that’s probably all. In conclusion, I would like to add that this design for home-made auto fuel was published in one of the issues of Parity magazine.
The method of producing gasoline from gas and water
Comments of the author-inventor Gennady Nikolaevich Vaks.
Question: What is the consideration regarding the number of compressors needed?
Answer: My setting is 74 code, when gasoline cost about 40 kopecks and when I made this machine in vain, it was designed for high pressure and two compressors were needed .
Now we have improved it, calculated, it turns out that you can conduct the process by supplying normalized air.
This simplification appeared due to the creation of pressure surges in a magnetic reactor.
There, inside the medium, impulses resembling pops arise.
These claps and their generator are the invention that we introduced into the development.
Most of the things that we described in connection with the methanol installation are well known.
I am not a chemist, I am a physicist and took data from literature.
What we have also introduced is a very compact heat exchanger.
And the last : if in classical methanol production reactors (there are a lot of them, they are common), usually the particle size distribution of spherical catalyst granules is from 1 to
Question: You recommend three catalysts: copper oxide, zinc oxide and cobalt oxide. With cobalt, the position is very difficult. Does the use of cobalt slightly increase the efficiency?
Answer: I can not say. The chemical composition of the catalyst itself is taken from classic books. The first methanol plants worked with zinc oxide catalyst only. This is, in principle, zinc white, white powder. But in the future, chemists began to make and on copper oxide and chromium oxide, cobalt oxide. There are a huge number of reports. The SPSL has a whole rack. These catalysts are more effective than zinc oxide. The proposed method - grinding of old " silver " coins, they consist of nickel and copper - gives a good catalyst. They, these sawdust, must, of course, be burned, oxidized.
Question: And you can not add chrome?
Answer: You can not add. Apparently, the optimal catalyst is not yet known. So I think that you just have to try.
Question: The circuit must be tight. But the catalysts will need to be removed and loaded.
Answer: As for welding this system. We recorded that the synthesis reaction occurs at 350 ° C. Therefore, if they had given a fitting according to the scheme and someone had done a little wrong, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and vaporous methanol could leak into the room, and the gases would be dangerous. We made a recommendation - to brew, and this recommendation, in principle, remains. Well, if someone makes an opening stopper with all the precautions, of course with a copper gasket, and not some other one there, to guarantee the tightness of the process and at the same time dismantling , it is probably possible. But there is no certainty, so one must not be too lazy - to brew, then boil, pour and pour over again, with argon.
Question: The converter circuit is given in the magazine, but there is no indication of a technological hole anywhere.
Answer: Any technological hole is suitable, so that only powder can be filled. Regarding the need for powder compaction, I want to emphasize again the following. The converter has both an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent - methane and oxygen. In the sinuses, this mixture is explosive, but if it is in some kind of powder medium, there is no danger. In the acetylene tanks in the pipeline, copper flame arrears are always laid, since the flame does not pass back through the capillary. Therefore, we say: it is necessary to fill the converter, shake and fill again. So that there are no sinuses. In the sinuses may not be big, but an explosion, cotton.
Question: Is a vertical arrangement of the reactor mandatory ?
Answer: Vertical is required.
Question: Can high-temperature coolers be horizontal?
Answer: There are several subtleties that must be observed. Recently people came: they did - and they went gas through the pipe. But they put a collector, well, of the type on the sink, a knee so that water could pass, but gas could not.
Question: You write - you need to warm up before starting. That is, a high temperature heat exchanger ...
Answer: If you noticed, the process is described in several formulas. Initially, in the absence of oxygen. The reaction is endothermic, absorption of heat. It will not take place if you do not let the heat down. After you supply oxygen, increasing the pressure - you have a special screw there - already the burning starts to go. In principle, this is not burning, it is incomplete oxidation. But even then it comes with the release of heat. And you already do not need burners. They are needed only at the beginning of the process.
Question: Ejector: there, according to the scheme in the magazine, an outlet for methane
Answer: There is a small mistake, it needs to be fixed.
Question: And what kind of mesh should be in front of the ejector against clogging?
Answer: Yes, it is necessary to limit the grid. I overlooked this, thanks for the amendment.
Question: Is it possible to make the loading hole of the catalytic pump collapsible? If possible, then how to seal?
Answer: The catalytic pump is the most critical part. It’s better to brew it. In principle, the pump should last a very long time. The main disease of all reactors where a catalyst is used - a catalyst, after some time, as chemists say, is poisoned. Let's say you have an admixture in the gas - sulfur or something. A film appears on the surface of the granules. Due to the vibration that we produce, the catalyst cleans itself. This is also facilitated by the fact that ferrite is more abrasive than zinc oxide - it is very soft. Therefore, surface poisoning is eliminated, and the performance of the catalyst is extended.
Question: What is the diameter of the dispersant ?
Question: How is the percentage of methane and water regulated?
Answer: It is regulated by temperature and, in turn, by voltage and the degree of vibration. In general, this process is very complicated. The system of instrumentation for such processes occupies a solid room. I was at the Tallinn methanol plant and saw. The most complicated system. Of course, we could not repeat it. But still, we have reduced the process, all this instrumentation, all this feedback to one wick. The smaller the flame, the means, the less you have left unreacted methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide. The more they do not enter into reaction, the more there will be a wick of flame at the exit. And you will optimize the process yourself. Because the gas flows uniformly from the network, this is a constant. The main task for the operator is to make the wick shrink. To this end, both the temperature should be regulated on the dispersant , and the supplied air. Spend a day or two and learn how to regulate.
Question: An ejector mixer is shown, but the size of the feed tube is not given.
Answer: This diameter does not matter much. It can be 8-10 millimeters.
Question: Is gas pressure in the trunk enough?
Answer: There is pressure whatsoever, let it be so. You all the same cannot but increase it, not reduce it.
Question: And the air pressure?
Answer: It really does not matter. Why do we have this pressure sensor on the compressor, more precisely the pressure regulator. The fact is that this oxygen reaction should have very accurate indicators - from 2 to 4 percent oxygen relative to methane. Methane should be 98 - 96%. In fact, we have a compressor with this pressure regulator playing the role of an oxygen dispenser, so that oxygen enters in a strictly metered amount. If you give more oxygen, then the process will not work, but there will be a simple burning of methane. The task of the compressor is not to make a lot of pressure. All the same, it will settle out of the nozzles, where the ejector is, and will be what the gas pressure in the distribution network is. The compressor is quite reliable, and can operate in continuous mode. If you set the maximum in the refrigerator, the compressor practically works without shutdowns. It has a large margin of safety.
Question: What if freon vapors get in? After all, the compressor is filled with freon oil. J
Answer: If you look carefully, it is made there so that the oil cannot go. You put up the phone and there’s nothing wrong . And if it does, it’ll go through the system, that's all.
Question: Is it possible to replace gas burners with electric heating elements ?
Answer: It is possible.
But is it expensive, probably?
Electricity is more expensive than gas.
Gas can be taken directly from one burner of a gas stove.
Flame length approx. 120 -
Question: How to get ferrite powder?
Answer: I can give advice on where to get it. In the White Church, near Kiev. There is a factory there. It is necessary not iron, but kerit . Need pottery. Iron will be oxidized . Armored cores (J) are good. They are not tough, they are loose, but not all.
Question: But there is probably a simple way to obtain fine ceramics?
Answer: I do in an ordinary mortar, grinding through holes into a rag. First, heat the material in an oven or on gas and then throw it into water. It does not burst, but is covered with small cracks, after which it can be crushed in a mortar.
Question: Brew the heat exchanger?
Answer: You can brew. You will not have any problems with him.
Question: How tight is the temperature control?
Answer: Not very hard. Within 100оС. You could, of course, offer a thermocouple. But most people would not be able to graduate . Platinum thermocouples are also very expensive. The easiest way is thermal paints or even alloys. Each has its own melting point. There should be an alloy like high-melting solder.
Question: How to start the installation?
Answer: Turn on the burner first. Throughout the system, gas is released. First of all, light the wick. Gas begins to pass through the dispersant and is saturated with water. On the final canister, at the very end, you light the wick, the wick starts to burn strongly. The gas just burns. Nothing else happens. And turn on the entire electrical part. That is, the dispersant is already starting to work actively, saturation is active, the burners are on. The temperature rises to 350 - 800 ° C. The conversion of methane begins, which turns into carbon monoxide and hydrogen. And partially methane remains untouched. Carbon dioxide appears along the way. Excess water is still coming. The process is endothermic, that is, with heat absorption. Gradually start to blow air. This process, including on , will last 40-50 minutes. While the heat exchangers are warming up, the wick will burn with varying strength. The conversion is heat. Then the process will go on its own, it starts to swing itself. I specifically wrote - where is the heat release, where is the absorption.
Question: What is the expected service life of such an installation?
Answer: The installation will work for a long time, so the life of the catalyst will limit continuous operation.
Here a lot depends on the contamination of the gas, on the properties of the catalyst.
If there is a lot of sulfur in the gas, sulfuric acid can form; it is aggressive at high temperatures.
I apologize for the change in the parameters of the tubes for the refrigerator.
The first issues mentioned that they are thick-walled,
Question: Is the use of two heat exchangers justified? Can I do one?
Answer: That is, do not heat up the dispersant ? Then you will spend excess heat, excess electricity.
Question: But there will be one heat exchanger.
Answer: In order for evaporation to occur, heat must be constantly supplied. It is necessary that the water be in a certain ratio. Humidity greater than 100% cannot be achieved. But at 100% humidity, the amount of water at different temperatures is different. The higher the temperature, the less moisture at the same percentage of moisture (? J). A dispersant can create 100% humidity in an air bubble. But in order for this humidity to have a certain amount of water in grams per cubic meter of gas, a certain temperature is also needed. You need to maintain 80-90 ° C and regulate the temperature of the water in the dispersant . Depending on this adjustment, you will have different amounts of water per cubic meter of gas. And our formula determines this ratio.
Question: Homemade pressure valve. Is it possible KIPovsky , needle?
Answer: It is possible. It is completely safe here. If the pressure in the system becomes more than the pressure with which the ball presses the spring, then the ball is wrung out and excess gas is vented.
Question: Then what pressure should be?
Answer: And then you are watching. You, in principle, the compressor of the refrigerator develops pressure up to 2.5 atm. You, most likely, will need 1-2 atm. But you do not need to put a pressure gauge. You only adjust the wick.
Question: How to insulate the upper chamber of the converter?
Answer: It must be insulated from the outside. There are a lot of different thermal insulation, just once we learned how to make them from ordinary silicate clerical glue. It can withstand temperatures up to 15000oS.
Question: Can I put the converter-reactor close to the installation?
The distance should be 3-
Question: In the converter reactor we have a height
Answer: The mixing chamber and the storage chamber must be
Question: Outlet diameter?
Answer: This is the chimney you have.
Here are 50-
Question: Here it is shown purely schematically - methanol discharge from below. And if in a canister ...
Answer: No, it is impossible.
Question: ... if the tube goes to the bottom ...
Answer: If the tube to the bottom will be possible. It is important not to pour methanol on top.
Question: What is the size of the catalyst particles in the reactor , since the size of the mesh cell depends on this?
Answer: 0.05 -
Question: Do we do the right thing by designing fittings at the outlet and inlet of the reactor, bearing in mind that the connections of the reactor with other units of the installation are made by stainless tubes?
Answer: The fittings are shown conditionally. The tubes are welded.
Question: What is the fundamental need for the use of compressors from refrigerators?
Answer: In their durability, reliability, noiselessness, availability.
Question: What pressure should a sealed canister withstand?
Answer: There is no pressure in the canister.
Methanol as a substitute for gasoline
Advice and experience from practitioners who made the installation and ride on methanol
Gennady Ivanovich Fedan , mechanic, inventor, he has many of his own developments. His particular hobby is the car. By profession, he is a mining engineer, a graduate of Donetsk Polytechnic University. Working at one time as a speedway maintenance mechanic , I became acquainted with the use of methanol.
About eight years since we started using methanol in a car. Over the course of the first two years, we fought against corrosion. Condensation of water formed, it was necessary to somehow neutralize it. Mostly corrosion hit the piston system. In Zaporozhets, the engine itself is cast iron, and the carburetor is duralumin. The piston system is steel. Corroded valves, valve seats. We tried adding castor oil. It greatly enhances compression. Aircraft modelers, for example, use methanol by adding 15% castor oil. But there is a lot of corrosion: after each use of this mixture, everything must be washed.
We saved ourselves from this by adding aviation oil.
I must say that methanol is in many respects very attractive as automobile fuel. With its use, the pressure temperature (?) Is significantly reduced. By the way , our engine is old, rather worn out, and it works perfectly with methanol. At speeds above average, it makes sense to add water. In this case, the fuel supply of the engine increases. I am experimentally specifying the dosage so far. I am developing the installation so that there is a metered addition of water, depending on the operating mode of the engine. As soon as the high revs go, the injection begins.
Suppose, for some reason, you need to temporarily or permanently switch to gasoline. For these cases, I simplified the adjustment of the nozzle of the main fuel system. The fact is that under methanol, the cross section must be increased. If you leave the nozzle as it was for gasoline, then when using methanol, power will drop. To avoid this, you need to increase the cross section of the nozzle, and the engine will work perfectly.
In winter, the engine with methanol starts much easier than with gasoline, literally within a few seconds.
There is no detonation at all.
Another positive point.
Often I had to provide assistance to the owners of the "Lada", which formed an ice plug in the fuel path.
It now happens all the time.
Sell gasoline diluted with water.
On the eye, this can not be determined.
A man bought, flooded - and that’s it.
In winter, an ice plug forms in the fuel system.
We have to disassemble the engine, flush it all.
Motorists spend up to two days on this.
Meanwhile, the plug can be eliminated in literally two hours.
Help for Methanolschikov
In the August 1991 issue of the Auto Review newspaper, there was an article entitled “Gasoline Plant ... in a Barn”.
It says that a unique installation for the production of gasoline was developed by the Novosibirsk Research and Engineering Center “ Zeosit ”.
It can be placed in a freight car and received from
By chance, in a search engine, I came across your publication and became very interested in its contents. After a brief acquaintance, inaccuracies made by the author immediately surfaced.
Information about the " methanol " was published in the journal "Priority" in N 2,3 for 1991 , and not in the "Parity" as stated in the article, but a completely finished project was not published (as far as I know). In these numbers were drawings of the reactor with the control circuitry and the design of the cooler, after which Mr. Vaks (author of the article) politely apologized and informed that further publication was stopped at the request of the power structures of the USSR and for those who want to repeat this installation the field of creativity is unlimited.
I would be very pleased to familiarize myself with this project in more detail (if this is not another soap opera).
I return to the inaccuracies of the article: the catalyst of the rivers for the 2nd reactor is not GIAL-16, but GIAP-16 (data on the manufacture of catalysts can be found in the book "Technology of catalysts" edited by I.P. Mukhlenov et al. 1989. )
It is strictly forbidden to supply water directly from the tap to the reactor as it contains chlorine , which instantly poisons the catalyst of the 2nd reactor, the same applies to gas, which contains impurities of sulfur and active organic substances.
In my installation, I used distilled water and monoethanolamine gas purification ; all this gives a good result.
After a more detailed study of your article, many inaccuracies surfaced that we will consider a little later.
This information is for those who seek to get the source, i.e. publication of the Priority magazine, I personally received the journal number data by cash on delivery , sending a request to the address: M. Oskva, B.Kommunisticheskaya St., 44, the editors of the Priority magazine tel. editions 272-62-38, 272-27-72 (this was in 1993). I could have thrown off my magazines , but about 3 years ago they asked me to get acquainted with the article and did not return it. I only have the 1st issue of the journal , from where the address and tel. editorial staff.
We turn to the consideration of inaccuracies in the description of the circuit diagram of the apparatus by nodes.
Stage 1 - as mentioned earlier, water and gas must be cleaned so as not to poison the catalysts 2 and 6 of the reactors immediately.
More precisely, we adhere to the ratio of pairs : gas as 2: 1. There should not be a return of unreacted products to the 1st step.
The 2nd stage - methane conversion begins at t ~ = 400 * C, but at such a t low percentage of converted gas , the most optimal t = 700 * C, it is desirable to control it using a chromel-alumel thermocouple. The catalyst can be used with GIAP-3, it is easier to manufacture .
Refrigerator 4 - I recommend making my own for each stage , this will further facilitate t adjustment and not use a coil for these purposes, it is better to turn to the source there is a rational grain.
Reactor 6 will turn to the source better, it more clearly describes the principle of operation of the reactor with an electromagnetic pump and describes a method of manufacturing an electromagnetic pump. Data on catalysis can be found in the book of Mukhlenov .
After the reactor, in my installation there is a refrigerator, a manometer and a pressure reducing valve configured for a pressure of 25-35at (the choice of pressure depends on the degree of catalyst wear). I used 2 compressors to pump the synthesis gas .
Condenser 8- I advise you to make it not cylindrical , but conical (this is done to reduce the methanol evaporation area) with a window to control the level of methanol. The reacted products are brought in from above the cone using a f8 mm tube. The felling is lowered into the conical vessel below the throttling outlet 9 by 10 mm.
Unreacted synthesis gas is discharged through a f5 mm tube. which is welded to the top of the cone , the outgoing gas is supplied through the control valve to the nozzle where it is burned. The methanol level is maintained 2/3 of the total height of the vessel.
With this I will complete a brief analysis of the article. For those who are going to repeat this installation, I highly recommend that you read the literature on this topic, and especially with the book edited by I. Goykhrakh and others. "Chemistry and technology of artificial liquid fuel" 1954. Editions (a starovt book, but sensible).