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§ 17 Reactive power generators.


Foreword.

Consider also a whole pleiad of ways, called "Generator of reactive power". Before considering specific ways, consider what reactive energy is in its physical essence. Reactive energy is the energy that goes into creating an electrical (capacitor) or magnetic (inductor) field, and which does not produce useful work. Simply put, first a capacitor or a coil takes energy from the grid to create a field, and then, after a voltage drop, they give this energy back to the network. I told of course much simplistic (but forgive me electricians), but in its essence it is approximately correct. All inductors are reactive power consumers, and capacitors are reactive power generators.
There are of course also such devices as synchronous motors, which, depending on the excitation current, can be both generators and reactive power consumers, but they are not used anywhere in the home and therefore we will not consider them.
Therefore, how many do not charge the capacitor with active elements - transistors, thyristors, etc., more energy than the capacitor reserves, it will not give up.
All inductive counters record only active energy. To this end, there are adjusting elements inside the counter, detailed description of which is given in § 7. If the counter is set correctly (its internal angle is set correctly (see § 6.7), then the capacitors or inductors should not be connected to the counter, and only if these settings are violated when connecting a capacitor (a generator of reactive power), the counter may be slightly thrown back. But in order to bring down the meter settings, it is necessary to remove all its seals, remove it from the shield, wind the tail and put it I hope that the settings were knocked down to you, in my opinion small enough, and you do not need to buy any methods to check it. You need to take a capacious non-electrolytic capacitor (200-300 μF) and plug it in If the counter even shudders is good, even if in the most successful case, the savings are unlikely to exceed 5 percent, that is, you will be saving at least half a year for a hundred rubles.
As for electronic meters, they take into account the active and reactive energy in both directions and connect the capacitors to the network exactly by the drum.

So let's consider the specifics:

Method No. 12 is a "capacitor". (from Pozitrona)

Slowing down the speed of the three-phase electricity meter can be done in the following way: We take not the electrolytic capacitor 200 μF, 630 V. We sequentially turn on the capacitor between phases AB, A-C, B-C, observing the disk of the electric meter. In this case, the electricity meter must be unloaded. Where the disk starts to spin back we leave the capacitor.
In this way, we can "save" up to 5% of electricity without consideration. At that without the need of access to the electricity meter.
The basis of this method are the unequal parameters of the measuring elements of the electric meter, where the error spread often ranges from + 3% to -3%. Usually the accuracy class of the accuracy of the measuring transformers 1.5 means that the oscillations from the normative can vary ± 1.5%, but the probability that on one and the same counter one current transformer will be + 1.5% and the other -1, 5% is so small that you can not even talk about it . So even saving at 1% is unlikely . Savings are achieved and so by compensating for reactive power and reducing losses in the circulation of reactive power. But this and so are engaged in the energy industry. As they wrote in the Soviet times, " Increasing cos j is an important national economic task !" . But the consumption of reactive power in the scale of the apartment is small enough, so leave the economy alone. The reactive current of the capacitor for the element of phase A (example) coincides with the voltage vector A-0, and for the phase opposite to the voltage vector B-0. There is always a pair of phases A-B, A-C, B-C that satisfies our wishes.

In addition, I can say that this can also be done with inductors (throttle), but easier by means of a capacitor. The larger the capacity of the capacitor, the greater the "economy".

Conclusion: it will not work

The other day we sent the first version of the positron device, asking to comment. Let's get acquainted with the contents of the sent description, the text of the original description is italicized, I will mark out my comments in bold.
Principle of operation: In the first half-wave of the mains voltage, the keys A and D are opened, C1 is charged, reactive power is consumed cos f = 0 (if you believe the books, the reactive power is multiplied by the sine phi, and not by the cosine) , and P = 0 since P = U * I * cos f. In the second half-wave keys C and B are opened, C1 is discharged. Because the voltage on the capacitor is higher than in the network, at the beginning of the second half-cycle, the energy is sent to the network, cos f? 0, and also to P? 0. Let's look at the time diagrams sent by the positron.

Fig. 6. Timing diagrams

Like the diagrams correspond to the described principle, let's think further. We plug the capacitor directly into the socket ... What is the cost of the meter? Of course, he does not think reactive power, you say ... not exactly, just in the first and third quarter-periods, the capacitor is charged, the sine fi has a positive sign, but in the second and fourth quarter periods, the capacitor discharges into the network and the sine fi l acquires negative sign. Thus, the average power consumed by the capacitor is 0.

There is also a whole class of devices, which for some reason are called reactive power generators. But on closer inspection it turns out that this is all a reincarnation of the method "Electronic No. 13", which I described in great detail in the paragraph

Reactive power generator 1 kW .
Theoretical basis

The operation of the device is based on the fact that the current sensors of electric meters, including electronic ones, contain an input induction transducer having a low sensitivity to high-frequency currents. This fact makes it possible to introduce a significant negative error in the accounting, if the consumption is carried out by pulses of high frequency. Another feature is that the meter is a power direction relay, ie if a source (for example a diesel generator) is fed by the electrical network itself, the counter rotates in the opposite direction. The only question is where to get this diesel generator and especially diesel to it.

These factors allow you to create a simulator generator. The main element of such a device is a capacitor of a suitable capacity. Condenser for a quarter of the network voltage period is infected from the network by high frequency pulses. At a certain frequency value (depending on the characteristics of the input converter of the counter), the counter takes into account only a quarter of the actual energy consumed. In the second quarter of the period, the capacitor is discharged back into the network directly, without high-frequency switching. Method number 13 in its pure form, about which almost everything is said. The meter takes into account all the energy that feeds the network. In fact, the energy of the charge and discharge of the capacitor is the same, but only the second is taken into account, creating an imitation of the generator feeding the network. The counter in this case counts in the opposite direction with a speed proportional to the difference in unit time of the discharge energy and the accounted charge energy. The electronic counter will be completely stopped and will allow consuming energy unaccountably, no more than the energy of the discharge. If the power of the consumer is greater, the counter will subtract the power of the device from it.

In fact, the device leads to the circulation of reactive power in two directions through the counter, in one of which a full account is taken, and in the other, a partial one. The most delusional phrase in the description. That is, we want to have underestimation of active power, but circulates in the opposite direction for some reason reactive power.

Once again I repeat that on electronic counters these dances with a tambourine will not have any impression. If you want to have a generator of reactive energy, it's a capacitor battery and nothing more. Everything that is offered for money is something else, but not a generator, and some devices are unclear for what purposes.