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§ 17 Reactive power generators.


Preface.

Consider also a whole galaxy of ways, called "reactive power generator". Before considering specific methods, let us consider what is reactive energy in its physical essence. Reactive energy is energy that creates an electrical (capacitor) or magnetic (inductor) field and does not produce useful work. Simply put, first, a capacitor or a coil takes energy from the network to create a field, and then, after a voltage drop, it gives this energy back to the network. Of course, he told me greatly simplified (may the electricians forgive me), but in essence it is approximately correct. All inductors are consumers of reactive power, and capacitors are generators of reactive power.
There are, of course, such devices as synchronous motors, which, depending on the magnitude of the excitation current, can be both generators and consumers of reactive power, but in everyday conditions they are not used anywhere and therefore we will not consider them.
Therefore, how many do not weigh the capacitor with active elements - transistors, thyristors, etc., it does not give up more energy than it stores.
All induction meters only record active energy. To do this, there are setting elements inside the meter, the detailed description of which is given in § 7. If the meter is configured correctly (its internal angle is set correctly (see § 6.7), then the connection of capacitors or inductors does not have to make any impression on the meter. And if these settings are violated when a capacitor (reactive power generator) is connected, the meter may slightly move backwards, but in order to knock down the meter settings, you need to remove all its seals, remove it from the shield, wind the tail and put it I’m hoping that the settings were brought down to you is rather small in my opinion. And you don’t need to buy any ways to check it. You need to take a capacitive enough electrolytic capacitor (200-300 uF) and turn it on into the network with no load at all. If the meter even shuddered, it’s good, although even in the most successful case, the savings are unlikely to exceed 5 percent. That is, you will achieve savings of one hundred rubles for at least six months.
As for electronic meters, they take into account active and reactive energy in both directions and the connection of capacitors to the network exactly to them on the drum.

So consider the specifics:

Method number 12 "capacitor". (from Pozitrona)

Slowing down the speed of a three-phase electric meter can be done in the following way: Take a non-electrolytic capacitor 200 microfarads, 630 V. Consistently turn on the capacitor between phases А-В, А-С, В-С watching the meter's disk. In this case, the meter should be unloaded. Where the disk starts to spin back leave the capacitor.
In this way, we can “save” up to 5% of electricity without accounting. With no need to access the meter.
The basis of this method is the unequal parameters of the measuring elements of the meter, where the error spread often reaches from + 3% to - 3%. Usually, the accuracy class of accuracy of measuring transformers is 1.5, which means that fluctuations from standard can differ by ± 1.5%, but the probability that one current transformer on the same counter will be + 1.5%, and the other is -1, 5% is so small that you can’t even talk about it . So even a savings of 1% is unlikely . Savings are achieved by compensating reactive power and reducing losses to circulate reactive power. But this, and so do the energy industry. As they wrote in Soviet times, " Increasing cos j is an important national economic task !" But the consumption of reactive power on the scale of an apartment is quite small, so leave the national economy alone. The reactive current of the capacitor for the element of phase A (example) coincides with the voltage vector A-0, and for the phase against the voltage vector B-0. There will always be a pair of phases AB, A-C, B-C which satisfies our desires.

In addition, I will say that this can be done with inductors (choke), but it is simpler with a capacitor. The larger the capacitor capacity, the greater the “savings”.

Conclusion: will not work

The other day they sent the first version of the positron device, asking for comment. Let's take a look at the content of the submitted description, the text of the original description is in italics, I will highlight my comments in bold.
Principle of operation: In the first half-wave of the mains voltage, keys A and D are opened, C1 is charged, reactive power is consumed cos f = 0 (if you believe the books, reactive power is considered to be multiplied by sine phi and not by cosine) , and P = 0 because P = U * I * cos f. In the second half-wave, the keys C and B are open, C1 is discharged. Since the voltage on the capacitor is higher than in the network, at the beginning of the second half-period the energy is sent to the network, cos f? 0, and therefore P? 0. Let's look at the time diagrams sent by the positron.

Fig. 6. Timing charts

Like the diagrams correspond to the described principle, let's think further. Turn on the capacitor directly to the outlet ... What is the meter worth? Of course, he does not consider reactive power, you say ... not exactly, just the capacitor charges in the first and third quarter periods, the sine of phi has a positive sign, but in the second and fourth quarter periods the capacitor discharges into the network and the sine of phi acquires negative sign. Thus, the average power consumed by the capacitor is 0.

There is also a whole class of devices, which for some reason are called reactive power generators. But upon closer examination, it turns out that this is all a reincarnation of the “Electronic No. 13” method, which I described in great detail in the paragraph

Generator reactive power 1 kW .
Theoretical basis

The operation of the device is based on the fact that current meters of electric meters, including electronic ones, contain an input induction converter having low sensitivity to high frequency currents. This fact allows you to make a significant negative error in the account, if the consumption is carried out by high-frequency pulses. Another feature is that the meter is a power direction relay, that is, if using a source (for example, a diesel generator) to power the electrical network, the meter rotates in the opposite direction. The only question is where to get this diesel generator and especially diesel to it.

These factors allow you to create a simulator generator. The main element of such a device is a capacitor of the appropriate capacity. The capacitor during a quarter of the period of the mains voltage is infected from the network with high frequency pulses. At a certain frequency value (depending on the characteristics of the input converter of the meter), the meter takes into account only a quarter of the actual energy consumed. In the second quarter of the period, the capacitor is discharged back into the network directly, without high-frequency switching. Method number 13 in its pure form, about which almost everything is said. The meter takes into account all the energy supplying the network. In fact, the energy of charge and discharge of the capacitor is the same, but only the second is fully taken into account, creating an imitation of the generator feeding the network. In this case, the counter counts in the opposite direction with a speed proportional to the difference in unit time of the discharge energy and the recorded energy of the charge. The electronic meter will be completely stopped and will allow energy to be consumed without accounting, not more than the value of the discharge energy. If the power of the consumer is greater, then the meter will subtract the power of the device from it.

In fact, the device leads to the circulation of reactive power in two directions through a meter, in one of which full metering is carried out, and in the other - partial. The most crazy phrase in the description. That is, we want to have an underestimate of active power, but for some reason the reactive power circulates in the opposite direction.

Once again, these dances with a tambourine will not have any impression on electronic counters. If you want to have a generator of reactive energy, then this is a capacitor battery and nothing more. All that is offered for money is something else, but not a generator, but some devices are not clear for what purposes.