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§ 17 Generators of reactive power.


Foreword

Consider also a whole galaxy of methods called "Reactive Power Generator". Before considering specific methods, let us consider what is reactive energy in its physical essence. Reactive energy is energy that is used to create an electric (capacitor) or magnetic (inductor) field, and which does not produce useful work. Simply put, first a capacitor or coil takes energy from the network to create a field, and then after a voltage drop they transfer this energy back from the network. Of course, he told me very simplistically (forgive me electricians), but in essence it is approximately correct. All inductors are reactive power consumers, and capacitors are reactive power generators.
Of course, there are also devices such as synchronous motors, which, depending on the strength of the excitation current, can be either generators or consumers of reactive power, but in everyday conditions they are not used anywhere and therefore we will not consider them.
Therefore, how many do not weigh the capacitor with active elements - transistors, thyristors, etc., it will not give up more energy than the capacitor stores.
All induction meters record only active energy. For this, there are tuning elements inside the meter, a detailed description of which is given in § 7. If the meter is configured correctly (its internal angle is correctly set (see § 6.7), then connecting capacitors or inductors should not produce any impression on the meter. if these settings are violated, when the capacitor (reactive power generator) is connected, the meter may slightly move backwards, but in order to reset the meter settings, you need to remove all its seals, remove it from the shield, wind its tail and put all this economy is in place. The hope that the settings have been knocked down to you is, in my opinion, quite small. And you don’t need to buy any methods to check this. You need to take a sufficiently capacious non-electrolytic capacitor (200-300 uF) and turn it on to the network with no load at all. If the meter even starts, it’s good. Although even in the best case, the savings are unlikely to exceed 5 percent. That is, you will achieve savings of one hundred rubles for at least six months.
As for electronic meters, they take into account active and reactive energy in both directions and the connection of capacitors to the network is exactly like a drum for them.

So consider the specifics:

Method number 12 "capacitor". (from Pozitrona)

Slowing the speed of a three-phase electric meter can be carried out in the following way: We take a non-electrolytic capacitor 200 microfarads, 630 V. We successively turn on the capacitor between phases A-B, A-C, B-C while observing the disk of the electric meter. In this case, the electric meter must be unloaded. Where the disk starts spinning back, we leave the capacitor.
In this way, we can “save” up to 5% of energy without taking into account. Moreover, without the need for access to the electric meter.
The basis of this method is the unequal parameters of the measuring elements of the electric meter where the error spread often reaches from + 3% to - 3%. Typically, the accuracy accuracy class of measuring transformers is 1.5, which means that the fluctuations from the standard can vary ± 1.5%, but the probability that one current transformer will be + 1.5% on the same meter and -1 on the other, 5% is so small that you can’t even talk about it . So even a 1% savings is unlikely . Savings are achieved already by compensating for reactive power and reducing losses in the circulation of reactive power. But the energy of industrial enterprises is already doing this. As they wrote in Soviet times, Raising cos j is an important national economic task !” But the consumption of reactive power on an apartment scale is quite small, so leave the national economy alone. The capacitor reactive current for phase A element (example) coincides with voltage vector A-0, and for phase it is opposite voltage vector B-0. There will always be a pair of phases AB, AC, BC, which satisfies our desires.

In addition, I will say that this can also be done with inductors (inductor), but it is easier by means of a capacitor. The larger the capacitance, the greater the “savings”.

Conclusion: will not work

The other day they sent the first version of the positron device, with a request for comment. Let's get acquainted with the content of the submitted description, the text of the original description is in italics, I will highlight my comments in bold.
How it works: In the first half-wave of the mains voltage, the keys A and D are open, C1 is charged, reactive power cos f = 0 is consumed (according to books, reactive power is considered to be multiplication by the sine phi, and not by the cosine) , and also P = 0 because P = U * I * cos f. In the second half-wave, the keys C and B are open, C1 is discharged. Because the voltage on the capacitor is higher than in the network, at the beginning of the second half-cycle, the energy is transferred to the network, cos f? 0, and also P? 0. Let's look at the time diagrams sent by the positron.

Fig. 6. Timing diagrams

It seems that the diagrams correspond to the described principle, let's think further. We plug the capacitor directly into the outlet ... What does the meter cost? Of course, he doesn’t think of reactive power, you say ... not quite so, just in the first and third quarter-periods the capacitor charges, the sine phi has a positive sign, but in the second and fourth quarter the capacitor discharges into the network and acquires the sine phi negative sign. Thus, the average power consumed by the capacitor is 0.

There is still a whole class of devices, which for some reason are called reactive power generators. But upon closer examination, it turns out that this is all the reincarnation of the Electronic No. 13 method, which I described in great detail in the paragraph

1 kW reactive power generator .
Theoretical basis

The operation of the device is based on the fact that the current sensors of electric meters, including electronic ones, contain an input induction converter having low sensitivity to high-frequency currents. This fact makes it possible to introduce a significant negative error into account if consumption is carried out by high-frequency pulses. Another feature - the counter is a power direction relay, that is, if using some source (for example, a diesel generator) to power the electrical network itself, the counter rotates in the opposite direction. The only question is where to get this diesel generator and especially diesel fuel to it.

These factors allow you to create a generator simulator. The main element of such a device is a capacitor of the appropriate capacity. The capacitor for a quarter of the period of the mains voltage is infected from the network with high frequency pulses. At a certain value of the frequency (depending on the characteristics of the input converter of the meter), the meter takes into account only a quarter of the actually consumed energy. In the second quarter of the period, the capacitor is discharged back into the network directly, without high-frequency switching. Method number 13 in its pure form, about which almost everything has been said. The meter takes into account all the energy that feeds the network. In fact, the energy of the charge and discharge of the capacitor is the same, but only the second is fully taken into account, creating an imitation of the generator that supplies the network. The counter then counts in the opposite direction with a speed proportional to the difference per unit time of the discharge energy and the taken into account charge energy. The electronic meter will be completely stopped and will allow energy to be consumed without consideration, no more than the value of the discharge energy. If the consumer’s power is greater, then the meter will subtract the device’s power from it.

In fact, the device leads to the circulation of reactive power in two directions through the meter, in one of which full metering is carried out, and in the other partial. The most crazy phrase in the description. That is, we want to have an underestimation of active power, but for some reason reactive power is circulating in the opposite direction.

I repeat once again that these dances with a tambourine will not have any impression on electronic meters. If you want to have exactly a reactive energy generator, then this is a capacitor bank and nothing more. All that is offered for money is something else, but not a generator, and some devices are not clear for what purposes.