Biography and Key Dates of Life of Nikola Tesla
They say that geniuses send heaven to Earth. Each - with some kind of his own, special super-task. But the Lord sent Nicolo Tesla, probably, too soon. When will his time come?
New York, East Houston Street, 48. A strange scientist, unsociable, with a feverish gleam of black eyes lived at this address. Rumor had it that he was "a relative of Count Dracula" and the vampire himself, could not stand sunlight ... They also said that he created a weapon that could smash the globe to pieces.
In fact, Nikola Tesla had nothing to do with Dracula. On the contrary, he was born into the family of an Orthodox priest. And he really avoided sunlight - because he often fell under the influence of powerful electromagnetic fields and his nerves acquired special sensitivity. The bright light hurt the eyes, the quiet rustling sounded like peals of thunder. But he saw perfectly in the dark.
Rumors of destructive weapons were also born from scratch. Once Tesla conducted a series of experiments, studying the processes of self-oscillations. And suddenly shook the tables and cabinets in the laboratory. Then the windows in the windows rang ...
Passers-by on the streets heard a strange rumble. The buildings vibrated, glass fell from the windows, gas and heating pipes, water pipes burst. It was a Great New York earthquake.
They say that the whole city did not lie in ruins just because Tesla turned off the appliances on time. True, official science claims that the experiment simply coincided in time with a natural cataclysm. But there is another opinion - the vibration of the earth was caused by the work of its installation. This possibility does not seem completely improbable. After all, we are talking about Nicola Tesla!
This great inventor is undeservedly rarely mentioned in physics textbooks. He discovered alternating current, fluorescent light, wireless power transmission, built the first electric clock, a turbine, a solar-powered engine. He invented the radio before Marconi and Popov, received a three-phase current before Dolivo-Dobrovolsky. On his patents, in essence, all the energy of the twentieth century grew. But this was not enough for him. Tesla worked on the energy problem of the entire Universe for several decades. He studied what the sun and the stars move. He tried to learn how to manage cosmic energy. And connect with other worlds. All this Tesla did not consider his merit. He assured me that he simply performed the role of a conductor of ideas coming from the ether.
Permanent is good; variable is better
The ingenious inventor was born in Serbia in the town of Smilyan on July 9, 1856. Already in his youth, Tesla looked demonically: tall, thin, sunken cheeks, a gaze of burning eyes. From childhood, he was haunted by strange visions: flashes of light invisible to others. Sometimes for many hours he plunged into the contemplation of some other, unknown worlds, so vivid that he confused them with reality. From this almost insanity completely rational technical ideas were born. The young man was especially fascinated by electricity. The fact that fiery zigzags cut through the sky and strewed with tender sparkles from the hair of a caressed cat.
The father saw in the son of the future priest. But against his will, Nikola went to study at the Higher Technical School of Graz (Austria), then - at the University of Prague. In his second year, it dawned on the idea of an induction alternator. The professor, with whom Tesla shared the idea, considered it delusional. But this conclusion only spurred the inventor, and in 1882, already working in Paris, he built a working model.
In 1884, Tesla went to conquer America. To Thomas Edison - with a recommendation from a Paris acquaintance: "I know two great people. One of them is you, the second is this young man."
Nicola got to New York with adventures. First things first he was robbed. The traveler arrived in America hungry, without luggage, with four cents in his pocket. And he immediately became convinced that this was a country of great opportunities: he saw people on Broadway trying to fix an electric motor, and immediately earned $ 20.
Edison took the young electrical engineer to his company, but friction between the inventors began immediately. Because they had different approaches to solving creative problems. Edison liked only what made a profit immediately. Tesla was doing what was interesting. All the works of the eminent American were based on direct current. And then some Serb with burning eyes interprets an alternating current. Edison tried so hard to prove the danger of Tesla's ideas that he did not hesitate to defiantly kill the dog with alternating current. But it didn’t help. Won - we know what. After all, alternating current flows through the wires in our apartments.
Free air son
The main cause of the gap was ... a divergence of views on the origin of electricity. Edison adhered to the well-known theory of "motion of charged particles," Tesla had a different vision.
In his theory of electricity, the fundamental concept was ether - a kind of invisible substance that fills the whole world and transmits vibrations at a speed many times higher than the speed of light. Each millimeter of space, Tesla believed, is saturated with unlimited, infinite energy, which you only need to be able to extract.
Theorists of modern physics have not been able to interpret Tesla's views on physical reality. Why didn’t he formulate his theory? Was he the spiritual harbinger of a new civilization in which the only, inexhaustible source of energy would be the asynchrony of various levels of physical processes, that is, Time itself?
After breaking up with Edison, Teslu was taken over by the famous industrialist George Westinghouse, the founder of Westinghouse Electric. In the process of working for the company, he receives patents for multiphase electric machines, for an asynchronous electric motor, and for an electric power transmission system by means of alternating multiphase current.
And at the same time, it is developing new, unprecedented methods of energy transfer. How do we connect any electrical appliance to the network? With a fork - i.e. two conductors. If we connect only one, there will be no current - the circuit is not closed. And Tesla demonstrated power transmission through a single conductor. Or no wires at all.
During his lecture on the electromagnetic field of high frequency in front of scientists of the Royal Academy, he turned on and off the electric motor remotely, in his hands light bulbs themselves lit up. In some, there wasn’t even a spiral - just an empty flask. It was 1892!
After the lecture, physicist John Relay invited Tesla to his office and solemnly proclaimed, pointing to the chair: "Please sit down. This is the chair of the great Faraday. After his death, no one was sitting in it."
Visitors to the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago watched in horror as a thin, nervous scientist with a ridiculous surname passed an electric current of two million volts daily through himself. In theory, no coal should have remained from the experimenter. And Tesla smiled as if nothing had happened, and in his hands electric lamps burned brightly. We now know that it is not the voltage that kills, but the current strength, and that the high-frequency current passes only along the surface covers. Then this trick seemed like a miracle.
This crazy inventor
In 1895, Westinghouse commissioned the world's largest Niagara hydroelectric station. Powerful Tesla generators worked on it. Then the inventor designed a number of radio-controlled self-propelled mechanisms - "teleautomats". At Madison Square Garden, he demonstrated remote control of small boats. People thought it was witchcraft.
Those who managed to visit the Tesla laboratory with horror recalled how the inventor juggled luminous clots of energy in the air - ball lightning - and put them in a suitcase.
In 1898, Tesla attached a device to an iron beam in the attic of the building in which the laboratory was located. Soon, the walls of the surrounding houses began to vibrate and people in a panic surged into the street. Of course, these are tricks of the "crazy inventor"! Journalists and police immediately rushed to Tesla's house, but Tesla managed to turn off and destroy his vibrator. “I could bring down the Brooklyn Bridge in an hour,” he later admitted. And he assured that it is possible to split the Earth, you only need a suitable vibrator and an accurate calculation of time.
At the end of the century before last in Colorado Springs, a tower with a large copper sphere at the top was built for Tesla's experiments. There, the scientist generated potentials that were discharged by lightning arrows up to 40 meters long. The experiments were accompanied by thunder peals. Around the tower was a huge ball of light. People on the streets shied with fear, watching with horror as sparks jump between their legs and the ground. Horses received electroshock strikes through iron horseshoes. Even the butterflies "helplessly circled on their wings, beating with trickles of blue halos." The "lights of St. Elmo" shone on metal objects.
All this electric phantasmagoria was arranged not to frighten people. The purpose of the experiments was different: for twenty-five miles from the tower 200 light bulbs at once lit up. An electric charge was transmitted wirelessly through the ground.
World Communication Tower
In the end, high-profile experiments in Colorado Springs destroyed a generator at a local power station, and had to return to New York, where in 1900, on behalf of banker John Pirpont Morgan, Tesla set about building the World Wireless Power Transmission Station. The project was based on the idea of resonant buildup of the ionosphere, provided for the participation of 2,000 people and was called "Wardenclyffe".
On the island of Long Island, the construction of a huge science campus began. The main structure was a 57-meter-tall frame tower with a huge copper “plate” at the top - a giant amplifying transmitter. And with a steel shaft deepened into the ground by 36 meters. A test launch of an unprecedented structure took place in 1905 and had a tremendous effect. “Tesla lit the sky over the ocean for thousands of miles,” newspapers wrote.
The second tower - to transmit powerful energy flows without wires - the inventor intended to build near Niagara Falls. But the project was a huge cost. All of Tesla’s money went into this hole. But Morgan realized that a superstation is unlikely to provide commercial benefits. Moreover, on December 12, 1900, Marconi sent the first transatlantic signal from English Cornwall to Canada. His communication system turned out to be more promising.
Although Tesla built the first wave radio transmitter in 1893, years ahead of Marconi (in 1943, the U.S. Supreme Court confirmed Tesla's priority), he admitted to Morgan that he was not interested in communication, but in wireless transmission of energy anywhere in the world. But this was not part of Morgan's plans, and he stopped funding.
And when the First World War began, the American government, worried about the possibility of using the tower by enemy scouts, decided to blow it up. So Tesla’s blue dream of informational unification of the world collapsed.
Lonely somersault in the alleys of the park
After the failure of Wordencliff, Tesla sold part of his patents for $ 15 million. He became rich and independent. He founded his laboratory in New York. And completely surrendered to scientific research.
He wore expensive suits, was a welcome guest in any aristocratic house, and brides from the highest circle peered at him. But Tesla avoided dinner parties, and women, too. Journalists dubbed him the "lone wolf" - for many hours of walking. They stimulated the work of thought.
Tesla's obsession with science knew no bounds. He set aside four hours for sleep, of which two usually went to think about ideas. "Technical solutions themselves came to mind." Tesla took a patent for a patent, inventions poured from a cornucopia.
In addition to electrical engineering, Tesla was professionally engaged in linguistics, wrote poetry. He fluently spoke eight languages, knew music and philosophy very well ... Tesla lived in the most expensive hotels. The servant was surprised that he daily demanded eighteen fresh towels. If a fly was sitting on the table during dinner, forcing the waiter to bring a new order. Today's psychiatrist would easily make a diagnosis - an exacerbated form of mesophobia (fear of germs).
Tesla's phobias and obsessions were combined with amazing energy. Walking along the street, he could do a backflip in a sudden impulse. Or stop at the park alley and memorize a couple of chapters from Faust. Sometimes it froze and stood for a long time, thinking intensely about something, not noticing anyone around.
The inventor himself claimed that he could completely disconnect his brain from the outside world. And in this state “flashes of enthusiasm”, “inner vision” and “bouts of hypersensitivity” descended upon him. In these minutes, the scientist believed, his consciousness penetrated into the mysterious subtle world.
Rutherford called him the "inspired prophet of electricity." Indeed, Tesla knew everything about electricity! It was he who predicted the possibility of treating patients with high-frequency current, the appearance of electric furnaces, fluorescent lamps, and an electron microscope.
The squares and streets of New York were illuminated by Tesla's arc lamps. The enterprises operated its electric motors, rectifiers, electric generators, transformers, high-frequency equipment. Although Marconi received his first patent in the field of radio, many of his other applications were rejected because Tesla managed to get a lot of patents for improvements in radio equipment. In 1917, Tesla proposed the principle of operation of a device for radio detection of submarines.
What the Martians whispered
Tesla did not patent many of his discoveries, did not even leave drawings. Most of his diaries and manuscripts were not preserved, and only fragmentary information has survived to this day. And hundreds of legends. Tesla is also credited with the Tunguska catastrophe (1908). The Vordencliffe Tower through the ionosphere could well transmit tremendous energy to another part of the world. But the meteorite was never found: True, he left the project in 1905. But all the equipment stood still: There is a suspicion that Tesla created a time machine, or something like that.
He himself assured that he received his technical and scientific revelations from a single information field of the Earth. The radio waves of his devices spread there, from there he received signals inaudible to anyone.
In 1926, Tesla installed radio masts in Waldorf-Astoria and in his laboratory in New York. And he caught the mysterious signals of technogenic nature of unknown origin, one of the possible sources of which he called Mars. In the newspapers of that time, you can find mocking notes about the connections of the mad inventor with the Mars. But the scientist himself took it more than seriously: "In order to accomplish this miracle, I would give my life!".
Tesla also had other extraordinary abilities. Once he felt a strong desire to detain his guests who were staying with him, and literally by force did not let them onto the train. Thus, he saved them, possibly from death, because the train really went off the rails, and many passengers died or were injured. Another time he had a dream that his sister Angelina was mortally ill, and died. And that turned out to be true.
Eh, I'm pumping
In 1931, Tesla showed the public a mysterious car. A gasoline engine was removed from a luxury limousine and an electric motor was installed. Then, in front of the public, Tesla placed a plain box under the hood, from which two rods protruded, and connected it to the engine. Having said: “Now we have energy,” Tesla got behind the wheel and drove off.
The car was tested for a week. She developed a speed of up to 150 km / h and, it seems, did not need recharging at all. Everyone asked Tesla: "Where does the energy come from?" He answered: "From the ether." Probably, today we would have driven cars with a perpetual motion machine, if those - long-standing - the audience did not talk about evil spirits. Angry scientist took a mysterious box from a car and carried it to the laboratory. Her secret has not been solved so far.
Geniuses go unnoticed
Shortly before his death, Tesla announced that he had invented the "death rays" that could destroy 10,000 aircraft from a distance of 400 km. About the secret of the rays - not a sound. It was said that in the last years of his life he worked on the construction of artificial intelligence. And I wanted to learn how to photograph thoughts, considering it quite possible.
Tesla died on Christmas Day, January 7, 1943. At 86 years old. There was a second world war in Europe, and Tesla's projects for the military department remained incomplete. Maybe because he stubbornly refused the help of doctors. In the morning, the maid entered the room - Tesla was lying dead on the bed.
The body of the great inventor was cremated, and an urn with ashes was installed at the Ferncliffe Cemetery in New York. Thus ended the life of the most mysterious, perhaps of all the great scientists.
Where did the invisible destroyer go?
In the prewar years, Tesla began working on secret projects for the US Navy. This included wireless energy transfer to defeat the enemy, and the creation of resonant weapons, and attempts to control time. From 1936 to 1942 he was the director of the Rainbow project, using Stealth technology, in which the notorious Philadelphia experiment took place.
Tesla foresaw the possibility of human casualties and delayed the experiment, insisted on reworking the equipment. However, in the conditions of the war, neither time nor money was enough for it, and the victims were considered inevitable.
Ten months after Tesla's death, the US Navy conducted an experiment on the invisibility of the ship for radar. To do this, the destroyer "Eldridge" created an "electromagnetic bubble" - a screen that would divert radar radiation past the ship. With the help of Nikola Tesla's generators.
The experiment revealed a completely unforeseen side effect. The ship became invisible, not only for the radar. But also for the naked eye. Moreover, witnesses claim that they unexpectedly saw him in Norfolk, hundreds of miles away.
For the people involved in the project, this teleportation was a disaster. While the ship "moved" from the Philadelphia Navy base to Norfolk and vice versa, the crew members completely lost their orientation. In time and space. Upon returning to the base, many could not move without leaning on the walls. And they were in a state of inescapable horror.
Subsequently, after a long period of rehabilitation, all team members were dismissed as "mentally unbalanced." As a result, the Rainbow project was covered up. And the results of the experiment are classified. What was really there - no one knows. The author of the phantasmagoria, capable of explaining the incident, was no longer alive.
Worlds discovered by Tesla
Only now we are beginning to realize the door to which the unknown world Tesla opened. The Kirlian effect, for example, was patented in 1949, and Tesla demonstrated the effect of an amazing glow of the “aura” of objects at the end of the 19th century.
Half a century after Tesla juggled with ball lightning, Nobel laureate P.L.Kapitsa tried to create them. In the 1980s, I. M. Shakhparonov received a “by-product” in the form of magnetic graphite with unique properties in an experimental facility for creating ball lightning. Moreover, the elements of the installation itself were the source of an unknown field that reduces blood coagulability, improves the taste of food and even vodka.
Today, the effect of strong magnetic fields on living organisms is actually being demonstrated in Japan, where frogs and dogs are sent to “zero gravity”. In super-strong magnetic fields, animals "soar in the air." However, people still do not fly - the consequences of the actions of such fields have not been studied.
Some scientists are now keen on studying the torsion field, and they are looking for information about it in fragmentary records of Tesla. But there are few of them. Most of the diaries and manuscripts of Nikola Tesla disappeared in obscure circumstances. Where are they today? What secrets do they contain? Maybe they are stored in the Pentagon's safes and are waiting in the wings. Or maybe, as some biographers believe, Nikola burned them himself at the beginning of World War II, making sure that this knowledge is too dangerous for unreasonable humanity ...
The main dates of life of Nikola Tesla
1856, July 10 - Nikola Tesla was born in the village of Smilyany, Lika province (present Yugoslavia).
1862-1866 - Nikola Tesla goes to elementary school in Smilyany, and then at Gospic.
1866-1870 - Nikola Tesla is a student at a real school in Gospic.
1871-1874 - Nikola Tesla is a student at a real school in Karlovac.
1875-1878 - Nikola Tesla is a student at the Higher Technical School in Graz (Austria).
1881-1882 - Nikola Tesla works for the Telephone Company in Budapest. The invention of a telephone amplifier.
1882 - In February 1882, Tesla discovered the phenomenon of a rotating magnetic field in Budapest.
1882-1884 - Tesla is moving to work in Paris. Work on the reconstruction of Edison's dynamo, the construction of a power station in Strasbourg, the construction of the first models of an induction motor.
1884-1885 - Moving to America. Work with Edison. Repair and improvement of Edison machines.
1885-1886 - Founded Tesla Erk Light Company in New York.
1886 - Nikola Tesla invents an electric arc lamp, switches, and a regulator for a DC dynamo. The first applications of the Tesla arc lamp to illuminate the streets of large cities.
1887, April - The Tesla Electric Company was founded. Tesla builds the first machines and motors for multiphase current with a high efficiency. October 12 - Tesla applies for its main patents: asynchronous electric motor and electric power transmission.
November 30 - Patents pending for a multiphase synchronous electric motor and electric power transmission, for an induction electric motor with a squirrel-cage rotor and slip rings.
December 23 - Patents for multiphase current transformers and power distribution system are claimed.
1888, April - May - Patents for the transmission of energy through three conductors connected in a star and a single-pole converter of two- and three-phase currents, an asynchronous generator, a rotary transformer for controlling the speed of induction motors and multi-pole machines are claimed.
May 16 - Tesla gives a lecture on “A New System of Motors and AC Transformers” at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in New York.
1888-1889 - Tesla works in Pittsburgh at Westinghouse. Patent application for rectification of alternating currents and current waves.
1889-1890 - Construction of the first high-frequency generators up to 20 thousand periods .-
1890 - The discovery of high frequency currents and their physiological effects.
1891, February - The first report on the phenomena associated with high-frequency currents.
February 18, 18, 3, 4, and 18 - Tesla lectures at the English Institute of Electrical Engineers, at the Royal Institute in London and at the International Society of Electricians and the French Society in Paris on the topic "Experiments with very high frequency and voltage currents."
April 24 - Application for a patent for a high-frequency transformer (Tesla resonance transformer), May 20 - Tesla's lecture at Columbia College in New York, "Experiments on very high-frequency shocks."
1893, February 24 and March 1 - Tesla gives lectures at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Association of Electric Lighting in St. Louis "On light and other high-frequency phenomena." The second visit to the homeland. The death of the mother.
1892-1894 - Tesla conducts experiments on wireless telegraphy in his laboratory and at an exhibition in Chicago.
1895, March 13 - A fire destroys the Tesla laboratory in New York with all the radiotelegraphy devices and devices for receiving high-frequency currents. Continuation of radio experiments in the laboratory at Hauston Street.
1897 - In the spring, Tesla carries out a two-way wireless telegraph transmission near New York for a distance of more than 20 miles.
1898 - In the spring, Tesla demonstrates long-range control over a radio vessel that did not have a crew. The tests were carried out in the open sea, near New York.
1899 - Tesla builds a large radio station with a capacity of 200 kilowatts in Colorado, and transmits via wireless telegraph at a distance of more than 1 000 kilometers, makes the lamps glow and drives the motors wirelessly at a distance of over 25 kilometers, creates a voltage of 12 million volts.
1896-1922 - Nikola Tesla receives patents in the field of radio engineering, as well as for a thermomagnetic electric motor, turbines, pumps, steam engines, electric meters, speedometers, frequency meters, etc.
1921 — Tesla offers technical assistance to Soviet Russia.
1932 - Nikola Tesla publishes an article on van de Graaff static generators and the study of the structure of matter by ultra-high voltage discharges.
1941, October 12 - Tesla's answer to the appeal of the anti-fascist meeting of scientists in Moscow.
1943, January 7 - The death of Nikola Tesla in New York.
January 12, 1943 - The funeral of Nikola Tesla.
1956 - World anniversary celebrations on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Nikola Tesla.