Biography and the main dates of life of Nikola Tesla
They say that geniuses are sent to Earth by Heaven. Everyone - with some kind of special super task. But the Lord sent the Nicholas Tesla, probably too soon. When will his time come?
New York, East Houston Street, 48. This strange address was occupied by a strange scientist, unsociable, with a feverish glint of black eyes. It was rumored that he was "a relative of Count Dracula" and the vampire himself, could not tolerate sunlight ... And they also said that he had created a weapon capable of spreading the globe to pieces.
In fact, Nikola Tesla had nothing to do with Dracula. On the contrary, he was born in the family of an Orthodox priest. And indeed, he avoided sunlight - because he often fell under the influence of powerful electromagnetic fields and his nerves acquired special sensitivity. The bright light hurt my eyes, quiet rustles sounded like peals of thunder. But he could see perfectly in the dark.
Rumors of destructive weapons were not born from scratch. Once Tesla conducted a series of experiments, studying the processes of auto-oscillations. Suddenly, tables and cabinets shook in the laboratory. Then the windows rang in the windows ...
Passers-by on the streets heard a strange rumble. The buildings were vibrating, the windows of glass poured in, the gas and heating pipes, water pipes burst. It was the Great New York earthquake.
They say that the whole city did not lie in ruins just because Tesla switched off the devices on time. True, official science claims that the experiment simply coincided with a natural cataclysm. But there is another opinion - the vibrations of the earth caused the work of its installation. This possibility does not seem very improbable. After all, it's about Nicolas Tesla!
This great inventor is undeservedly rarely remembered in physics textbooks. He discovered alternating current, fluorescent light, wireless power transmission, built the first electric clock, turbine, solar-powered engine. He invented the radio before Marconi and Popov, received a three-phase current before Dolivo-Dobrovolsky. On his patents, in essence, the entire power industry of the twentieth century has grown. But this was not enough for him. Tesla spent several decades working on the energy problem of the entire universe. He studied what moves the sun and the stars. He tried to learn how to control cosmic energy. And to establish communication with other worlds. Tesla did not consider all this his merit. He assured that he simply acts as a conductor of ideas coming from the ether.
Permanent - good, variable - better
The ingenious inventor was born in Serbia in the town of Smilyan on July 9, 1856. Already in his youth Tesla looked demonically: tall, thin, hollow cheeks, gaze of burning eyes. He had been strangled from childhood with strange visions: flashes of the invisible to other lights. Sometimes he plunged into contemplation of some other, unknown worlds, for so many hours, so bright that he confused them with reality. From this almost madness completely rational technical ideas were born. Especially fascinated by the young man's electricity. That, with fiery zigzags, the sky cut through and was showered with gentle sparkles from the fur of a caressed cat.
The father saw in the son of the future priest. But contrary to his will, Nicola went to study at the Higher Technical School of Graz (Austria), then to Prague University. In his second year, the idea of an induction alternator was borne in mind. The professor, with whom Tesla shared an idea, found her delusional. But this conclusion only spurred the inventor, and in 1882, already working in Paris, he built an operating model.
In 1884 Tesla went to conquer America. To Thomas Edison - with a recommendation from a Parisian friend: "I know two great people, one of them you, the second - this young man."
Before New York, Nicolas traveled with adventure. First of all, they robbed him. In America, the traveler arrived hungry, without luggage, with four cents in his pocket. And I was immediately convinced that this was a country of great opportunities: I saw people on Broadway trying to repair an electric motor, and immediately earned $ 20.
Edison took young electrical engineers to his company, but the friction between the inventors began immediately. Because they have different approaches to solving creative problems. Edison liked only what made a profit immediately. Tesla did what was interesting. All the works of the eminent American were based on direct current. And then some Serbian with blazing eyes is talking about alternating current. Edison tried so hard to prove the danger of Tesla's ideas that he did not hesitate to demonstratively kill the dog with an alternating current. But it did not help. Won - we know what. After all, the wires in our apartments and now flowing alternating current.
Free son of ether
The main cause of the gap was ... a divergence in views on the origin of electricity. Edison adhered to the well-known theory of "motion of charged particles," Tesla had a different vision.
In his theory of electricity, the concept of ether was fundamental - an invisible substance filling the whole world and transmitting vibrations at a speed many times greater than the speed of light. Every millimeter of space, Tesla believed, is saturated with infinite, infinite energy, which you only need to be able to extract.
Theorists of modern physics have not been able to give an interpretation of Tesla's views on physical reality. Why did not he formulate his theory? Was he a spiritual harbinger of a new civilization in which the only, inexhaustible source of energy would be the asynchrony of the various levels of physical processes, that is, Time itself?
After the break with Edison, Tesla took the famous industrialist George Westinghouse, the founder of Westinghouse Electric. In the process of working for the company, he gets patents for multiphase electric machines, for an asynchronous electric motor and for a system for the transmission of electricity through a variable multi-phase current.
And at the same time developing new, unprecedented ways of transferring energy. How do we connect any appliance to the network? By a fork - i.e. Two conductors. If we connect only one, there will be no current - the circuit is not closed. And Tesla demonstrated power transmission by one conductor. Or generally without wires.
In the course of his lecture on the electromagnetic field of high frequency to the scientists of the Royal Academy, he switched on and off the electric motor remotely, in his hands the electric light bulbs flashed by themselves. In some, even the spiral was not - just an empty bulb. It was 1892!
After the lecture, the physicist John Rayley invited Tesla into the office and solemnly proclaimed, pointing to the chair: "Sit down, please, this is the armchair of the great Faraday." After his death, no one was sitting in it. "
Visitors to the World Exhibition in 1893 in Chicago with horror watched as a lean, nervous scientist with a funny name every day let through an electric current of two million volts. Theoretically, the emitter should not have been left with coal. And Tesla smiled as if nothing had happened, and electric lamps burned brightly in his hands. Now we know that it is not the voltage that is killing, but the current strength, and that the current of high frequency passes only over the surface covers. Then this trick seemed a miracle.
This insane inventor
In 1895, Westinghouse put into operation the world's largest Niagara hydropower plant. Powerful Tesla generators worked on it. At the same time, the inventor designed a number of radio-controlled self-propelled mechanisms - "teleautomats." At Madison Square Garden, he demonstrated remote control of small boats. People considered it witchcraft.
Those who managed to visit the laboratory of Tesla, with horror remembered how the inventor juggled in the air luminous clots of energy - ball lightning, - and put them in a suitcase.
In 1898, Tesla attached a device to the iron beam in the attic of the building in which the laboratory was located. Soon, the walls of the surrounding houses began to vibrate and people panicked into the street. Of course, this is the trick of the "insane inventor"! To the house of Tesla immediately rushed journalists and police, but Tesla had time to turn off and destroy his vibrator. "I could crash the Brooklyn Bridge in an hour," he later admitted. And he assured me that it is possible to split the Earth, only a suitable vibrator and exact timing are needed.
At the end of the last century in Colorado Springs for the experiments of Tesla was built a tower with a large copper sphere on the top. There, the scientist generated potentials that were discharged by lightning bolts up to 40 meters in length. The experiments were accompanied by thunderous rumblings. A huge ball of light burned around the tower. People in the streets scared away in fright, watching with horror as sparks flew between their legs and earth. The horses received electric shocks through the iron horseshoes. Even the butterflies "helplessly circled in circles on their wings, streaming with trickles of blue haloes." On the metal objects the "lights of St. Elm" were shining.
All this electrical phantasmagoria was not designed to frighten people. The purpose of the experiments was different: twenty-five miles from the tower, 200 electric light bulbs flashed at once. Electric charge was transmitted without wires, through the ground.
World Tower Communications
In the end, loud experiments in Colorado Springs destroyed the generator at a local power station, had to return to New York, where in 1900, on the instructions of the banker John Pierpon Morgan, Tesla took up the construction of the World Station for wireless transmission of energy. The project was based on the idea of a resonant buildup of the ionosphere, involving the participation of 2000 people and was named "Wardenclyffe".
On the island of Long Island began the construction of a huge scientific town. The main structure was a 57 m high frame with a huge copper plate on top - a giant amplifying transmitter. And with a steel shaft, deepened into the ground at 36 meters. The trial launch of an unprecedented structure took place in 1905 and produced a tremendous effect. "Tesla lit the sky over the ocean for thousands of miles," the newspapers wrote.
The second tower - for the transmission without wires of powerful flows of energy - the inventor intended to build near the Niagara Falls. But the project required huge expenses. All the money of Tesla itself was drowned in this pit. And Morgan realized that the superstation is unlikely to yield commercial benefits. Moreover, on December 12, 1900, Marconi sent the first transatlantic signal from Cornwall to Canada. His communication system was more promising.
Although Tesla built the first wave radio transmitter in 1893, ahead of Marconi (in 1943, the US Supreme Court confirmed Tesla's priority), he confessed to Morgan that he was interested not in communication, but in wireless transmission of energy to anywhere in the world. But this was not part of Morgan's plans, and he stopped financing.
And when the First World War broke out, the American government, worried about the possibility of using the tower by enemy scouts, decided to blow it up. So Tesla's blue dream of an information association of the world collapsed.
A lonely somersault in the park alleys
After the failure of the Vendenclif, Tesla sold some of his patents for $ 15 million. He became rich and independent. He founded his own laboratory in New York. And I gave myself completely to scientific research.
He wore expensive suits, was a welcome guest in any aristocratic house, brides from the highest circle looked at him. But Tesla avoided formalities, and women, too. Journalists dubbed him "a lone wolf" - for hours of walking. They stimulated the work of thought.
Tesla's obsession with science knew no bounds. For sleep, he spent four hours, of which two usually left to think about ideas. "Technical solutions themselves came to mind." Tesla took a patent for a patent, inventions fell like a cornucopia.
In addition to electrical engineering, Tesla professionally engaged in linguistics, wrote poetry. He spoke fluent in eight languages, knew the music and philosophy well ... Tesla lived in the most expensive hotels. The servants were surprised that he daily demanded eighteen fresh towels. If a fly was sitting on the table during dinner, he forced the waiter to bring a new order. Today's psychiatrist would easily diagnose an acute form of mesophobia (phobia of microbes).
Phobias and obsessions were combined with Tesla with astonishing energy. Walking along the street, he could in a sudden burst make a somersault. Or stop at the park alley and read by heart a couple of chapters from Faust. Sometimes he froze and stood for a long time, tensely thinking about something, not noticing anyone around.
The inventor himself claimed that he could completely turn off his brain from the outside world. And in this state descended on him "flashes of enthusiasm," "inner vision," and "attacks of hypersensitivity." At these moments, the scientist believed, his consciousness penetrated the mysterious subtle world.
Rutherford called him "an inspired prophet of electricity." Indeed, Tesla knew everything about electricity! He predicted the possibility of treating patients with high-frequency current, the appearance of electric furnaces, fluorescent lamps, and an electron microscope.
The squares and streets of New York were illuminated by Tesla's arc lamps. At the enterprises worked its electric motors, rectifiers, electric generators, transformers, high-frequency equipment. Although Marconi received the first patent in the field of radio, but many of his other applications were rejected, because Tesla managed to get a lot of patents for improvements in radio equipment. In 1917, Tesla proposed the principle of the device for radio detection of submarines.
What the Martians whispered
Tesla did not patch many of his discoveries, he did not even leave any drawings. Most of his diaries and manuscripts have not survived, and many inventions have survived only fragmentary information to this day. And hundreds of legends. Tesla is also credited with the Tunguska catastrophe (1908). The Tower of the Wordcliffe through the ionosphere could well transmit tremendous energy to another part of the world. A meteorite was never found: True, he left the project in 1905. But all the equipment stood still: There is a suspicion that Tesla created a time machine, or something like that.
He himself claimed that he received his technical and scientific revelations from a single information field of the Earth. There the radio waves of his devices were spreading, from there he received inaudible signals to no one.
In 1926 Tesla established radio masts in Valdorf-Astoria and his laboratory in New York. And he caught mysterious signals of anthropogenic nature of unknown origin, one of the possible sources of which was called Mars. In the newspapers of that time, one can find mocking notes about the connections of the insane inventor with the Marcians. But the scientist himself was more than serious about this: "In order to accomplish this miracle, I would give my life!".
Tesla had other extraordinary abilities. One day he felt a strong desire to detain his guests who were staying with him, and literally did not let them take the train by force. Thus, they saved them, probably from death, because the train really got off the rails, and many passengers were killed or injured. Another time, he had a dream that his sister Angelina was deadly ill, she died. And it turned out to be true.
Ah, I'm pumping
In 1931, Tesla showed the public a mysterious car. From the luxury limousine, they removed the gasoline engine and installed an electric motor. Then Tesla, in front of the audience, placed under the hood a plain-looking box, from which two sticks protruded, and connected it to the engine. Saying: "Now we have energy," Tesla sat behind the wheel and drove off.
The machine was tested for a week. It developed a speed of up to 150 km / h and, it seems, did not need to be recharged. Everyone asked Tesla: "Where does the energy come from?" He replied: "From the ether." Perhaps, today we would have already driven cars with perpetual motion, if those - old - the audience did not speak about the evil spirit. The angry scientist took out a mysterious box from the car and carried it away to the laboratory. Mystery of her is not solved until now.
Geniuses go unnoticed
Shortly before his death, Tesla announced that he had invented the "rays of death" that could destroy 10,000 aircraft from a distance of 400 km. About the secret rays - no sound. It was said that in the last years of his life he worked on the construction of artificial intelligence. And he wanted to learn how to photograph thoughts, considering it quite possible.
Tesla died on Christmas Day, January 7, 1943. In the 86 years. In Europe, there was a second world war, and Tesla's projects for the military department remained unfinished. Maybe because, he stubbornly refused the help of doctors. In the morning the maid came into the room - Tesla lay dead on the bed.
The body of the great inventor was cremated, and the urn with ashes installed at the Ferncliffe Cemetery in New York. Thus ended the life of the most mysterious, perhaps, of all the great scientists.
Where went the destroyer invisible
In the prewar years, Tesla began working on secret projects for the US Navy. This included the wireless transmission of energy to defeat the enemy, and the creation of resonant weapons, and attempts to manage time. From 1936 to 1942 he was the director of the project "Rainbow" - on the technology of Stealth, - within the framework of which the notorious Philadelphia experiment was held.
Tesla foresaw the possibility of human casualties and delayed the experiment, insisted on remaking the equipment. However, under the conditions of the war, neither time nor money was available, and the victims were considered inevitable.
Ten months after Tesla's death, the US Navy conducted an experiment on the invisibility of a ship for radars. To do this, the "Eldridge" destroyer created an "electromagnetic bubble" - a screen that would divert the radar from the ship. With the help of generators Nikola Tesla.
In the course of the experiment, a completely unforeseen side effect was revealed. The ship became invisible not only for the radar. But also for the naked eye. Moreover, the witnesses claim that they suddenly saw him in Norfolk, a distance of hundreds of miles.
For the people involved in the project, this teleportation has become a disaster. While the ship was "moving" from the Philadelphia base of the Navy to Norfolk and back, members of the ship's crew completely lost their orientation. In time and space. Upon returning to the base, many could not move without resting on the walls. And they were in a state of inescapable horror.
Subsequently, after a long period of rehabilitation, all members of the team were dismissed as "mentally unbalanced". As a result, the project "Rainbow" was covered. And the results of the experiment were classified. What was there in reality - no one knows. The author of phantasmagoria, able to explain what happened, was no longer alive.
The worlds discovered by Tesla
Only now we begin to realize, the door to what uncharted world opened Tesla. The Kirlian effect, for example, was patented in 1949, and Tesla demonstrated the effect of an amazing glow of the "aura" of objects back in the late 19th century.
Half a century after Tesla juggled with fireballs, they tried to create a Nobel laureate PL Kapitsa. In the 1980s, IM Shakhparonov received a "by-product" in the form of magnetic graphite with unique properties on the experimental setup for the creation of ball lightning. Moreover, the elements of the installation itself were the source of an unknown field, which reduces the coagulability of blood, improves the taste of food products and even vodka.
To date, the impact of strong magnetic fields on living organisms is really demonstrated in Japan, where frogs and dogs are sent to "weightlessness". In superstrong magnetic fields, animals "hover in the air." However, people do not fly yet - the consequences of such fields have not been studied.
Some scientists are now interested in studying the torsion field, and information about him is sought in Tesla's fragmentary records. But they are few. Most of the diaries and manuscripts of Nikola Tesla disappeared under unclear circumstances. Where are they today? What secrets do they contain? Maybe they are stored in the Pentagon's safes and wait for their time. And maybe, as some biographers believe, Nicola burned them himself at the beginning of the Second World War, making sure that these knowledge are too dangerous for an unreasonable humanity ...
The main dates of Nikola Tesla's life
1856, July 10 - Nikola Tesla was born in the village of Smilyany, Lika province (present Yugoslavia).
1862-1866 years. - Nikola Tesla studies in an elementary school in Smilyan, and then in Gospiche.
1866-1870 years. - Nikola Tesla is a student at a real school in Gospic.
1871-1874 - Nikola Tesla is a student at a real school in Karlovac.
1875-1878 years. - Nikola Tesla is a student of the Higher Technical School in Graz (Austria).
1881-1882 - Nikola Tesla works at the Telephone company in Budapest. The invention of a telephone amplifier.
1882 - In February 1882, in Budapest, Tesla discovered the phenomenon of a rotating magnetic field.
1882-1884 - Tesla moves to work in Paris. Works on the reconstruction of Edison dynamos, construction of a power plant in Strasbourg, construction of the first models of an induction motor.
1884-1885 - Moving to America. Work at Edison. Repair and improvement of Edison machines.
1885-1886 years. - The company Tesla Erk Light Company in New York was founded.
1886 - Nikola Tesla invents an electric arc lamp, commutators and a regulator for a dynamo DC machine. The first application of the Tesla arc lamp to illuminate the streets of large cities.
1887, April - The company "Tesla Electric Company" was founded. Tesla builds the first machines and multiphase current motors with a high coefficient of efficiency. October 12 - Tesla applies for its main patents: asynchronous electric motor and electric power transmission.
November 30 - Patents for multiphase synchronous electric motor and electric power transmission, for induction electric motor with squirrel-cage rotor and contact rings.
December 23 - Patents for multiphase current transformers and electric power distribution system are claimed.
1888, April-May - The patents for the transmission of energy on three conductors connected to a star and a single-pole converter of two- and three-phase current, an asynchronous generator, a rotating transformer for regulating the speed of induction motors and multipolar machines are claimed.
May 16 - Tesla lectures "The New System of AC Motors and Transformers" at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in New York.
1888-1889 gg. "Tesla works in Pittsburgh at Westinghouse." Application of patents for rectification of alternating currents and current waves.
1889-1890. - Construction of the first high-frequency generators up to 20 thousand periods.
1890 - The discovery of currents of high frequency and their physiological effects.
1891, February - The first report on phenomena associated with high-frequency currents.
1892, 3, 4 and 18 February - Tesla lectures at the English Institute of Electrical Engineers, the Royal Institute in London and the International Society of Electricians and the French Society in Paris on "Experiments with currents of very high frequency and voltage."
April 24 - Patent application for high-frequency transformer (Tesla resonance transformer), May 20 - Tesla lecture at Columbia College in New York "Very high frequency rock experiments".
1893, February 24 and March 1 - Tesla lectures at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Association of Electric Lighting in St. Louis "On Light and Other High Frequency phenomena." Second visit to the homeland. Death of the mother.
1892-1894 - Tesla conducts experiments on radiotelegraphy in his laboratory and at an exhibition in Chicago.
1895, March 13 - The fire destroys Tesla's laboratory in New York with all radiotelegraphy instruments and apparatus for obtaining high frequency currents. Continuation of radio experiments in the laboratory at Houston Street.
1897 - In the spring, Tesla carries out a two-way transfer by wireless telegraph from New York to a distance of more than 20 miles.
1898 - In the spring Tesla demonstrates control over a long distance by radio ship, on which there was no command. The tests were carried out in the open sea, near New York.
1899 - Tesla builds a large radio station in Colorado with a capacity of 200 kilowatts, but transmits wirelessly over a distance of over 1 kilometers per kilometer, makes the lamps shine and drives the motors wirelessly over a distance of 25 kilometers and creates a voltage of 12 million volts.
1896-1922 - Nikola Tesla receives patents in the field of radio engineering, as well as on a thermomagnetic electric motor, turbines, pumps, steam engines, electric meters, speedometers, frequency meters,
1921-Tesla offers technical assistance to Soviet Russia.
1932 - Nikola Tesla publishes an article about the static generators of Van de Graaf and the study of the structure of matter by discharges of ultrahigh voltage.
1941, October 12 - Tesla's answer to the appeal of the anti-fascist rally of scientists in Moscow.
1943, January 7 - Death of Nikola Tesla in New York.
1943 January 12 - Funeral of Nikola Tesla.
1956 - World jubilee celebrations on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Nikola Tesla.