Biography and main dates of life of Nikola Tesla
They say the heavens send geniuses to Earth. Each - with some kind of his own, special super-task. But the Lord sent Nicola Tesla, probably, too early. When will his time come?
New York, East Houston Street, 48. A strange scientist, unsociable, with feverish black eyes resided at this address. It was rumored that he was "a relative of Count Dracula" and the vampire himself, does not tolerate sunlight ... They also said that he created a weapon capable of smashing the globe into pieces.
In fact, Nikola Tesla had nothing to do with Dracula. On the contrary, he was born in the family of an Orthodox priest. And he really avoided sunlight, because it often came under the influence of powerful electromagnetic fields and his nerves became especially sensitive. Bright light hurt his eyes, quiet rustling sounded like peals of thunder. But he perfectly saw in the dark.
Rumors of destructive weapons were not born from scratch either. Once Tesla conducted a series of experiments, studying the processes of self-oscillation. And suddenly the tables and cabinets in the laboratory began to shake. Then the glass in the windows rang ...
Passers-by on the streets heard a strange hum. Buildings vibrated, glass poured out of windows, gas and heating pipes, water mains burst. This was the Great New York earthquake.
They say the whole city did not lay down in the ruins just because Tesla had turned off the instruments on time. True, official science claims that the experiment simply coincided with a natural cataclysm. But there is another opinion - the fluctuation of the earth was caused by the work of its installation. This opportunity does not seem quite incredible. After all, we are talking about Nikola Tesla!
This greatest inventor is unfairly rarely commemorated in physics textbooks. He discovered alternating current, fluorescent light, wireless power transmission, built the first electric clock, a turbine, and a solar-powered engine. He invented the radio before Marconi and Popov, received a three-phase current before Dolivo-Dobrovolsky. On his patents, in essence, all the power of the twentieth century has grown. But that was not enough for him. Tesla worked for several decades on the problem of the energy of the entire Universe. He studied what drives the sun and the luminaries. He tried to learn how to manage cosmic energy. And make contact with other worlds. All this, Tesla did not consider it merit. He assured that he simply acts as a conductor of ideas coming from the ether.
Permanent - good, variable - better
The ingenious inventor was born in Serbia in the town of Smilyan on July 9, 1856. Already in his youth, Tesla looked demonic: tall, thin, sunken cheeks, gaze of burning eyes. From childhood, he was pursued by strange visions: flashes of light, unseen by others. Sometimes for many hours he immersed himself in the contemplation of some other, unknown worlds, so bright that he confused them with reality. From this almost madness, completely rational technical ideas were born. The young man was especially fascinated by electricity. The fact that the fire zigzags cut through the sky and fell in gentle sparkles from the caress of the cat's fur.
Father saw in the son of a future priest. But against his will, Nicola went to study at the Higher Technical School in the city of Graz (Austria), then at the University of Prague. In the second year, he got the idea of an induction alternator. The professor, with whom Tesla shared his idea, considered it crazy. But this conclusion only spurred the inventor, and in 1882, already working in Paris, he built a working model.
In 1884, Tesla went to conquer America. To Thomas Edison - with a recommendation from a friend in Paris: "I know two great people. You are one of them, the second is this young man."
Nicola traveled to New York with adventure. First of all, he was robbed. In America, the traveler arrived hungry, without baggage, with four cents in his pocket. And I immediately made sure that this is a country of great opportunities: I saw people trying to repair an electric motor on Broadway, and immediately earned $ 20.
Edison took the young electrical engineer to his company, but the friction between the inventors began immediately. Because they have different approaches to solving creative problems. Edison liked only that which gave a profit immediately. Tesla did what was interesting. All the works of the eminent American were based on direct current. And then some Serb with burning eyes interprets alternating current. Edison tried so hard to prove the danger of Tesla’s ideas that he did not hesitate to defiantly kill the dog with an alternating current. But it did not help. Won - we know what. After all, the wires in our apartments and now flows alternating current.
Free son of ether
The main reason for the gap was ... divergence of views on the origin of electricity. Edison adhered to the well-known theory of "motion of charged particles," Tesla had a different vision.
In his theory of electricity, the notion of ether was fundamental - a kind of invisible substance that fills the entire world and transmits vibrations at a speed many times greater than the speed of light. Every millimeter of space, Tesla believed, is saturated with unlimited, infinite energy, which only needs to be able to extract.
Theorists of modern physics could not give an interpretation of Tesla's views on physical reality. Why did he not formulate his theory? Was he the spiritual harbinger of a new civilization, in which the only inexhaustible source of energy would be the asynchrony of various levels of physical processes, that is, Time itself?
After the break with Edison, Tesla took to himself the famous industrialist George Westinghouse, the founder of Westinghouse Electric. In the process of working for the company, he obtains patents for multi-phase electric machines, for an asynchronous electric motor and for a system for the transmission of electricity through alternating multi-phase current.
And at the same time developing new, unprecedented methods of energy transfer. How do we connect any appliance to the network? Fork - that is, two conductors. If we connect only one, there will be no current - the circuit is not closed. And Tesla demonstrated power transmission through a single conductor. Or even without wires.
In the course of his lecture on the high-frequency electromagnetic field before the scientists of the Royal Academy, he switched the electric motor on and off remotely, light-emitting lamps light up in his hands. In some even the spiral was not - just an empty flask. It was 1892!
After the lecture, the physicist John Relei invited Tesla into the office and solemnly proclaimed, pointing to the chair: "Please sit down. This is the chair of the great Faraday. After his death no one sat in it."
Visitors to the World Exhibition in 1893 in Chicago watched with horror as a thin, nervous scientist with a funny name passed a two-volt electric current every day. In theory, there should not have been a coal from the experimenter. And Tesla was smiling as if nothing had happened, and the light bulbs were burning brightly in his hands. It is now we know that it is not the voltage that kills, but the strength of the current, and that the high-frequency current passes only through the surface cover. Then this trick seemed like a miracle.
This mad inventor
In 1895, Westinghouse commissioned the world's largest Niagara hydroelectric station. Worked on her powerful Tesla generators. At the same time, the inventor designed a number of self-propelled radio-controlled mechanisms - "teleautomatics". In Madison Square Garden, he demonstrated remote control of small boats. People found it witchcraft.
Those who managed to visit the Tesla laboratory recalled with horror how the inventor juggled luminous energy clots in the air — ball lightning — and put them in a suitcase.
In 1898, Tesla attached a device to an iron beam in the attic of the building where the laboratory was located. Soon the walls of the surrounding houses began to vibrate and people rushed into the street in panic. Of course, this is the antics of the "crazy inventor"! Journalists and police immediately rushed to Tesla's house, but Tesla managed to turn off and destroy his vibrator. "I could bring down the Brooklyn Bridge in an hour," he later admitted. And he assured that it is possible to split the Earth, all that is needed is a suitable vibrator and accurate timing.
At the end of the century before last, a tower with a large copper sphere on top was built for Tesla’s experiments in Colorado Springs. There, the scientist generated potentials that were discharged by arrows of lightning up to 40 meters long. The experiments were accompanied by thunder peals. A huge ball of light burned around the tower. The people on the streets shied away in horror, watching with horror how sparks jump between their legs and the ground. Horses received electric shocks through iron horseshoes. Even the butterflies "circled helplessly on their wings, beating with streams of blue halos." On the metal objects shone the lights of St. Elmo.
All this electric phantasmagoria was arranged not to scare people. The purpose of the experiment was different: for twenty-five miles from the tower 200 light bulbs were lit at once. An electrical charge was transmitted wirelessly through the ground.
World Communication Tower
In the end, loud experiments in Colorado Springs destroyed a generator at a local power plant, had to return to New York, where in 1900, on behalf of banker John Pierpont Morgan, Tesla set about building the Worldwide Wireless Power Transmission Station. The project was based on the idea of the resonant buildup of the ionosphere, involved 2,000 people and was named the “Wardenclyffe”.
On the island of Long Island began the construction of a huge scientific town. The main structure was a frame tower with a height of 57 meters with a huge copper "plate" at the top - a giant amplifying transmitter. And with a steel shaft, recessed into the ground at 36 meters. A trial launch of an unprecedented construction took place in 1905 and produced a stunning effect. “Tesla lit the sky over the ocean for thousands of miles,” newspapers wrote.
The second tower - to transmit without wires of powerful energy flows - the inventor intended to build near Niagara Falls. But the project required huge costs. All the money Tesla himself huddled in this pit. And Morgan realized that the super station is unlikely to provide commercial benefits. Especially since December 12, 1900, Marconi sent the first transatlantic signal from the English Cornwall to Canada. His communication system was more promising.
Although Tesla built the first wave radio transmitter in 1893, years ahead of Marconi (in 1943, the US Supreme Court confirmed Tesla's priority), he admitted to Morgan that he was not interested in communications, but in wireless transmission of energy to any part of the planet. But this was not in the plans of Morgan, and he stopped funding.
And when the First World War began, the American government, concerned about the possibility of using the tower by enemy scouts, decided to blow it up. So collapsed Tesla's blue dream of the world informational union.
Lonely somersault in the alleys of the park
After the failure of Wordencliff, Tesla sold part of his patents for $ 15 million. He became rich and independent. He founded his laboratory in New York. And completely devoted to scientific research.
He wore expensive suits, was a welcome guest in any aristocratic house, brides from the highest circle looked at him. But Tesla avoided invited receptions, and women too. Journalists dubbed him a "lone wolf" - for many hours of walking. They stimulated the work of thought.
Tesla's obsession with science knew no bounds. To sleep, he set aside four hours, of which two usually went to think about ideas. "Technical solutions themselves came to mind." Tesla took a patent for a patent, inventions were poured from the cornucopia.
In addition to electrical engineering, Tesla professionally worked in linguistics, wrote poetry. He spoke fluently in eight languages, knew music and philosophy well ... Tesla lived in the most expensive hotels. The servants were amazed that he daily demanded eighteen fresh towels. If during dinner a fly was sitting on the table, he forced the waiter to bring a new order. Today's psychiatrist would easily make a diagnosis - an aggravated form of mesophobia (the fear of microbes).
Phobias and obsessive states were combined in Tesla with amazing energy. Walking down the street, he could make a flip in a sudden rush. Or stop at the alley of the park and recite by heart a couple of chapters from Faust. Sometimes he stopped and stood for a long time, intensely thinking about something, not noticing anyone around.
The inventor himself claimed that he could completely turn off his brain from the outside world. And in this state “flashes of enthusiasm,” “inner vision,” and “episodes of hypersensitivity” descended upon him. At these moments, the scientist believed, his consciousness penetrated the mysterious thin world.
Rutherford called him the "inspired prophet of electricity." Truly, Tesla knew everything about electricity! He predicted the possibility of treating patients with high frequency current, the appearance of electric furnaces, fluorescent lamps, and an electron microscope.
The squares and streets of New York were illuminated by Tesla arc lamps. The enterprises had its electric motors, rectifiers, electric generators, transformers, high-frequency equipment. Although Marconi received the first patent in the field of radio, many of his other applications were rejected because Tesla managed to get a lot of patents for improvements in radio equipment. In 1917, Tesla proposed the principle of operation of a device for radio detection of submarines.
What the Martians whispered
Tesla did not patent many of his discoveries, he did not even leave the drawings. Most of his diaries and manuscripts are not preserved, and only many fragmentary information has survived to this day. And hundreds of legends. Tesla is credited with the Tungus catastrophe (1908). The Vordencliffe tower through the ionosphere could easily transfer enormous energy to another part of the world. But the meteorite was never found: True, he left the project in 1905. But all the equipment stood still: There is a suspicion that Tesla created a time machine, or something like that.
He himself assured that he received his technical and scientific revelations from the common information field of the Earth. Radio waves of his devices spread there, and from there he received signals that were inaudible to anyone.
In 1926, Tesla established the radio tower in Valdorf-Astonia and in his laboratory in New York. And he caught the mysterious signals of the technogenic nature of unknown origin, one of the possible sources of which he called Mars. In the newspapers of that time you can find mocking notes about the connections of the mad inventor with the Marcians. But the very young man treated this more than seriously: "In order to accomplish this miracle, I would give my life!".
Tesla had other unusual abilities. Once he felt the strongest desire to detain his guests, who were visiting him, and literally did not let them on the train. Thus, he saved them, possibly, from death, because the train did derail, and many passengers were killed or injured. Another time he dreamed a dream that his sister Angelina was mortally ill, died. And it turned out to be true.
Eh, let's talk
In 1931, Tesla showed the public a mysterious car. A gasoline engine was removed from a luxury limousine and an electric motor was installed. Then, in front of the public, Tesla placed an ordinary box under the hood, from which two rods protruded, and connected it to the engine. Saying: "Now we have energy," Tesla got behind the wheel and drove off.
The car was tested for a week. She developed speeds of up to 150 km / h and did not seem to need recharging at all. Everyone asked Tesla: "Where does energy come from?" He replied: "From the air." Probably, today we would have traveled on cars with a perpetual motion engine, if those - the old ones - the audience did not talk about evil spirits. The angry scientist took the mysterious box out of the car and took it to the laboratory. Its mystery has not been solved so far.
Geniuses go unnoticed
Shortly before his death, Tesla announced that he had invented death rays, which are capable of destroying 10,000 airplanes, from a distance of 400 km. About the secret of the rays - not a sound. They said that in the last years of his life he worked on the construction of artificial intelligence. And I wanted to learn how to photograph thoughts, considering it quite possible.
Tesla died on Christmas, January 7, 1943. In 86 years. In Europe, there was a second world war, and Tesla's projects for the military department remained unfinished. Maybe because he stubbornly refused the help of doctors. In the morning the maid entered the room - Tesla was lying dead on the bed.
The body of the great inventor was cremated, and an urn with ashes was installed at the Ferncliffe Cemetery in New York. Thus ended the life of the most mysterious, perhaps, of all the great scientists.
Where did the invisible destroyer go
In the prewar years, Tesla began to work on secret projects for the US Navy. This included the wireless transmission of energy to defeat the enemy, and the creation of resonant weapons, and attempts to control time. From 1936 to 1942, he was the director of the Rainbow project - using Stealth technology, as part of which the infamous Philadelphia experiment took place.
Tesla foresaw the possibility of human sacrifice and delayed the experiment, insisted on reworking the equipment. However, in the conditions of war, neither the time nor the money was sufficient for this, and the victims were considered inevitable.
Ten months after Tesla's death, the US Navy conducted an experiment on the invisibility of a ship for radar. To do this, on the destroyer "Eldridge" created an "electromagnetic bubble" - a screen that would divert the radiation of radar past the ship. With the help of generators Nikola Tesla.
During the experiment, a completely unforeseen side effect was revealed. The ship became invisible not only for the radar. But also for the naked eye. Moreover, witnesses claim that they unexpectedly saw him in Norfolk, hundreds of miles away.
For the people involved in the project, this teleportation became a disaster. While the ship was "moving" from the Philadelphia naval base to Norfolk and back, the crew members were completely disoriented. In time and space. Upon returning to the base, many could not move without leaning on the walls. And they were in a state of inescapable horror.
Subsequently, after a long period of rehabilitation, all members of the team were dismissed as "mentally unbalanced." As a result, the project "Rainbow" was covered. And the results of the experiment are classified. What was really there - nobody knows. The author of the phantasmagoria, able to explain what had happened, was no longer alive.
Worlds open Tesla
Only now we are beginning to realize the door to what an unknown world Tesla has opened. The Kirlian effect, for example, was patented in 1949, and Tesla demonstrated the effect of the surprising glow of the “aura” of objects at the end of the 19th century.
Half a century after Tesla juggled with ball lightning, Nobel Prize winner P. L. Kapitsa tried to create them. In the 1980s, IM Shakhparonov received a “by-product” in the form of magnetic graphite with unique properties at the experimental facility for creating ball lightning. Moreover, the elements of the installation itself were the source of an unknown field that reduces blood clotting, improves the taste of food and even vodka.
To date, the effect of strong magnetic fields on living organisms is actually demonstrated in Japan, where frogs and dogs are sent to "weightlessness". In superstrong magnetic fields, animals "float in the air." However, people still do not fly - the consequences of the actions of such fields have not been studied.
Some scientists are now fascinated by the study of the torsion field, and information about him is looking for in fragmentary records of Tesla. But they are few. Most of the diaries and manuscripts of Nikola Tesla disappeared under unclear circumstances. Where are they today? What secrets contain? Maybe they are stored in Pentagon safes and are waiting in the wings. Or maybe, according to some biographers, Nicola burnt them himself at the beginning of World War II, making sure that this knowledge is too dangerous for unreasonable humanity ...
The main dates of life of Nikola Tesla
1856, July 10 - Nikola Tesla was born in the village of Smilany, the province of Lika (now Yugoslavia).
1862–1866 - Nikola Tesla goes to elementary school in Smi-Liany, and then in Gospic.
1866-1870 “Nikola Tesla is a student at a real school in Gospic.
1871–1874 - Nikola Tesla is a student at a real school in Karlovac.
1875-1878 - Nikola Tesla is a student at the Higher Technical School in Graz (Austria).
1881–1882 - Nikola Tesla works in a telephone company in Budapest. The invention of a telephone amplifier.
1882 - In February 1882, Tesla discovered the phenomenon of a rotating magnetic field in Budapest.
1882-1884 - Tesla moves to work in Paris. Work on the reconstruction of Edison dynamo-machines, the construction of a power station in Strasbourg, the construction of the first models of induction motor.
1884-1885 - Moving to America. Work with Edison. Repair and improvement of machines Edison.
1885-1886 - Established the company "Tesla Erk Light Company in New York."
1886 - Nikola Tesla invents the electric arc lamp, switches and regulator for a DC dynamo. The first applications of Tesla's arc lamp to illuminate the streets of large cities.
1887, April - The Tesla Electric Company was founded. Tesla builds the first cars and motors of multiphase current with high efficiency. October 12 - Tesla applies for its main patents: asynchronous electric motor and power transmission.
November 30 - Patents for multi-phase synchronous electric motor and electric power transmission, for an inductive electric motor with a short-circuited rotor and slip rings.
December 23 - Patents for multiphase current transformers and power distribution systems are pending.
1888, April - May - Patents for the transmission of energy through three conductors connected in a star and a single-pole two-phase and three-phase current converter, an asynchronous generator, a rotating transformer for controlling the speed of induction motors and multi-pole machines are claimed.
May 16 - Tesla gives a lecture on “New system of motors and transformers of alternating current” at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in New York.
1888-1889 - Tesla works in Pittsburgh at Westinghouse. Application of patents for rectification of alternating currents and current waves.
1889-1890 - Construction of the first high-frequency generators up to 20 thousand periods .-
1890 - Discovery of high frequency currents and their physiological effects.
1891, February - The first report of phenomena associated with high frequency currents.
1892, February 3, 4, and 18 - Tesla lectures at the English Institute of Electrical Engineers, the Royal Institute in London and the International Society of Electricians and the French Society in Paris on the topic "Experiments with currents of very high frequency and voltage."
April 24 - Application for a patent for a high-frequency transformer (Tesla's resonance-transformer), May 20 - Tesla's lecture at Columbia College in New York “Experiments on very high frequency”.
1893, February 24 and March 1 - Tesla lectures at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Association of Electric Lighting in St. Louis "On Light and Other High-Frequency Phenomena." The second visit to the homeland. Mother's death.
1892-1894 - Tesla conducts experiments on radiotelegraphy in his laboratory and at an exhibition in Chicago.
1895, March 13 - A fire destroys Tesla's laboratory in New York with all the radio telegraphy equipment and devices for receiving high frequency currents. Continuation of radio experiments in the laboratory on Houston Street.
1897 - In the spring of Tesla, under New York, two-way transmission over a wireless telegraph over a distance of more than 20 miles.
1898 - In the spring, Tesla demonstrates control over a long distance by radio from a vessel in which there was no command. Tests were carried out in the open sea, near New York.
1899 - Tesla builds a large radio station with a power of 200 kilowatts in Colorado, and transmits wirelessly by telegraph at a distance of more than 1,000 kilometers, causes lamps to glow and drives motors using a wireless method at a distance of 25 kilometers, creating a voltage of 12 million volts.
1896-1922 - Nikola Tesla receives patents in the field of radio engineering, as well as on a thermomagnetic electric motor, turbines, pumps, steam engines, electric meters, speedometers, frequency meters, etc.
1921 — Tesla offers technical assistance to Soviet Russia.
1932 - Nikola Tesla publishes an article on van de Graaff static generators and the study of the structure of matter by superhigh-voltage discharges.
1941, October 12 - Tesla's answer to the appeal of the anti-fascist meeting of scientists in Moscow.
1943, January 7 - The death of Nikola Tesla in New York.
1943 January 12 - Nikola Tesla's funeral.
1956 - World jubilee celebrations on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Nikola Tesla.