Selection of perpetual motion machines
The perpetual motion machine (lat. Perpetuum Mobile) is an imaginary device that allows you to get more useful work than the amount of energy communicated to it.
Attempts to study the place, time and cause of the idea of a perpetual motion machine are a very difficult task. No less difficult to name and the first author of such a plan. The earliest information about Perpetuum mobile is apparently a mention that we find in the Indian poet, mathematician and astronomer Bhaskara, as well as some notes in 16th century Arabic manuscripts kept in Leiden, Gotha and Oxford . Currently, India is considered to be the ancestral home of the first perpetual motion machines. So, in his poem, dating back to about 1150, Bhaskara describes a wheel with long, narrow vessels half-filled with mercury attached obliquely around the rim. The principle of operation of this first mechanical perpetuum mobile was based on the difference in the moments of gravity created by the fluid moving in vessels placed on the circumference of the wheel. Bhaskara justifies the rotation of the wheel very simply: "A wheel filled with liquid in this way, mounted on an axis lying on two fixed supports, rotates continuously by itself." The first projects of a perpetual motion machine in Europe belong to the epoch of the development of mechanics, approximately to the XIII century. By the 16th — 17th centuries, the idea of a perpetual motion machine became particularly widespread. At this time, the number of perpetual motion projects submitted to the patent offices of European countries grew rapidly. Among the drawings by Leonardo Da Vinci was found an engraving with a drawing of a perpetual motion machine.
A selection of perpetual motion engines invented at different times, on handles for a note!