Checking the error of the meter, how to check the meter, the method of checking electricity meters (in simple language) RULES FOR ACCOUNTING ELECTRIC ENERGY
If you suspect an inaccuracy in the readings of the electric meter or before starting to use it
its pretty easy to check. If the meter will be used for commercial accounting,
it must be verified in the appropriate organizations with the seal of its body.
Each counter has its own accuracy class, which is indicated on its panel.
Accuracy class is the maximum permissible deviation of the meter reading.
from the true value of electricity consumed as a percentage.
That is, with accuracy class 2 and energy consumption of 100 watts hours,
the counter can count 98 ... 102 watts of hours, and this will be the norm for this counter.
That is, to check the error, it is necessary to include a previously known load in the network,
for example 1 kilowatt, for a certain time, for example 1 hour, and see
how much the counter will change after this time.
In our case, in 1 hour, a load of 1 kW "wraps" 1 kWh on the meter.
During measurements, the mains voltage should be close to 220 volts!
Otherwise, power consumption and readings will vary.
Three-phase meters are checked in the same way, only the load is considered common, for all phases.
Quite often there is such a malfunction of the counters as "self-propelled".
Its presence is not permissible! To identify, you must disconnect the machines leaving the counter,
without turning off the introductory, wait a couple of minutes, look at the disk, it should be standing.
If your billing meter showed abnormal values, you need to evaluate the error.
And if it is more than nominal, give a request to the power company to replace the meter (at their expense)
Fig. An example of the type of meter panel.
Induction counters (with disk) can be checked by counting the speed of the disk
for a certain period of time taking into account the gear ratio of the meter.
The gear ratio is the number of revolutions of the drive per 1 kW.h of electricity. It is indicated on the panel.
Permissible limits of disk rotation time for single-phase meters of accuracy class 2.5
with various gear ratios with a voltage of 220 ... 230 volts.
Accuracy class of Measuring Current Transformers for connection of rated
electricity meters, should be no more than 0.5.
ELECTRIC ENERGY RULES
These "Electricity Metering Rules" (hereinafter referred to as the Rules) were developed pursuant to Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 02.11.95 N 1087 "On Urgent Measures for Energy Saving" by the specialists of the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of Russia, the Ministry of Construction of Russia and RAO "UES of Russia" with the participation of Gosstandart of Russia.
The Rules take into account the provisions of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Articles 541-544), federal laws “On ensuring the uniformity of measurements”, “On energy conservation” and other applicable laws of the Russian Federation, GOSTs, regulatory and technical documents and experience gained in the field of electricity metering.
The rules determine the general requirements for the organization of electricity metering and the relationship between the main regulatory and technical documents in force in this area.
The rules apply on the territory of the Russian Federation and are binding upon:
- the implementation of the production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electrical energy;
- implementation of design, installation, commissioning and repair work on the organization of electricity metering;
- ensuring the operation of electric energy metering devices.
The rules contain the main provisions for accounting for electricity during its production, transmission, distribution and consumption in existing, newly constructed and reconstructed electrical installations, as well as for the operation of metering devices.
2. General Provisions
2.1. The main purpose of electricity metering is to obtain reliable information about the production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electric energy in the wholesale and retail electricity markets to solve the main technical and economic problems:
- financial settlements for electricity and capacity between market entities (energy supplying organizations, electricity consumers), taking into account its quality;
- definition and forecasting of technical and economic indicators of production, transmission and distribution of electricity in energy systems;
- determination and forecasting of technical and economic indicators of electricity consumption at enterprises of industry, transport, agriculture, the public utilities sector, etc .;
- ensuring energy conservation and power management.
2.2. The quality of the energy supplied by the energy supplying organization must comply with the requirements established by state standards and other mandatory rules or provided for by the energy supply agreement.
2.3. Accounting for active electricity should ensure the determination of the amount of electricity (and, if necessary, average power values):
- generated by generators of power plants;
- consumed for own and household needs (separately) of power plants and substations, as well as for the production needs of the power system;
- released to consumers along lines departing from the tires of power plants directly to consumers;
- transferred to the network of other owners or received from them;
- released to consumers from the electric network;
- transferred for export and received for import.
The organization of accounting for active electricity should provide the opportunity:
- determining the flow of electricity into electric networks of various voltage classes of power systems;
- compilation of energy balances for self-supporting units of energy systems and consumers;
- monitoring compliance by consumers with the consumption regimes and energy balances set by them;
- settlements of consumers for electricity at current tariffs, including multi-part and differentiated ones;
- power management.
2.4. Accounting for reactive electricity should provide the ability to determine the amount of reactive electricity received by the consumer from the power supply organization or transferred to it, if these data are used to calculate or monitor compliance with the specified operating mode of compensating devices.
2.5. Electricity metering is based on measurements using electric energy meters and information-measuring systems.
2.6. To account for electricity, measuring instruments must be used, the types of which are approved by the State Standard of Russia and entered into the State Register of Measuring Instruments.
2.7. State metrological control and supervision of measuring instruments used in electricity metering is carried out by the bodies of Gosstandart of Russia and metrological services accredited by it on the basis of current regulatory documentation.
3. Organization of electricity metering
3.1. The organization of electricity metering in existing, newly constructed, reconstructed electrical installations should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of current regulatory and technical documents in part:
- installation sites and volumes of electricity metering devices at power plants, substations and consumers;
- accuracy classes of meters and measuring transformers;
- placement of meters and wiring to them.
3.2. The accounting of active and reactive energy and power, as well as the quality control of electricity for settlements between the energy supplying organization and the consumer, is usually carried out at the boundary of the balance sheet of the power grid.
3.3. To increase the efficiency of electricity metering in electrical installations, it is recommended to use automated metering and control systems for electricity created on the basis of electric meters and information-measuring systems.
3.4. Persons performing installation and commissioning of electricity metering devices must have licenses for these types of work received in the prescribed manner.
3.5. Means of accounting for electric energy and control of its quality should be protected from unauthorized access to eliminate the possibility of distortion of measurement results.
4. Organization of operation of electricity metering devices
4.1. The supplier of measuring instruments used to record electric energy and control its quality must have a license for their manufacture, repair, sale or rental issued by the State Standard of Russia in the prescribed manner.
4.2. Organization of the operation of electricity metering devices should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of current regulatory and technical documents and instructions of manufacturers.
4.3. Maintenance of electricity meters should be carried out by specially trained personnel.
4.4. When servicing electricity metering devices, organizational and technical measures must be taken to ensure the safety of work in accordance with applicable rules.
4.5. Departments may, on the basis of existing legal and regulatory technical documents, develop and approve, within their competence, departmental regulatory and technical documents in the field of electricity metering that do not contradict these rules.
4.6. Periodic verification of measuring instruments used to account for electric energy and control its quality should be carried out within the time limits established by the State Standard of Russia.
4.7. Rearrangement, replacement, as well as changing schemes for including metering devices, is carried out with the consent of the energy supplying organization.
The main terms and definitions used in the text of the Rules
Electrical installations are a set of machines, apparatuses, power lines and auxiliary equipment (together with the structures and premises in which they are installed) intended for the production, conversion, transformation, transmission, distribution of electrical energy and its transformation into another type.
Meters that take into account active electricity are called active energy meters (hereinafter referred to as counters).
Counters that take into account integrated reactive power (hereinafter referred to as reactive electricity) for the accounting period are called reactive energy meters.
Accounting tools - a set of devices that provide measurement and accounting of electricity (measuring current and voltage transformers, electric energy meters, telemetric sensors, information-measuring systems and their communication lines) and interconnected according to the established scheme.
Electricity consumption for own needs of power plants and substations - energy consumption by receivers, providing the necessary conditions for the operation of power plants and substations in the technological process of generation, conversion and distribution of electric energy.
Electricity consumption for household needs of power plants and electric grids - power consumption by auxiliary and non-industrial units, which are on the balance of power plants and electric grid enterprises, necessary for servicing the main production, but not directly related to the technological processes of generating thermal and electric energy in power plants, as well as transmission and distribution of electrical energy.
Electricity consumption for production needs is the consumption of electricity by district boiler and electric boiler installations, both on an independent balance sheet and on the balance of power plants, as well as for pumping water by pumped storage power plants and pumping units.
Consumer (subscriber) of electric energy - a legal entity engaged in the use of electric energy (power).
Energy supply organization - a commercial organization, regardless of the legal form, selling to consumers the generated or purchased electric and (or) heat energy.
Metrological service - a set of stakeholders and types of work aimed at ensuring the uniformity of measurements.
Metrological control and supervision - activities carried out by the state metrology body services (state metrological control and supervision) or the metrological service of a legal entity in in order to verify compliance with established metrological rules and regulations.
Measuring instruments - a technical device intended for measurements.
Calibration of measuring instruments - a set of operations performed by the bodies of the metrological service (other authorized bodies, organizations) in order to determine and confirm the conformity of the measuring instrument to the established technical requirements.
Calibration of measuring instruments - a set of operations performed to determine and confirm the actual values of metrological characteristics and (or) suitability for use of measuring instruments not subject to state metrological control and supervision.
Certificate of type approval of measuring instruments - a document issued by an authorized state body certifying that this type of measuring instruments is approved in the manner prescribed by applicable law and meets established requirements.
Accreditation for the right to verify measuring instruments is the official recognition by the authorized state body of the authority to carry out verification work.
License for the manufacture (repair, sale, rental) of measuring instruments - a document certifying the right to engage in these types of activities, issued to legal entities and individuals by the state metrological service body.