Checking the error of the meter, how to check the meter, the method of calibration of electricity meters (simple language) RULES OF ELECTRIC ENERGY ACCOUNTING
If you suspect inaccuracies in the meter readings or before using it
it's pretty easy to check. If the meter will be used for commercial accounting,
it must be checked in the relevant organizations with the sealing of its body.
Each counter has its own accuracy class, which is listed on its panel.
Accuracy class is the maximum permissible value of the meter deviation.
of the true value of electricity consumed in percent.
That is, with an accuracy class of 2 and energy consumption of 100 watts of hours,
the counter can count 98 ... 102 watts of hours, and this will be the norm for this counter.
That is, to check the error, it is necessary to include in the network a known load,
for example 1 kilowatt, for a certain time, for example 1 hour, and see
How much will the meter readings change after this time?
In our case, for 1 hour, a load of 1 kW "winds" on the counter 1 kW hour.
During measurements, the mains voltage should be close to 220 volts!
Otherwise, power consumption and readings will vary.
Three-phase meters are checked in the same way, only the load is considered total, in all phases.
Quite often such a malfunction of the counters as "self-propelled".
Its presence is not allowed! To detect, it is necessary to disconnect the automatic machines
without disconnecting the input, wait a couple of minutes, look at the disk, it should stand.
If your calculation counter showed non-normal values, it is necessary to estimate the error.
And if it is more nominal, give an application for energy sales to replace the meter (at their expense)
Fig. An example of the type of panel meter.
Induction counters (with disc) can be checked by counting the revolutions of the disc
for a certain period of time, taking into account the gear ratio of the counter.
The gear ratio is the number of revolutions of the disc per 1 kWh of electricity. Indicated on the panel.
Permissible limits of time of rotation of a disk of single-phase meters of accuracy class 2.5
with different ratios at mains voltage 220 ... 230 volts.
Accuracy class of Measuring Current Transformers for connection of calculated
electricity meters, should be no more than 0.5.
RULES OF ELECTRIC ENERGY ACCOUNTING
These "Electricity Metering Rules" (hereinafter referred to as the Rules) were developed in pursuance of the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of 02.11.95 N 1087 "On Urgent Energy Saving Measures" by specialists of the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of Russia, the Ministry of Construction of Russia and RAO "UES of Russia" with the participation of Gosstandart of Russia.
The Rules take into account the provisions of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (articles 541-544), federal laws "On ensuring the uniformity of measurements", "On energy saving" and other current laws of the Russian Federation, GOSTs, regulatory and technical documents and accumulated experience in the field of electricity metering.
The rules define the general requirements for the organization of electricity metering and the relationship between the main regulatory and technical documents in force in this area.
The rules are valid on the territory of the Russian Federation and are required for:
- the implementation of the production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electric energy;
- the implementation of design, installation, commissioning and repair work on the organization of electricity metering;
- ensuring operation of electric power metering devices.
The rules contain the main provisions on electricity metering during its production, transmission, distribution and consumption in existing, newly constructed and reconstructed electrical installations, as well as on the operation of metering devices.
2. General provisions
2.1. The main purpose of electricity metering is to obtain reliable information on the production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electrical energy in the wholesale and retail electricity markets to solve basic technical and economic tasks:
- financial payments for electricity and power between the market entities (power supply organizations, electricity consumers), taking into account its quality;
- determination and prediction of technical and economic indicators of production, transmission and distribution of electricity in energy systems;
- determination and forecasting of technical and economic indicators of electricity consumption at the enterprises of industry, transport, agriculture, household sector, etc .;
- ensuring energy saving and power management.
2.2. The quality of the energy supplied by the energy supplying organization must comply with the requirements established by state standards and other mandatory rules or provided for in the energy supply contract.
2.3. Accounting for active electricity should provide the determination of the amount of electricity (and, if necessary, average power values):
- produced by generators of power plants;
- consumed for own and business needs (separately) of power plants and substations, as well as for production needs of the power system;
- Allowed to consumers along the lines departing from the tires of power plants directly to consumers;
- transferred to the network of other owners or received from them;
- released to consumers from the electrical network;
- transferred for export and received for import.
The organization of the accounting of active electricity should provide the ability to:
- determine the flow of electricity into electrical networks of various voltage classes of power systems;
- compilation of electricity balances for self-supporting units of power systems and consumers;
- control over the observance by consumers of the consumption modes and electricity balances specified by them;
- consumer payments for electricity at current rates, including multi-part and differentiated;
- power management.
2.4. Accounting of reactive electricity should provide the ability to determine the amount of reactive electricity received by a consumer from an electricity supplying organization or transferred to it, if these data are used to calculate or monitor compliance with a specified mode of operation of compensating devices.
2.5. Electricity metering is carried out on the basis of measurements using electric energy meters and information-measuring systems.
2.6. For metering of electricity should be used measuring instruments, types of which are approved by Gosstandart of Russia and entered into the State Register of Measuring Instruments.
2.7. The state metrological control and supervision of measuring instruments used in the course of electricity metering is carried out by the bodies of the Gosstandart of Russia and the metrological services accredited to them based on the current regulatory documentation.
3. Organization of electricity metering
3.1. The organization of electricity metering in existing, newly constructed, reconstructed electrical installations should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the current regulatory and technical documents in terms of:
- installation sites and volumes of electricity metering facilities at power plants, substations and with consumers;
- accuracy classes of meters and instrument transformers;
- placement of meters and wiring to them.
3.2. Accounting for active and reactive energy and power, as well as quality control of electricity for settlements between the energy supplying organization and the consumer, is usually carried out at the border of the balance of the electricity supply network.
3.3. To improve the efficiency of electricity metering in electrical installations, it is recommended to use automated metering and control systems for electricity generated on the basis of electricity meters and information-measuring systems.
3.4. Persons performing work on the installation and commissioning of electricity metering means, must have a license to carry out these types of work, received in the prescribed manner.
3.5. Means of electric energy metering and quality control should be protected from unauthorized access to eliminate the possibility of distortion of measurement results.
4. Organization of operation of electricity metering means
4.1. The supplier of measuring instruments used to record electricity and control its quality must be licensed to manufacture, repair, sell or rent it, issued by the Gosstandart of Russia in the prescribed manner.
4.2. The organization of operation of electricity metering means should be conducted in accordance with the requirements of the existing regulatory and technical documents and instructions of manufacturers.
4.3. Operational maintenance of electricity metering devices should be carried out by specially trained personnel.
4.4. When servicing electricity metering devices, organizational and technical measures should be taken to ensure the safety of work in accordance with current regulations.
4.5. Offices may, on the basis of existing legal and regulatory and technical documents, develop and approve, within their competence, departmental regulatory and technical documents in the field of electricity metering that do not conflict with these rules.
4.6. Periodic verification of measuring instruments used to record electrical energy and control its quality should be carried out within the deadlines established by Gosstandart of Russia.
4.7. Permutation, replacement, and also change of the schemes of inclusion of accounting means, is made with the consent of the energy supplying organization.
Basic terms and definitions used in the text of the Rules
Electrical installations are called a set of machines, apparatuses, power lines and auxiliary equipment (together with the facilities and premises in which they are installed) intended for the production, conversion, transformation, transmission, distribution of electrical energy and its transformation into another form.
Counters that take into account the active electricity, are called active energy meters (hereinafter - meters).
Counters that take into account the integrated reactive power (hereinafter referred to as reactive electric power) for the reference period are called reactive energy meters.
Means of accounting - a set of devices providing measurement and metering of electricity (measuring current and voltage transformers, electricity meters, telemetry sensors, information-measuring systems and their communication lines) and interconnected according to the established scheme.
Electricity consumption for own needs of power plants and substations - electricity consumption by receivers that provide the necessary conditions for the operation of power plants and substations in the technological process of generation, conversion and distribution of electrical energy.
Electricity consumption for the economic needs of power plants and electrical networks is the electricity consumption of auxiliary and non-industrial divisions that are on the balance of power plants and electrical grid enterprises necessary to serve the main production, but not directly related to the technological processes of production of heat and electricity at power plants, and transmission and distribution of electrical energy.
Electricity consumption for production needs is the consumption of electricity by district boiler houses and electric boilers, both on an independent balance sheet and on the balance of power plants, as well as on pumping water from pumped storage power stations and pumping plants.
Consumer (subscriber) of electric energy - a legal entity engaged in the use of electric energy (power).
The energy supplying organization is a commercial organization, regardless of its organizational and legal form, which sells electrical or (and) thermal energy produced or purchased to consumers.
Metrological service is a set of stakeholders and types of work aimed at ensuring the uniformity of measurements.
Metrological control and supervision is carried out by the state metrological authority services (state metrological control and supervision) or the metrological service of a legal entity in to verify compliance with established metrological rules and regulations.
Measuring instruments - technical device intended for measurements.
Verification of measuring instruments is a set of operations performed by the metrological services (other authorized bodies, organizations) in order to determine and confirm the compliance of the measuring instrument with the established technical requirements.
Calibration of measuring instruments is a set of operations performed to determine and confirm the actual values of metrological characteristics and (or) suitability for use of a measuring instrument that is not subject to state metrological control and supervision.
The certificate on approval of the type of measuring instrument is a document issued by an authorized state body certifying that this type of measuring instrument is approved in the manner prescribed by applicable law and complies with the established requirements.
Accreditation for the right of verification of measuring instruments is the official recognition of the authority authorized to perform verification work by an authorized state body.
The license for the manufacture (repair, sale, rental) of measuring instruments is a document certifying the right to engage in these types of activities, issued to legal entities and individuals by a body of state metrological service.