Savings methods in the management of water and heat metering
Existing accounting regulations often contradict each other and have many weak points. Thus, the Rules for Accounting for Heat Energy and Coolant were approved only in 1995, but already now many experts admit that they are morally obsolete. GOST R 51649-2000 "Heat meters for water systems heat
supply. General Specifications ”was approved in 2000, but the test requirements set therein are not met. In particular, devices do not pass tests for electromagnetic compatibility. None of the test centers do not carry out the tests stipulated by GOST for checking the security against unauthorized access to the memory of devices. Proving later that the consumer deliberately distorts the instrument readings is very difficult.
There are many possibilities of falsification. This is due to the fact that the heat meter is rather complicated in design, operation algorithms, installation, operation.
There are a number of ways to correct instrument readings. The easiest way is sometimes used by homeowners to reduce the cost of water used for irrigation. The consumer buys the cheapest and most unreliable (in the opinion of neighbors and acquaintances) a water meter, will coordinate its use with the water supplier. In accordance with domestic standards, the minimum flow rate recorded by the water meter is 30 l / h. Consequently, the valve is opened so that the flow rate is less than 30 l / h. At the same time, the meter does not record the disassembly of water at all, that is, by installing the device, the consumer gets the opportunity not to legally pay for water: at a flow rate of, for example, 20 l / h, you can get 480 l of clean drinking water per day absolutely free!
In urban apartments, tenants practice in a slightly more complicated way. At installation of the counter installation of the mesh filter with a stopper which is not sealed up is required since cleaning of the filter is periodically required. The consumer twists the flexible hose (eyeliner) in place of the removed filter drain nut and receives water to bypass the meter. In the case of the arrival of a Vodokanal inspector, to check the counter (which happens very rarely), simply unscrew the nut of the hose and put in a regular plug — this takes several minutes.
For the same design of the water metering station, there is a simpler way: a thin wire is attached to the glass of the screen filter and passed into the pipe along the water. The wire slows down the rotation of the impeller of the counter, and the readings are significantly underestimated.
Most of the water meters currently used are the so-called “sukhohody”. They consist of two parts: an impeller rotating in water, and a counting mechanism separated from the impeller by an airtight partition. One or several small magnets are mounted on the impeller. Water rotates the impeller, under the influence of the rotation of the magnets behind the hermetic partition rotates the metal ring, the rotation of the ring is transmitted to the counting mechanism. The essence of the following method of lowering the readings is braking the impeller by installing external magnets, the position of which is determined empirically.