Saving methods in the management of commercial water and heat metering
Existing accounting regulations often contradict each other and have many weak points. Thus, the Rules for Accounting for Heat Energy and Coolant were approved only in 1995, but already now many experts admit that they are morally obsolete. GOST R 51649-2000 "Heat meters for water systems heat
supply. General Specifications ”was approved in 2000, but the test requirements set therein are not met. In particular, devices do not pass tests for electromagnetic compatibility. None of the test centers do not carry out the tests stipulated by GOST for checking the security from unauthorized access to the memory of devices. Proving later that the consumer deliberately distorts the instrument readings is very difficult.
There are many possibilities of falsification. This is due to the fact that the heat meter is rather complicated in design, operation algorithms, installation, operation.
There are a number of ways to correct instrument readings. The easiest way is sometimes used by homeowners to reduce the cost of water used for irrigation. The consumer buys the cheapest and most unreliable (in the opinion of neighbors and friends) a water meter, will coordinate its use with the water supplier. In accordance with domestic standards, the minimum flow rate recorded by the water meter is 30 l / h. Consequently, the valve is opened so that the flow rate is less than 30 l / h. At the same time, the meter does not record the disassembly of water at all, that is, by installing the device, the consumer can legally not pay for water: at a flow rate of, for example, 20 l / h, you can get 480 l of clean drinking water per day absolutely free!
In urban apartments, tenants practice in a slightly more complicated way. At installation of the counter installation of the mesh filter with a stopper which is not sealed up is required since cleaning of the filter is periodically required. The consumer screws the flexible hose (eyeliner) into place of the removed filter drain nut and receives water to bypass the meter. In the case of the arrival of a Vodokanal inspector, to check the counter (which happens very rarely), simply unscrew the nut of the hose and put in a regular plug — this takes several minutes.
For the same design of the water metering station, there is a simpler way: a thin wire is attached to the glass of the screen filter and passed into the pipe along the water. The wire slows down the rotation of the impeller counter, and the readings are significantly underestimated.
Most of the water meters currently used are the so-called “sukhohody”. They consist of two parts: an impeller rotating in water and a counting mechanism separated from the impeller by an airtight partition. At the impeller mounted one or more small magnets. Water rotates the impeller, under the influence of the rotation of the magnets behind a hermetic partition rotates a metal ring, the rotation of the ring is transmitted to the counting mechanism. The essence of the following method of lowering the readings is braking the impeller by installing external magnets, the position of which is determined empirically.
The considered methods for correcting the readings of water meters cause a somewhat different attitude to the positive conclusions of various organizations on the results of their implementation. It is clear that if residential water meters are installed in a residential quarter, the sum of their readings (for example, for a month) will be less than the calculated value determined according to the relevant standards. This is not in doubt. However, the authors did not mention in any of the reports, in any of the numerous articles that somewhere after the installation of apartment water meters the total water consumption of a city, district or village decreased. In practice, simultaneously with the introduction of water meters, the imbalance between the results of accounting for supply and consumption is growing, and the manipulations with devices discussed above are forced to be attributed to losses in distribution networks.
More diverse ways to adjust the readings of heat meters. The heat meter consists of three main blocks: a flow meter, thermal converters, a heat meter, and it is possible to make adjustments by manipulating any of the blocks.
Tachometric heat meter flow meters have the same adjustment options as those mentioned above for water meters.
Electromagnetic flowmeter structurally consists of two magnetic coils installed under and above the pipe, two measuring electrodes arranged horizontally. An alternating voltage of known frequency and shape is applied to the coils. A signal is taken from the electrodes that is proportional to the flow rate of the fluid. To correct the readings of the device outside the flow sensor, additional magnetic coils are installed, the voltage on which is supplied in antiphase to the voltage of the coils of the device. Thus, the useful signal is suppressed and readings are underestimated. Fortunately, this method has not yet received wide distribution, because it requires a certain qualification of the performer.
The vortex flowmeter constructively consists of a triangular prism, vertically installed in the pipe, a measuring electrode inserted into the pipe further along the flow of the liquid, and a permanent magnet installed outside the pipe. Manipulations are reduced to the distortion of the magnetic field of the permanent magnet of the flowmeter. To do this, use a set of permanent magnets.
Their location is chosen empirically. In this way it is possible to significantly raise the lower limit of the measuring range of the device. Another way to underestimate the readings of vortex flowmeters is by twisting and twisting the water flow, for example, by displacing the installation of the gasket between the flanges of the instrument and the pipeline.
A simple but effective way to lower the readings of a heat meter is associated with the operation of thermocouples. They are installed in the supply and return pipelines and are connected by communication lines to the heat meter. By connecting a resistor with variable resistance parallel to the thermal converter installed on the supply pipe, it is possible to lower the temperature of the water supplied from the heating network. Moreover, the magnitude of the required "savings" is governed by the selection of the resistance of the resistor.
The method of unwinding the water meter with a vacuum cleaner
When installing the meter, it is usually necessary to install a strainer with a plug in front of it, which is not sealed. It has to be cleaned from time to time. At this point, it is convenient to time the counter "rollback". The idea is simple - to flow through the counter the flow of something (preferably free) in the opposite direction. Use for this air. So, close the valve in front of the filter and remove the plug from the filter.
We take the vacuum cleaner, insert its hose into the outlet (if the design of the vacuum cleaner allows it) and "blow through" it, for example, into the window (to remove dust).
Open the faucet on the mixer and connect the vacuum cleaner hose to it. The junction can be sealed, for example, by winding a cloth on the spout of the mixer or holding the junction by hand. Part of the air will still have to release, so as not to burn the vacuum cleaner.
Turn on the vacuum cleaner and twist the counter back. The speed is adjustable, releasing a part of the air at the point of attachment of the vacuum cleaner hose to the faucet. This must be done necessarily, otherwise the vacuum cleaner may burn from lack of air to cool the engine. On domestic cranes it may not work, since their gasket is attached to the stem freely and can act as a check valve.
This method is applicable if the vacuum cleaner is of the old type. New can only "suck". In this case, connect it to the filter instead of the cork. We'll just have to follow, so as not to "pump" the water remaining in the pipes. Otherwise, the vacuum cleaner will fail. To avoid this, a separation vessel can be used. To do this, we take a jar, close it with a plastic cap, make two holes in the cap. In one should be tightly inserted hose from the vacuum cleaner (shallow), the other is also tight hose to the filter (this hose is inserted almost to the bottom of the can). Now the water left by chance in the pipe will be collected in a can, and clean air will go into the vacuum cleaner. (Anna 03/01/05)
The way to stop the water meter with a magnet
The use of a magnet to stop the water meter SGV-15. Two magnets from the speakers glued to the plate with a hole that the entire device fits on the meter body. It is tested that the magnets used in the hard drives of the company are stronger and installed simply on the glass opposite the axis (just attached) generally stop the meter.