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New integrated technology
A new integrated technology with the goal of significantly improving the performance of reciprocating internal combustion engines, components and mechanisms of automotive vehicles, aviation, ships and ships, diesel locomotives, and electric power generators on the engine.
The method of forming superhard surfaces of friction pairs, of the 14th accuracy class, in order to significantly reduce noise and significantly increase the survivability of vehicles, components and mechanisms on ships and naval vessels of the Navy, for use on civilian ships is approved by the "Permit of the Maritime Register" of Sevastopol, and It is also approved for use in the industrial sector.
Integrated Technology Tasks
To form a superhard, high-precision surface of metal friction pairs during the operation of mechanisms. More than 1500 (one thousand five hundred) times to reduce the coefficient of friction in the nodes and mechanisms. To reduce tens of times the peak values of dynamic loads and prevent the friction pairs from hardening in the metal, as well as eliminate cavitation from mechanical causes on the walls of cylinder liners. To effectively block the breakthrough of gases through thermal gaps in the locks of the compression rings of the internal combustion engine, making the compression stably nominal and independent of the size of these gaps and temperatures. Increase the torque at low engine speeds (there are no analogues in the world engine manufacturing practice). As a result of a significant improvement in technical and operational parameters, in general, categorically improve environmental performance.
According to experts, the application of the method of this technology for ICE and transmission of KAMAZ vehicles (mining dump truck) brings significant profit due to the improvement of techno-economic performance indicators of ICE and mechanisms:
- Reduces fuel consumption
- - at idle speed by 70-80%;
- - at small and partial loads by 30-50%;
- - at power modes by 20-35%;
- - an average of up to 40%;
- Increases torque at low speeds by 20-25%;
- Increases engine power by 25-35%;
- Reduces oil consumption for waste by 95-98%;
- Provides an increase in the resource of internal combustion engines without overhaul up to 10 times;
- Reduces the coefficient of friction in components and mechanisms by 1,500 (One thousand five hundred) times .;
- It guarantees against wear during the "Cold Start" during the entire period of operation;
- Significantly reduces noise and vibration;
- Normalizes and stabilizes compression throughout the life of the piston engine group .;
- Ensures easy start of ICE at subzero temperatures;
- Significantly improves environmental performance (including thermal pollution).
A new or updated ICE upgraded by this technology exhibits the following characteristics:
- - up to 3,000 km of run; improvement of characteristics to “excess”;
- - from 3,000 km to 1,5 million km of run, stable retention of the achieved characteristics.
The practice of normative operation of domestic ICEs as a whole reads: up to 30 thousand km. mileage the engine works better and better, from 30 thousand km. up to 70 thousand km., due to friction, it begins to gradually wear out and at the end of this period it is advisable to change the rings. Further, the internal combustion engine wears out irreversibly to 150 thousand km. the mileage is in need of major repairs with a complete replacement of the cylinder-piston group. The complex technology prevents wear from friction during the declared motor resource standard, and also makes compression independent of the thermal and power modes of the internal combustion engine. Even the “venerable" by all accounts engine and at the end of the engine life is still working flawlessly, quietly, constantly powerful and smokeless, when a complex technology system works in it.
Characteristics of power, fuel and oil consumption in an integrated technology system
It is known that: the smaller the gap in the hot state between the piston head above the first (fire) ring and the cylinder, the greater the gas throttling in this gap and the better the working conditions of the rings. So, with a gap of 0.05 mm and a gas temperature in the upper part of the gap of 800 degrees C, already at a distance of 20 mm from the upper part, the gas temperature decreases to 400 degrees C, and with a gap of 0.5 mm, only up to 700 degrees C. Gas pressure on piston rings varies both from the distance to the ring and from the gas pressure in the cylinder. If we take the pressure in the cylinder of the internal combustion engine of the car as 100%, then the pressure acting on the I ring will be - 75%, on II - 17%, and on III - 7% (with nominal clearances).
The prevention of gas breakthrough into the crankcase, as can be seen, is ensured by lowering the pressure as a result of gas throttling during passage through the labyrinth tunnels and the gaps formed by the rings, which is a costly part and is not an efficient energy consumption of hot gases in the engine cylinders. Up to seven compression rings are installed on super-quiet marine engines to prevent the breakthrough of gases into the crankcase, especially when the piston of the TDC area runs at low speed under load, (the issue of friction is also understood).
The complex technology system structurally blocks gas at the level of the upper (fire) ring and, irrespective of the size of the gap of the rings, effectively returns up to 24% of the explosion energy in the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine of the car to the crankshaft. Such methods provide indicators for increasing torque at the “bottom”, increasing power, reducing fuel and oil consumption (waste), and in general, environmental indicators of the level of European norms are determined over the entire life cycle.
Vitality of internal combustion engines for sports, motor resources 1,000,000 km. serial engine
With significant engine boosting, increased loads in the crankshaft bearings can lead to the destruction of the oil wedge in it, i.e. increased wear of the bearing, setting of metals, smelting of the bearing, etc. The bearing load depends both on the peripheral speed of the bearing, which determines the amount of friction, and on the dimensions: the length of the bearing and its diameter at a given pressure on the piston. The energy costs of overcoming the friction forces in the main ICE units are: CPG - 11.5%; Timing - 2.7%; crank - 3% of the power of the car engine. The complex technology, unlike other methods of forcing ICE, reduces the friction coefficient by 1,500 times, and in general - increases the power of the ICE by 25-30%, keeps the geometry of the parts and, as a result, the optimal size of the piston-cylinder gap for the entire life of the engine, and its effectiveness allows the installation of compression rings with increased thermal gaps. It is advisable to increase by 0.2 mm from the nominal, the gap of the upper (fire) ring in order to redistribute pressure and temperature, thereby significantly softening the working conditions of the compression rings and to prevent the thermal wedge of the CPG during engine overheating. These are the capabilities of integrated technology.
It is possible to keep the internal combustion engine in a stable-perfect state, repeating the indiscriminate restoration of mechanisms after 150 thousand km. mileage (300,000 km. for high-tech ICEs), etc. The use of integrated technology universally solves the problem of 1 million km. mileage and above for the new engine.
Improving the performance of an aircraft piston engine
Thermal clearances of the piston rings are performed taking into account the conditions from thermal jamming during forced operation of the internal combustion engine. Airborne internal combustion engines at maximum power modes withstand significant heat flux loads, which can reach 2500 degrees. Therefore, a large climb is carried out in stages for several lifts, in order to save the internal combustion engine from thermal destruction. With a decrease in loads - nominal, medium, small - power modes, the heat flux decreases and, as a result, this determines a noticeable increase in the thermal clearances of the piston rings, which leads to a breakthrough of gases in the crankcase and loss of power in a well-prepared piston engine. In this case, through increased thermal clearances of the piston rings, oil from the crankcase enters the combustion chamber. During parking, when the internal combustion engine is not warmed up, from the lower cylinders, through the thermal clearances of the piston rings, a significant loss of oil also occurs (oily soil in the parking lot, steering tracks). The use of complex technology allows you to effectively block the breakthrough of gases into the crankcase and the loss of oil, resulting, as a result, from the increased thermal clearances of the piston rings of the aircraft ICE.
During the operation of the piston internal combustion engine, heat is removed from the piston: 20-25% through oil in the crankcase and 75-80% through contact - piston -> rings -> cylinder. In a well-prepared internal combustion engine, due to the serration of the microrelief of the surfaces of the friction pairs, from 100% of the geometric contact area of the parts, 3 (three)% of the area actually come into contact, and in worn-out internal combustion engines (“barrel”, ellipse in the cylinders) even less. This parameter categorically determines the limit of the density of the heat flux removed from the piston to the cylinder wall. The use of integrated technology forms a smoothly wavy surface profile of friction pairs of accuracy class 14 and creates a real contact spot of 16 (sixteen)%. An increase of more than five times the area of real contact increases the possibility of heat removal, which protects the piston, rings, and oil wedge from overheating. Such a surface of parts of rubbing pairs is characterized by some properties: an abnormally low coefficient of friction, superhardness, strength, keeps the geometry of parts, high wear resistance, high thermal conductivity, prevents the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in cylinders, reducing their number by 80-90 %%, and is not susceptible to corrosion , a dielectric, withstands temperatures of 3500 degrees C. It guarantees the surface against thermal damage during afterburners.
Elimination of cavitation on the outer walls of the cylinders and the conditions of “hardening” in the metal of friction pairs
Vibrations of cylinder liners under loads form cavities of rarefaction in the coolant, where cavitation bubbles are formed, when they collapse, pressures up to 600 atm occur in microzones. and temperatures up to 1200 degrees C (microexplosion) and metal clusters (microparticles) break out from the outer surface of the sleeve, microcracks form, and then surface rupture.
The complex technology system instantly redistributes the energy of elastic deformation in the metal of friction pairs, reducing the peak values tens of times, that is, the vibration of the cylinder walls is smoothed out and cavitation is prevented. The critical deformation moments of the crystal lattice, which form a “hardening” in the metal of rubbing pairs of nodes and various mechanisms (ICE, gearboxes, gearbox, CV joint, etc.) are instantly eliminated.
Advantages of using integrated technology on diesel and supercharged diesel engines, as well as gasoline ICEs at startup
The difficulty of starting at low temperatures is well known. The most difficult to solve is the problem of self-ignition of fuel in diesel engines. The low initial temperature of the charge, and for supercharged engines - in addition to a low (E) compression ratio, do not provide a sufficiently high compression temperature. The cold walls of the cylinders remove heat from the compressed charge, and the gaps in the locks of the compression rings can negate compression, catastrophically lowering its temperature. With a compression ratio of 13 (very low for an atmospheric diesel and high enough for a supercharged diesel), the compression temperature reaches 630 degrees C at full load, but much lower at partial loads, when the turbocharger has low or even zero performance. A naturally aspirated diesel engine under the same atmospheric conditions with a compression ratio of 16 provides a compression temperature of 720 degrees C. Obviously, a compressor with a supercharged engine in start-up mode does not work, and as a result, the compression temperature is very low.
The use of complex technology makes the compression independent of the size of the gaps in the locks of the compression rings and provides a reliable increase in the compression temperature necessary for the successful start of the diesel engine. Starting a conventional gasoline engine can be called easy and trouble-free, but due to the enrichment of the mixture for starting and warming up (at the same time, fuel is overspended by 2-3 times, environmentally dirty exhaust, low ICE power). Applying a comprehensive technology, these shortcomings are largely eliminated, since there is practically no need to enrich the mixture for starting and warming up.