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New integrated technology
A new complex technology with the aim of significantly improving the performance of reciprocating internal combustion engines, assemblies and mechanisms of automotive engineering, aviation, on ships and ships, on diesel locomotives, on the engine — on electric generators.
The method of forming superhard surfaces of friction pairs, 14th class of accuracy, with the aim of significantly reducing noise and repeatedly increasing the survivability of machines, components and mechanisms on ships and floating equipment of the Navy, for use on ships of the civilian fleet has been approved by the “Maritime Register” Sevastopol, and also approved for use in the industrial sector.
The challenges of integrated technology
To form a superhard, high-precision surface of metallic friction pairs during the operation of mechanisms. More than 1500 (one thousand five hundred) times to reduce the coefficient of friction in the nodes and mechanisms. Dozens of times to reduce the peak values of the dynamic loads and prevent the friction pairs in the metal from sticking to the metal, as well as to eliminate cavitation from mechanical causes on the walls of the cylinder liners. It is effective to block gas breakthrough through the thermal gaps in the locks of the compression rings of the internal combustion engine, making the compression stable nominal and independent of the size of these gaps and temperatures. To increase the torque at low engine speeds (there are no analogues in engine world practice). As a result of a significant improvement in technical and operational parameters, in general, categorically improve environmental indicators.
According to expert estimates, the use of this technology for internal combustion engines and transmissions of KAMAZ vehicles (mining dump truck) brings significant profits by improving the technical and economic performance of the internal combustion engines and mechanisms:
- Reduces fuel consumption
- - at idle speed by 70-80%;
- - at low and partial loads by 30-50%;
- - at power modes for 20-35%;
- - on average up to 40%;
- Increases torque at low revs by 20-25%;
- Increases the power of the internal combustion engine by 25-35%;
- Reduces oil consumption for waste by 95-98%;
- Provides an increase in the resource of ICE without overhaul up to 10 times;
- Reduces the coefficient of friction in the nodes and mechanisms in 1500 (One thousand five hundred) times .;
- Guarantees against wear during “Cold start” during the whole service life;
- Significantly reduces noise and vibration;
- Normalizes and stabilizes compression throughout the entire service life of the piston group of the internal combustion engine .;
- Guarantees easy start of ICE at sub-zero temperatures;
- Significantly improves environmental performance (including thermal pollution).
Upgraded by this technology, a new or updated engine displays the following characteristics:
- - Up to 3,000 km of run, performance improvement to “supernorm”;
- - from 3,000 km to 1.5 million km, stable retention of the achieved characteristics.
The practice of regulatory exploitation of domestic ICE as a whole reads as follows: up to 30 thousand km. mileage engine works better and better, from 30 thousand. Km. up to 70 thousand km., for reasons of friction, it begins to gradually wear out and at the end of this period it is desirable to change the rings. Further, the internal combustion engine wears out irreversibly and to 150 thousand km. mileage needs a complete overhaul with a complete replacement of the cylinder-piston group. The complex technology prevents wear from friction during the stated standard of the motor potential, and also makes the compression independent of the thermal and power modes of the engine. Even the “respectable” engine in all respects and at the end of the motor potential still works flawlessly, quietly, constantly powerfully and smokelessly when the system of integrated technology works in it.
Characteristics of power, fuel consumption and oil in the integrated technology system
It is known that: the smaller the gap in the hot state between the piston head over the first (firing) ring and the cylinder, the greater the throttling of the gas in this gap and the better the working conditions of the rings. So with a gap of 0.05 mm and a gas temperature in the upper part of the gap of 800 degrees C, already at a distance of 20 mm from the upper part the gas temperature drops to 400 degrees C, and with a gap of 0.5 mm only to 700 degrees C. Gas pressure on piston rings varies both from the distance to the ring and from the gas pressure in the cylinder. If we take the pressure in the cylinder of the internal combustion engine of the car for 100%, then the pressure acting on the I ring will be 75%, II - 17%, and III - 7% (with nominal clearances).
Prevention of gas breakthrough into the crankcase, as can be seen, is ensured by lowering the pressure as a result of gas throttling during the passage of the labyrinth tunnels and gaps formed by rings, which is a costly part and is not an effective energy consumption of hot gases in the engine cylinders. On ultra-fast marine engines, to prevent gas breakthrough into the crankcase, especially when passing the piston of the TDC region at low speeds under load, up to seven compression rings are installed (the question of friction is also clear).
The system of complex technology blocks the gas at the level of the upper (firing) ring and, regardless of the size of the ring clearances, effectively returns up to 24% of the explosion energy in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine to the crankshaft. Such methods are provided with indicators to increase the torque at the "bottoms", increase power, reduce fuel and oil consumption (for waste), and in general - determine the environmental performance level of European standards throughout the life.
Vitality ICE for sports, service life of 1,000,000 km. serial ICE
With a significant boost of the engine, increased loads in the crank shaft bearings can lead to the destruction of the oil wedge in it, i.e. to increased bearing wear, metal hardening, bearing melting, etc. The load on the bearing depends on the peripheral speed of the bearing, which determines the magnitude of friction, and on the size: the length of the bearing and its diameter at a given pressure on the piston. The energy costs of overcoming the friction forces in the main components of the internal combustion engine are: CPG - 11.5%; Timing - 2.7%; crank - 3% of the power of the automotive engine. The complex technology, unlike other methods of forcing ICE, reduces the friction coefficient by 1500 times, and in general increases ICE capacity by 25-30%, retains the geometry of the parts and as a result the optimum size of the piston-cylinder gap for the entire period of the service life, and its efficiency allows the installation of compression rings with increased thermal gaps. It is advisable to increase by 0.2 mm from the nominal, the gap of the upper (fire) ring in order to redistribute pressure and temperature, thereby significantly alleviating the conditions of operation of the compression rings and to prevent the thermal wedge of the CPS when the engine overheats. These are the possibilities of integrated technology.
It is possible to keep the internal combustion engine in a stable-perfect condition, repeating the in-place recovery of mechanisms after 150 thousand km. mileage (300,000 km. for high-tech internal combustion engines), etc. The use of complex technology universally solves the problem of 1 million km. run and up for a new ICE.
Improving the performance of the aviation piston engine
Thermal gaps of the piston rings are carried out taking into account the conditions from thermal seizure during forced operation of the engine. Aviation internal combustion engines at extreme power regimes withstand significant heat flow loads that can reach 2500 degrees. Therefore, a set of high altitude is carried out in stages for several ascents, in order to save the internal combustion engine from thermal destruction. With a decrease in loads - nominal, medium, low - power modes, the heat flow decreases and, as a result, this determines a noticeable increase in the thermal gaps of the piston rings, which leads to a breakthrough of gases into the crankcase and a loss of power in a well-prepared piston engine. At the same time, through the increased thermal gaps of the piston rings, the oil from the crankcase enters the combustion chamber. During parking, when the engine is not heated, from the lower cylinders, through the thermal gaps of the piston rings, there is also a significant loss of oil (oily soil in the parking lot, steering tracks). The use of complex technology allows you to effectively block the gas breakthrough into the crankcase and the loss of oil, resulting, as a consequence, from the increased in the standard thermal gaps of the piston rings of the aircraft engine.
During the operation of a piston internal combustion engine, heat from the piston is removed: 20-25% - through the oil in the crankcase and 75-80% - contact - piston -> rings -> cylinder. In a well-prepared internal combustion engine, due to the jaggedness of the microrelief of surfaces of friction pairs, from 100% of the geometric contact area of parts, 3 (three)% of the area actually touch, and this is less in worn internal combustion engines (“barrel”, ellipse in cylinders). This parameter categorically determines the limit of the density of the heat flow from the piston to the wall of the cylinder. The use of complex technology forms a smooth-wavy profile of surfaces of friction pairs of 14 accuracy class and creates a spot of real contact equal to 16 (sixteen)%. An increase in the area of real contact over five times increases the possibility of heat removal, which protects the piston, rings, and oil wedge from overheating. Such a surface of parts of friction pairs is characterized by some properties: abnormally low coefficient of friction, superhardness, strength, keeps the geometry of parts, high wear resistance, high thermal conductivity, prevents the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in tsilindra reducing by 80-90 %% their number, does not give in to corrosion , dielectric, withstands temperatures of 3500 degrees C. Ensures the surface from thermal damage during the afterburner.
Elimination of cavitation on the outer walls of the cylinders and the “hardening” conditions in the metal of friction pairs
Vibrations of cylinder liners under loads form cavities of dilutions in the coolant, where cavitation bubbles are formed, when they collapse in microzones, pressures up to 600 atm occur. and temperatures up to 1200 degrees C (microexplosion) and clusters (microparticles) of metal break out from the outer surface of the liner, microcracks form, and then - surface rupture.
The system of complex technology instantly redistributes the energy of elastic deformation in the metal of friction pairs, reducing the peak values tenfold, that is, vibrations of the walls of the cylinders are smoothed and cavitation is prevented. Also, critical deformation moments of the crystal lattice are instantly eliminated, which form “naklep” in the metal of the friction pairs of nodes and various mechanisms (internal combustion engines, gearboxes, gearbox, constant velocity joints, etc.).
Advantages of using complex technology on diesel and supercharged diesel engines, as well as gasoline engines at start-ups
The difficulties of starting at low temperatures are well known. The most difficult to solve is the problem of self-ignition of fuel in diesel engines. The low initial temperature of the charge, and in the case of supercharged engines, is also a low (E) compression ratio; they do not provide a sufficiently high compression temperature. The cold walls of the cylinders remove heat from the compressed charge, and the gaps in the locks of the compression rings can negate compression, drastically reducing its temperature. With a compression ratio of 13 (very low for atmospheric diesel and high enough for a supercharged diesel), the compression temperature reaches 630 degrees C at full load, but significantly lower at partial loads, when the turbocharger has a small or even zero performance. The diesel without naturally aspirated under the same atmospheric conditions at a compression ratio of 16 ensures that the compression temperature is 720 degrees C. Obviously, the compressor does not work for the diesel with supercharging in the start mode, and as a result the compression temperature is very low.
The use of complex technology makes compression independent of the size of gaps in the locks of compression rings and provides a reliable increase in the temperature of compression, which is necessary for the successful launch of a diesel engine. Starting a conventional gasoline engine can be called easy and trouble-free, but due to the enrichment of the mixture for starting and warming up (this causes excessive fuel consumption by 2-3 times, an environmentally dirty exhaust, low power of the internal combustion engine). Applying complex technology, these disadvantages are largely eliminated, since there is practically no need to enrich the mixture for starting and warming up.