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New integrated technology
A new integrated technology to significantly improve the performance of piston internal combustion engines, units and mechanisms of automotive engineering, aviation, ships and ships, diesel locomotives, and engine-generators.
The method of forming superhard surfaces of friction pairs, the 14th grade of accuracy, in order to significantly reduce noise and repeatedly increase the survivability of machines, knots and mechanisms on ships and navy vessels, for use on ships of the civil fleet is approved by the "Permission of the Marine Register" Sevastopol, and is also allowed for use in the industrial sector.
Tasks of integrated technology
Form a superhard, high-precision surface of metal friction pairs during the operation of the mechanisms. More than 1500 (one thousand five hundred) times to reduce the coefficient of friction in the nodes and mechanisms. Dozens of times reduce the peak values of dynamic loads and prevent the build-up of friction pairs in the metal, and also eliminate cavitation from mechanical causes on the walls of the cylinder liners. To block effectively the penetration of gases through the thermal gaps in the locks of the compression rings of the internal combustion engine, making the compression stably nominal and independent of the magnitude of these gaps and temperatures. Increase the torque at low engine speeds (in the world practice of engine building there are no analogs). As a result of significant improvements in technical and operational parameters, in general, categorically improve environmental performance.
According to experts, the application of the method of this technology for ICE and transmission of KAMAZ trucks (quarry dump truck) brings significant profit due to improved techno-economic performance of engines and engines:
- Reduces fuel consumption
- - at idle turns by 70-80%;
- - for small and partial loads by 30-50%;
- - at power modes by 20-35%;
- - an average of 40%;
- Increases torque at low revs by 20-25%;
- Increases the engine power by 25-35%;
- Reduces oil consumption by burning by 95-98%;
- Provides an increase in the resource of ICE without overhaul up to 10 times;
- Reduces the coefficient of friction in the nodes and mechanisms in 1500 (One thousand five hundred) times .;
- Guarantees against wear during "Cold start" during the entire service life;
- Significantly reduces noise and vibration;
- Normalizes and stabilizes the compression throughout the life of the piston engine group;
- Ensures easy start of the engine at minus temperatures;
- Significantly improves environmental performance (for thermal pollution, including).
Modernized with this technology new or updated ICE exhibits the following characteristics:
- - Up to 3 000 km of mileage improvement of characteristics to "supernormal";
- - from 3 000 km to 1.5 mln km of run, stable retention of the achieved characteristics.
As a whole, the practice of normative exploitation of domestic engines is as follows: up to 30 thousand km. The engine runs better and better, from 30 thousand km. up to 70 thousand km., for reasons of friction, it begins to gradually wear out and at the end of this period it is desirable to change the rings. Next, the ICE wears out irreversibly and to 150 thousand km. mileage requires major repairs with a complete replacement of the cylinder-piston group. Complex technology prevents wear from friction during the stated rate of the motor resource, and also makes compression independent of the thermal and power modes of the engine. Even the "respectable" engine in all terms and at the end of the service life still works flawlessly, quietly, constantly powerful and smokeless when it employs a system of integrated technology.
Characteristics of power, fuel and oil consumption under the integrated technology system
It is known that: the smaller the gap in the hot state between the piston head over the first (fire) ring and the cylinder, the greater the throttling of gas in this gap and the better the operating conditions of the rings. So, with a clearance of 0.05 mm and a gas temperature in the upper part of the gap of 800 degrees C, the temperature of the gas is reduced to 400 degrees C at a distance of 20 mm from the top, and only to 700 degrees with a gap of 0.5 mm. on the piston rings varies both from the distance to the ring and from the pressure of the gas in the cylinder. If you take the pressure in the ICE cylinder of the car for 100%, then the pressure acting on the I ring is 75%, for II 17%, and for III 7% (at nominal gaps).
The prevention of gas breakthrough into the crankcase is apparently ensured by lowering the pressure due to throttling of the gas during passage of the labyrinth tunnels and the gaps formed by the rings, which is the cost and is not an effective expenditure of the energy of the glowing gases in the engine cylinders. On the super-high-speed marine engines, to prevent gas breakthrough into the crankcase, especially when the piston of the TDC area passes at low speed under load, up to seven compression rings are set (the friction issue is also understandable).
The system of integrated technology constructively blocks gas at the level of the upper (fire) ring and, regardless of the values of the gaps of the rings, effectively returns to crankshaft up to 24% of the explosion energy in the combustion chamber of the engine. Such methods provide indicators for increasing torque at the "bottoms", increasing power, reducing fuel and oil consumption (on the burn), and in general - determining the environmental indicators of the level of European standards throughout the life of the service.
Vitality of ICE for sport, motor resource of 1000000 km. serial internal combustion engine
If the engine is significantly boosted, the increased loads in the bearings of the KShM can lead to the destruction of the oil wedge in it, i.e. to increased bearing wear, metal setting, melting of bearings, etc. The load on the bearing depends, both on the circumferential speed of the bearing, which determines the friction values, and on the dimensions: the length of the bearing and its diameter at a given pressure on the piston. The energy costs for overcoming frictional forces in the main components of the ICE are: CPG - 11.5%; GRM - 2,7%; crank - 3% of the power of the car engine. Comprehensive technology, unlike other methods of boosting ICE, reduces the coefficient of friction by 1500 times, and as a whole - increases the engine power by 25-30%, keeps the geometry of the parts and, as a result, the optimal size of the piston-cylinder gap for the entire life of the motor, and its efficiency allows the installation of compression rings with increased thermal gaps. It is advisable to increase by 0,2 mm from the nominal, the clearance of the upper (fire) ring in order to redistribute the pressure and temperature, thereby significantly softening the working conditions of the compression rings and to prevent the thermal wedge of the GPG when the internal combustion engine is overheated. Such are the possibilities of integrated technology.
It is possible to keep the ICE in a stably-perfect state, repeating the inde- pendent reconstruction of the mechanisms in 150 thousand km. run (300,000 km for high-tech ICE), etc. The use of integrated technology universally solves the problem of 1 million km. mileage and above, for a new ICE.
Improving the performance of an aircraft piston engine
Thermal clearances of piston rings are carried out taking into account conditions from thermal jamming at the forced mode of operation of ICE. Aviation ICEs at extreme power modes withstand significant heat flux, which can reach a value of 2500 degrees. Therefore, a set of high altitude is carried out in stages in several lifts, in order to save the engine from thermal destruction. With decreasing loads - nominal, medium, small - power modes, the heat flow decreases and, as a consequence, this determines a noticeable increase in the thermal gaps of the piston rings, which leads to breakthrough of gases into the crankcase and loss of power in a well-prepared piston engine. In this case, through the increased thermal clearances of the piston rings, oil from the crankcase enters the combustion chamber. During parking, when the internal combustion engine is not warmed, from the lower cylinders, through the thermal gaps of the piston rings, there is also a significant loss of oil (oily ground in the parking lot, steering lanes). The use of complex technology allows to block effectively the gas breakthrough into the crankcase and the loss of oil, resulting, as a result, from the increased in the standard thermal clearance of the piston rings of the aviation ICE.
When the piston engine is operating, the heat from the piston is removed: 20-25% - through the oil in the crankcase and 75-80% - the contact piston -> the rings -> the cylinder. In a well-prepared engine, due to the mikro-relief of the surfaces of friction pairs, from 100% of the geometric contact area of the parts, 3 (three)% of the area actually touch, and in the worn out ICE ("barrel", ellipse in cylinders) and this is less. This parameter categorically determines the limit of the heat flux density of the cylinder withdrawn from the piston to the wall. The use of complex technology forms a smooth-wavy profile of the surfaces of friction pairs of the 14th accuracy class and creates a real contact spot of 16 (sixteen)%. Increasing over five times the real contact area increases the possibility of heat dissipation, which protects the piston, rings, and oil wedge from overheating. Such a surface of parts of friction pairs is characterized by some properties: an abnormally low coefficient of friction, superhardness, strength, holds the geometry of parts, high wear resistance, high thermal conductivity, prevents the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the celinders by reducing their quantity by 80-90%, does not corrode , dielectric, withstands a temperature of 3500 degrees C. It guarantees the surface from thermal destruction during afterburnings.
Elimination of cavitation on the outer walls of cylinders and the conditions of "hardening" in the metal of friction pairs
Vibrations of cylinder liners under load form cavities of rarefactions in a cooling liquid, where cavitation bubbles are formed, when collapsing in microzones, pressures up to 600 atmospheres arise. and temperatures up to 1200 degrees C (microexplosion) and clusters (microparticles) of metal break out from the outer surface of the sleeve, microcracks are formed, and then a surface rupture.
The system of complex technology instantly redistributes the energy of elastic deformation in the metal of friction pairs, decreasing the peak values tens of times, that is, the vibrations of the cylinder walls are smoothed out and cavitation is prevented. In the same way, the critical deformation moments of the crystal lattice are eliminated, forming a "hard work" in the metal of friction pairs of knots and various mechanisms (ICE, reducers, gearbox, SHRUS, etc.).
Advantages of using complex technology on diesel engines and supercharged diesel engines, as well as gasoline engines at start-ups
The difficulties of starting at low temperatures are well known. The most difficult to solve is the problem of self-ignition of fuel in diesel engines. Low initial charge temperature, and for supercharged engines - besides low (E) compression ratio, do not provide a sufficiently high compression temperature. Cold walls of the cylinders remove heat from the compressed charge, and the gaps in the locks of the compression rings can nullify the compression, catastrophically reducing its temperature. At a compression ratio of 13 (very low for an atmospheric diesel and high enough for a supercharged diesel engine), the compression temperature reaches 630 degrees C under full load conditions, but is significantly lower in partial load modes when the turbocharger has a small or even zero capacity. A diesel without a boost in the same atmospheric conditions at a compression ratio of 16 provides a compression temperature of 720 degrees C. It is obvious that the diesel engine with supercharged start-up does not work, and as a result, the compression temperature is very low.
The use of complex technology makes the compression independent of the size of the gaps in the locks of the compression rings and provides a reliable increase in the compression temperature necessary for the successful launch of the diesel engine. Starting a conventional gasoline engine can be called easy and problem-free, but by enriching the mixture for start-up and warm-up (at the same time, there is an over-expenditure of fuel 2-3 times, environmentally dirty exhaust, low engine power). Applying an integrated technology, these disadvantages are largely eliminated, since there is practically no need to enrich the mixture for starting and warming up.