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Basic concepts

Basic concepts

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Languare) is literally translated into Russian as hypertext markup language. This language is the main programming language when creating Web pages and is used to place various elements of the page (test, graphics, tables, etc.) using certain commands. By its simplicity and ease of learning, it stands as a separate pillar in front of other programming languages. Even a schoolboy who does not know the fundamentals of computer science can understand and assimilate it, because it was originally conceived for a wide range of PC users. HTML custom With it, you can create simple websites without elements of advanced interactivity. HTML is readable only by browsers and graphic HTML editors (special programs for building Web pages in visual mode).

HTML commands are called tags . The full set of such commands within the entire page is called HTML code. The name of any tag consists of one or several letters enclosed in angle brackets ( <> ). The set of these letters is not accidental; they correspond to words, abbreviation of words and abbreviations of words of English origin. This is done to easily identify the purpose of the tag. For example, the word table (table) in the <table> tag gives a command to build a table, the <a> tag (first letter of English. Address - address) creates a link, the abbreviation OL (from English. Ordered List - ordered list) in the <OL> tag will indicate the creation of the corresponding list. Tags are divided into opening <tag>, which indicate the beginning of an action on the page and closing </ tag>, which will show the place on the page where the <tag> will complete the action. As you can see the symbol "/" means "closing".

In HTML code, the tag basically shows only the way to change a particular page element. All the parameters of formatting objects carries an attribute with its value. The attribute indicates the tag of the formatting characteristics of the element (it can be alignment - ALIGN, change the color of COLOR, and others. Full list here >>>), and the value is the necessary parameter for the attribute indicating in numerical terms or in the form of specific and understandable English words (eg . left-left, top-top, etc.). Attributes of the tag in the page code are written with a “space” in the same angle brackets with it, and the attribute value is enclosed in quotes and separated by an equal sign. Let us give an example from the foregoing:

<TABLE width = "800" height = "100%" border = "1" align = "left" bordercolor = "red"> table elements </ TABLE>

where <TABLE> and </ TABLE> is the opening and closing tag with a clear purpose ; width, height, border, align, bordercolor - its attributes, the meaning of which can be easily understood by taking the English-Russian dictionary, and the rest are the values ​​of the attributes.

Attributes may not be all, but only as needed. If you frequently repeat the same parameters of elements on a Web page, it is more expedient to use cascading style sheets.

The color attribute is particularly emphasized. Its meaning is almost always used in a very clear RGB (red / green / blue) model. In her main specified colors are mixed in two ways:

  1. In the percentage of each of them is from 00 to 99 (written in the code together). Example: bordercolor = "# 003366", where 0% is R, 33% is G and 66% is B.
  2. In hexadecimal notation, where ten digits are indicated, then 0 to 9 and six letters A, B, C, D, E, F (the code is written in one word). Example: bordercolor = "# 00C3D6" .

Please note that in front of each value there is a “#” character.

The " align" attribute is one of the most common and most important attributes in the HTML language. It sets the position of the object to another element or page as a whole by the method of alignment with each other.

The width and height of the element is indicated as a percentage of the magnitude of the expansion of the screen or the ratio to another element (if it is placed in it) and in pixels.

Speaking about the development of the HTML language it is impossible to say that it stands still. Many HTML elements appear (although the latest specification of HTML 4.01 was released back in 1999), which gives the web master all the new features. However, here for developers there is a "stumbling block" - not all browsers "understand" the same element in the same way, and in some cases the complete "discord" to the same element. Beginners should resort to the special built-in tools of many HTML editors, which will help to partially solve this problem.