This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

Basic concepts

Basic concepts

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Languare) is literally translated into Russian as a hypertext markup language. This language is the main programming language for creating Web pages and is used to place various elements of the page (test, graphics, tables, etc.) with the help of certain commands. By its simplicity and ease in learning, it stands as a separate pillar in front of other programming languages. Understand and master it, even a schoolboy who does not know the basics of computer science, because initially he was conceived for a wide range of PC users. HTML yours With it you can create simple sites without elements of advanced interactivity. The HTML language is read only by browsers and graphic HTML editors (special programs for compiling Web pages in the visual mode).

The commands of the HTML language are called tags . A complete set of such commands within the whole page is called an HTML-code. The name of any tag consists of one or more letters enclosed in angle brackets ( <> ). The set of these letters is not accidental, they correspond to words, a shortening of words and an abbreviation of words of English origin. This is done for easy identification of the purpose of the tag. For example, the word table in the <table> tag gives the command to build the table, the <a> tag (the first letter of the English address - the address) will create a reference, the abbreviation OL (from the English Ordered List - the ordered list) in the <OL> will indicate the creation of the corresponding list. The tags are divided into the opening <tag>, which indicates the beginning of an action on the page and closing the </ tag>, which will show the place on the page where the <tag> action ends. As you can see the symbol "/" stands for "closing".

In HTML, the tag basically shows only how to change a particular page element. All parameters of object formatting carry an attribute with its own value. The attribute specifies the tag for the formatting characteristics of the element (this can be ALIGN, color change, COLOR, etc. full list here >>>), and the value is the required parameter for the attribute indicating in numerical terms or in the form of specific and understandable English words (eg left-to-left, top-top, etc.). The attributes of the tag in the page code are written through the "space" in one angle brackets with it, and the value of the attribute is enclosed in quotes and separated by an equal sign. Let us give an example from the above:

<TABLE width = "800" height = "100%" border = "1" align = "left" bordercolor = "red"> table elements </ TABLE>

where <TABLE> and </ TABLE> is the opening and closing tag with a clear destination ; width, height, border, align, bordercolor - its attributes, the meaning of which can be easily understood by taking an English-Russian dictionary, and the rest are attribute values.

Attributes may not be all, but only as necessary. With frequent repetition of the same element parameters on a Web page, it is advisable to use cascading style sheets.

The attribute of color here should be specially emphasized. Its meaning almost always uses a very understandable model of RGB (red / green / blue). In it, the main colors mentioned are mixed in two ways:

  1. In the percentage of each of them from 00 to 99 (in the code is written together). Example: bordercolor = "# 003366", where 0% is R, 33% is G and 66% is B.
  2. In hexadecimal notation, where ten digits are specified, then 0 to 9 and six letters A, B, C, D, E, F (the code is written together). Example: bordercolor = "# 00C3D6" .

Note that a "#" is preceded by each value.

The " align" attribute is one of the most common and most important attributes in the HTML language. It specifies the position of the object to another element or page as a whole, using the alignment method.

The width and height of the element is indicated as a percentage of the screen expansion value or the ratio to the other element (if it is placed in it) and in pixels.

Speaking about the development of the HTML language, you can not say that it stands still. There are many HTML elements (although the last specification of HTML 4.01 was released back in 1999), which give the Webmaster all the new features. However, here for developers there is a "stumbling block" - not all browsers "understand" this or that element, and in some cases, complete "disagreement" to the same element. Beginners should resort to special built-in tools of many HTML-editors, which will help to partially eliminate this problem.