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The technology of manufacturing special
cements

Cement for stones and slabs

The following are considered the best compositions for cementing stones: the 1 weight element of the resin is also sulfur, melted in separate vessels, mixed together, and 3 parts of the lead glaculate are also added to the mixture without stirring, also 2 parts of crushed sand. The sand is also ground beforehand and also crushed thoroughly. Also good cement is a mix of 1 weight element of sulfur, the same number of fumes (coal tar pitch) as well as 1/10 wax elements. This mixture is melted and 2 elements of crushed brick are added to it. To cement such a composition of sand slabs or fill them with slots, the slabs must be previously well dried, and the surfaces filled with cement are lubricated with linseed oil. The use of the above formulations is particularly advantageous in cases where stones are exposed to extreme heat or cold, but similar to rain or snow. Under these conditions, these compounds give, as the experiment showed, incomparably better results, carrying advertised cements of different brands.


Cement for gluing glass

Here are two recipes for cements. Dissolve on low fire 125 g powdered rosin, 36 g of white wax, and 75 g of iron coar (kollotar). Then, at what time the liquid mass will turn out, remove the mixture from the flame also carefully (away from the fire!) Add 18 g of turpentine (refined turpentine) and stir with a wooden stick until it is cooled, after which the composition is ready for use.>

Dissolve on fire 10. Elements of ordinary resin with 1 part of yellow wax also got a mixture of gluing the glass on the metal.


Cement for attaching knives and forks to handles

To do this, many different compositions are recommended. The most ingenious method of attachment is the following: rosin powder fills all the holes in the handle and also by heating the metal knife or fork rod, insert it into the hole; melting at the same time rosin powder, cools, hardens, and sufficiently firmly owns a knife or fork in the handle.

But with such a fastening of the knives, forks can not be washed in hot water. In this respect, the following compositions allow for more satisfactory results: a mixture of 1 wax element with 3 parts of rosin is prepared and also the knives of the forks are also filled with this hole in the handle. In the same way, the following compositions are also used in the hot molten state: 2 parts by weight of molten shellac are mixed with 1 share of tempered chalk, or 8 elements of rosin are melted together, 2 elements of wax are also 4 elements of crocus.

Especially for metal handles, the following composition is recommended: 3 elements of sulfur are melted in 5 parts of rosin and 1 element of ceresin (mineral wax). When the mash fuses into a homogeneous mass, add to it, well stirring, 2 pieces of brick, crushed into a coarse powder. This hot mass is filled with holes and knives are also inserted in the forks. With the help of such a composition, the knives also keep the forks firmly in the handles.


Cement for gluing celluloid products

In view of the widespread use of celluloid, which allows imitation (imitation) of ivory, turtles, corals, etc., it will be useful to indicate the simple and light-weight way of gluing together broken things from this composition. It is enough to moisten the fractures with acetic acid or essence, then, tightly pressing their friend to a friend, own this form. some time. If the surface of the fracture is fitted well, the parts stick together very firmly. The action of acetic acid is based on the dissolution of celluloid in wetting areas, which then hardens again and so the fractures are glued together.


Cement for gluing broken fragments

First of all, it is necessary to thoroughly wash the broken pieces from the mud and also the fat in the alkaline water. After that, the parts that should be in contact, carefully sprinkled with shellac, are also heated on the plate until shellac does not melt and does not fill the pores. Heating should be done on a smooth plate, and the flame should not touch the pieces, otherwise they can crack in a friend's room. On the same occasion, they should not be overheated. When shellac melts, the pieces are folded together, pressed one on top of the other and left clamped in the clamp, until the glued pieces are cooled. The chunks thus joined together so firmly adhere to a friend with a friend that they are in no way inferior to the whole dump. Good gluing does not leave a trace.


Cement for bonding various minerals

A good composition for gluing various minerals (granite or similar stones) can be greased with putty from lead white, wax and wax. It is prepared as follows: they take 6 parts of mastic 1, the proportion of lead white in the form of tiles also rubs the other into the finest powder. Then, after spreading a white wax on a weak fire, add a little powder, constantly stirring the mixture carefully. When all the number of mastic and white powder is dissolved in the melted wax and the whole mass is well mixed up to a homogeneous consistency, the putty is already quite suitable for gluing stones. Putty this is not difficult to give this or another color, depending on the color of the stones to be glued; for this, the proportion of white is replaced by the corresponding color of dry, powdered paint. This putty very firmly adheres to various stones is also quite suitable for correcting especially small objects.


Cement for gluing glass

We present the following compositions, which can serve for gluing glass objects.

1) Take 1 portion of caustic lime (in powder), grate well with 2.5 parts of fresh egg white and then, diluting the mash with 1 part of water, add 5.5 elements of gypsum, after which the composition is applied at once to the broken glass. The composition is used only once and is not stored in any way.

2) The composition of carefully pressed cottage cheese, to which such a number of liquid soluble glass (Wasserglas) is admixed, turns out to be good, in order to obtain a mass of consistency of honey. This composition makes the preparations anew each time it appears necessary.

3) Dissolve 10 gelatin elements on low heat with light heating with 15 parts of acetic acid (essence) also 5 parts of powdered ammonium bicarbonate are added to the resulting solution. The composition is drained into a jar of dark glass also stored in a dark room.

4) Take 80 elements of snow white (pitch), boil it until full water boiling, remove from heat, mix with it, well rubbing, 12 parts of bacon is also gradually added the powder of red ocher until the whole mass is given a solid consistency. Prepared in this way, the cement before use is heated, until it does not become soft. Cement hastily hardens also firmly holds.


Cement for gluing glass plates

Ordinary glue for such gluing is not suitable. The following composition is selected: in a tightly closed vessel a mixture of 1 mastic elements, 0.5 elements of ammonia resin, known on sale under the name of gum ammonia, and also 6 elements of alcohol (85%) are prepared. The vessel is then placed in a warm place, until the mastic also gum ammonia does not dissolve completely. Another solution is prepared immediately: 2,5 elements of fish glue are poured with 10 parts of alcohol (85-90%) also with 15 parts of water, pre-filtered. The mixture in a well-closed vessel is left alone for a day, after which it is heated in a steam bath until the glue dissolves. At that time, both prepared solutions, slightly warmed up, are mixed together, filtered through the canvas and the composition is ready for use. For gluing glass plates, their surfaces are pre-washed with alcohol, wiped dry, then covered with a thin layer of the above composition, overlapping each other's buds and holding them together until the composition dries.

In this way, the plates are firmly bonded and the glass retains its original transparency.


Cement for connection of broken coals for arc lamps

Putty consists of 12 elements of bronze powder and 18 parts of sodium liquid glass (36 ° in Boma).

For the same purpose, you can consume a mixture of 1 zinc white element, 1 element of manganese peroxide (in powder), as well as 1 element of liquid glass. In this hodgepodge need to add a little more well-ground arc coal.

In order to test whether pieces of arc charcoal have been glued together, several glued coals are taken into their hands and also listened to whether they ring well from easy tapping; if good, then they can move into the lesson. However, the glued coals should not be started at once, it is better to leave them to dry for half a day.


Cement for porcelain and earthenware

For this purpose, we recommend the following composition. Take 125 grams of fresh, good quality cottage cheese is also washed with water, strongly pressing until until the draining water becomes light. Then the cottage cheese, washed in this way also well wrung out, is placed in a porcelain stump, there are added proteins from 3 eggs and also juice, squeezed out of 7-8 heads of garlic. All this is well rubbed in a mortar, later mixed with a little finely chopped burnt lime until the whole mash becomes a steep hard mass. In this form, the resulting composition is ready for use and is also stored in a well-sealed jar with a wide neck. To glue them with some broken porcelain or earthenware, a small number of it slightly moistened with water, cover them evenly the surface of the fracture and also, hastily fixing the broken pieces, let the composition dry completely in the dark. According to testimonies, the pieces of porcelain or faience, glued together by this composition, well withstand the flame also boiling water.


Cement for amber

Here is a simple benign tool for gluing together broken amber things (mouthpieces, etc.). Prepare a potent solution in water of caustic potassium, moisten with this solution the amber surface to be glued, and then, slightly warming up, strongly press the broken parts of the buddy to a friend. The latter are very firmly bonded, and also, if the elements are fitted well, there is not even the slightest trace in the places of gluing.


Cement for pottery

This method consists in the following. In the dishes to be repaired, put 3-4 pieces of sugar, pour them with water and put on a healthy fire. When the sugar turns into a syrup, they pour a crack several times, continuing to own the dishes on fire. Penetrating into the pores, the charcoal syrup also forms here a kind of cement that completely fills the crack. We recommend this method mainly for organic laboratories, where clay flasks often crack from a strong fire. But the same method is also quite suitable for family use in relation to pottery used for cooking food. The charred mass formed in the crack does not impart any extraneous taste to food; The crack itself is embedded in this mass until firmly that the corrected dishes can serve as a new one.


Cement with caustic lime

Here are some of the most well-known methods for making cement with caustic lime, the so-called universal or casein cement: fresh curd from skimmed milk, carefully squeezed from whey, dried in thin layers and converted into powder. 10 elements of this powder also 1 part of the caustic lime powder is mixed with so much water to produce a semi-liquid gruel, which is also consumed immediately.

Waterproof putty. For its preparation, mix 10 parts of caustic lime powder with 2 parts of water and 12 parts of whey.

Cement for indoor floors (for sealing cracks, crevices, etc.). Water lime is mixed with coal ash as well with water until a half-thick, mushy mass is obtained.

The putty for iron (putty for steam boilers, iron utensils, filling holes in wells in iron) makes preparations of 30 elements of finely crushed graphite, 15 elements of caustic lime, 40 elements of blanfix (barite white), which are kneaded down to the proper consistency with varnish on linseed oil.

Diamantik, or diamond putty, is prepared from 30 parts of lead glue, 10 elements of caustic lime, 20 soap elements, 50 graphite elements mixed up to a proper consistency with linseed oil.

Zinc putty consists of 20 elements of caustic lime and 4 elements of sulfur color mixed with 10 parts of a hot solution of glue in 7 parts of Hot water; used in fresh form.

Finally, stove putty: take in equal amounts of graphite, sand, bony coal, water lime is also mixed with bovine blood or fresh moist cottage cheese; is used at the same time after cooking.


Chinese cement Cio-Liao

Recently, a means of preparing one of the finest and finest Chinese cements has been discovered, equally effective as if to glue leather, marble, gypsum, as well as porcelain, porcelain and other products. The method of preparation of this cement is very simple: 54 parts by weight of slaked lime are mixed with 6 parts by weight of alum in powder; then 40 weight elements of freshly beaten fresh blood (for example, calf, pig, chicken) are added to them, after which the entire mix is ​​thoroughly ground up until the same weight of the dough-like consistency is obtained. In this form, cement is used to glue products from the above materials.

In a more liquid state, it can serve as a paint to cover objects that are also desired to impart strength to waterproofing. Two or three layers of this composition, consistently superimposed on the cardboard, is quite enough to give the last strength of the log.