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Manufacturing technology special
cements

Cement for stones and slabs

The following compositions are also considered to be the best compositions for cementing the stones: 1 weight parts of the resin and sulfur melted in separate vessels are mixed together, and 2 parts of crushed sand are also added to the mixture, continuously mixing. The sand is also pre-dried as well as crushed. Also a good cement is a mixture of 1 weight elements of sulfur, the same number of pitch (coal tar pitch) and 1/10 elements of wax. The mixture is melted and 2 elements of crushed brick are added to it. In order to cement the sand slabs with such a composition or to fill the grooves with them, the plates must be dried well beforehand, and the surfaces that are filled with cement are smeared with drying oil. The use of the above compositions is particularly advantageous in cases where the stones are subjected to a strong heat or cold, but similar to heavy rain or snow. Under such conditions, these compositions give, as the experiment showed, incomparably better results, carried the advertised cement of different brands.


Cement for glass sticker

Here are two recipes for cements. Dissolve over low heat 125 g of powdered rosin, 36 g of white wax and 75 g of red minium (ring tare). Then, at what time the liquid mass will turn out, carefully remove the mixture from the flame (away from the fire!), Add 18 g of turpentine (purified turpentine) and stir with a wooden stick until filled with cooling, after which the composition is ready for use.>

To dissolve on the fire 10. elements of ordinary resin with 1 part of yellow wax also with the mixture to glue the glass on the metal.


Cement for attaching knives also forks to handles

For this, many different compositions are recommended. The most simple way of attaching the following: powder rosin fill all the holes in the handle and also, heating the metal core of a knife or fork, insert it into the hole; the rosin powder melted at the same time, having cooled down, hardens, and also holds the knife or fork in the handle sufficiently firmly.

But with such a fastening knives also forks can not be washed in hot water. In this regard, the following compositions allow more satisfactory results: they prepare a mixture of 1 weight wax elements with 3 parts of rosin and, filling the hole in the handle with this mixture, insert the knives and forks as well. In the same way, the following compositions are also used in a hot molten state: 1 part of melted chalk is mixed into 2 parts by weight of melted shellac, or 8 elements of rosin are fused together, 2 elements of wax and 4 elements of crocus.

The following composition is recommended especially for metal pens: 3 elements of sulfur are fused in 5 parts of rosin and 1 elements of ceresin (mineral wax). When the mash is melted into a homogeneous mass, 2 parts of the brick, pounded into a fine powder, are added to it, stirring well. The knives are also inserted into the forks with this hot mass. With this composition, the knives and forks are held in handles very firmly.


Cement for gluing celluloid products

In view of the widespread use of celluloid, which permits imitation (fake) of ivory, turtle, corals, etc., it will be useful to indicate a simple-minded and lightweight method of gluing broken things from this composition. It is enough to moisten the kinks with acetic acid or essence, then, tightly pressing their friend to a friend, to own in this form. some time. If the surface of the fracture fits well, the parts are glued together very firmly. The action of acetic acid is based on the dissolution of celluloid in the wetting places, which then again hardens also in this way the fractures are glued together.


Cement for bonding broken seedlings

First of all, you need to thoroughly wash the broken pieces from the mud and fat in alkaline water. After that, the parts that should be in contact, carefully sprinkled with shellac, are also heated on the stove until the shellac does not melt and does not fill the pores. Heating should be done on a smooth stove, also the flame should not touch the pieces, otherwise they can crack in a friend's room. For the same reason, they should not be extremely overheated. When the shellac is melted, the pieces are put together, pressed one on another and also left clamped in the clamp, until the glued pieces are cooled. The pieces connected in this way are so firmly glued together by a friend and a friend, that they are in no way inferior to the whole ass. Well done bonding leaves no trace.


Cement for bonding various minerals

A good compound for bonding various minerals (granite or similar stones) can serve as a putty from lead white, mastic as well as wax. It is prepared as follows: take on the 6 parts of mastic 1 share of lead white in the form of tiles and rub it also into the finest powder. Then, after dissolving white wax on low heat, a little powder is added, constantly stirring the mixture constantly. When the whole amount of mastic powder and whitewash become dissolved in melted wax and the whole mass is well mixed up to a uniform consistency, the putty is quite suitable for gluing stones. Putty of this is not difficult to give one or another color, depending on the color of the stones being glued; for this, the proportion of white is replaced by an appropriate color with a dry, powder-erased paint. This putty glues various stones very firmly and is also quite suitable for correcting especially small objects.


Glass bonding cement

Here are the following compounds that can be used for bonding glass objects.

1) Take 1 share of caustic lime (in powder), rub well with 2.5 parts of fresh egg white, and then, after diluting the mash with 1 part water, add 5.5 elements of gypsum, after which the composition is applied to the glass breaks at once. The composition is used only once and is not stored at all.

2) A similar composition of carefully pressed cottage cheese turns out to be good, to which such a quantity of liquid soluble glass (Wasserglas) is mixed in to make a mass of honey consistency. This composition makes preparations anew each time it becomes necessary.

3) Dissolve 10 elements of gelatin on low heat with lightweight heating with 15 parts of acetic acid (essence). Also add 5 parts of powdered ammonium dichromate to the resulting solution. The composition is poured into a jar of dark glass is also stored in a dark room.

4) Take 80 elements of a snow-white pitch (pitch), boil it until the water is completely evaporated, remove from heat, mix with it, rub it well, 12 parts of fat are also added with little red ocher powder until the whole mass is made solid. The cement prepared in this way is heated before use until it becomes soft in any way. Cement hastily hardens and holds tight.


Cement for pasting glass plates

Ordinary glue is not suitable for such bonding. The following composition is chosen: in a tightly closed vessel, a mixture of 1 mastic elements, 0.5 elements of ammonia resin, commercially known as gum ammonia, also 6 alcohol elements (85%) is prepared. The vessel is then put in a warm place, until the mastic and the gummiammiac are completely dissolved. Another solution is prepared immediately: 2.5 fish glue elements are poured over 10 parts of alcohol (85-90%) and 15 parts of water previously filtered. The mixture in a well-closed vessel is left alone for a day, after which it is heated in a water bath until the glue dismisses. At that time, both prepared solutions, slightly heated, are mixed together, filtered and the composition is also ready for use. To glue glass plates, their surfaces are pre-rinsed with alcohol, wiped dry, then covered with a thin layer of the above composition, superimposed on each other also keep connected until the composition dries.

In this way, the plates are firmly glued together and the glass retains its original transparency.


Cement for joining broken coals for arc lamps

The putty consists of 12 elements of bronze powder and 18 parts of soda water glass (36 ° Baume).

For the same purpose, it is possible to use a mixture of 1 elements of zinc oxide, 1 elements of manganese peroxide (in powder) and 1 elements of liquid glass. In this hodgepodge you need to add a little more well pounded arc of coals.

In order to test whether the pieces of arc coals are well glued together, they take several glued coals into their hands, and they also listen; they ring well because of light tapping; if good, then they can move into an occupation. However, the glued coals should not be allowed into the business at once, it is better to leave them dry for half a day.


Cement for porcelain and faience

For this purpose, we recommend the following composition. Take 125 g of fresh, good quality cottage cheese and washed it with water, squeezing it hard until the flowing water becomes light. Then the cottage cheese, washed in this manner, is also well squeezed, put into a porcelain stupa, squirrels from 3 eggs are also added, squeezed from 7-8 heads of garlic. All this is well ground in a mortar, and then finely crushed burnt lime is gradually mixed in until the whole mix turns into a steep solid mass. In this form, the resulting composition is ready for use is also stored in a well-corked jar with a wide neck. To glue them some broken porcelain or faience object, a small number of it is slightly moistened with water, they are covered evenly with the surface of the fracture and, hastily holding together the broken parts, give the composition to completely dry in the dark. According to the testimony, porcelain or earthenware pieces glued together with this composition can well withstand a flame of boiling water.


Cement for amber

Here is a simple and benign agent for gluing broken amber things (mouthpieces, etc.). Prepare a weak solution in potassium hydroxide water, moisten the surface of amber to be glued with this solution, and then, slightly heated, strongly press the broken parts of a friend to a friend. The latter are glued very firmly, and also, if the elements fit well, there is not even the slightest trace in the places of gluing.


Pottery Cement

This method is as follows. 3-4 pieces of sugar are put in the dishes to be repaired, they are poured with water and put on a healthy fire. When the sugar turns into syrup, they pour a crack several times, continuing to own the dishes on the fire. Penetrating into the pores, the syrup becomes charred and forms a kind of cement that completely fills the crack. We recommend this method primarily for organic laboratories, in which place clay flasks often crack from strong fire. But the same method is quite suitable also in family use in relation to the pottery used for cooking food. The charred mass produced in the crack does not give the food any extraneous taste; the crack itself is sealed by this mass, and is so firmly in place that the corrected vessels can serve on a par with the new one.


Cements with lime

Here are some of the most well-known methods for preparing cement with caustic lime, the so-called universal or casein cement: fresh cottage cheese made from skimmed milk, carefully squeezed from whey, dried in thin layers is also converted into powder. The 10 elements of this powder and 1 part of the powder of caustic lime is stirred with such a quantity of water to produce a semi-liquid slurry, which is also consumed immediately.

Water resistant putty. To prepare it, mix 10 parts of powdered lime powder with 2 parts of water and 12 parts of whey.

Cement for indoor floors (for sealing cracks, crevices, etc.). Aqueous lime is mixed with coal ash and water until a semi-thick, mushy mass is obtained.

Putty for iron (putty for steam boilers, iron utensils, fill holes in wells as well) makes preparations of 30 elements of finely ground graphite, 15 elements of caustic lime, 40 elements of blanks fixes (barite white), which are mixed up to a proper consistency with varnish on linseed oil.

Diamantik, or diamond putty, is made from 30 parts of lead plaster, 10 elements of lime, 20 elements of soap, 50 elements of graphite, mixed up to the proper consistency with linseed oil.

The zinc putty consists of 20 elements of caustic lime and 4 elements of sulfuric color, mixed with 10 parts of hot glue solution in 7 parts of Hot Water; consumed fresh.

Finally, the stove putty: taken in equal amounts of graphite, sand, bone char, water lime are also mixed with bovine blood or fresh wet cottage cheese; consumed immediately after preparation.


Chinese cement Chio-Liao

A means of preparing one of the best and most wonderful Chinese cements, equally useful as if for gluing leather, marble, plaster, and also earthenware, porcelain and other products, has recently been disclosed. The method of preparation of this cement is very simple: 54 parts by weight of slaked lime are mixed with 6 parts by weight of alum powder; then 40 weight elements of well-whipped fresh blood (for example, calf, pigs, chicken) are added to them, after which the whole mash is thoroughly ground until the mixture has the same mass of doughy consistency. In this form, the cement is used for bonding products from the above materials.

In a more liquid state, it can serve as a paint to cover objects that you want to give strength also impermeability. Two or three layers of this composition, successively superimposed on the cardboard, are absolutely enough to give the latter the strength of the log.