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Manufacturing technology of special paints

Paint to protect iron from rust

Instead of the usual dyeing of iron with oil paints, it is recommended to paint it with paints (which should be composed of whitewash) diluted on turpentine. Experience has shown that the main agent is significantly inferior to the final one, since it is as if turpentine with whiteness creeps in the pores plus iron bores much better, and therefore also prevents it from rust damage much better on the atmosphere as well as in water.


Flaxseed oil bleaching

1. Clarification is performed by heating, for which the crude oil is kept at a temperature of 275 ° C for 30 minutes. The faster such heating is performed, the faster the coagulation of protein substances will also become more perfect. This coagulation occurs best at a temperature of 275-310 ° C. But, despite all of the above, it is better to heat the oil slowly until foaming stops. After heating, the oil is allowed to cool, and the precipitate, having a light brown color, settles to the bottom. Then the oil can either be filtered or filtered. If heating is carried out in an iron pot, the oil becomes reddish, similar to drying oil; if it is heated in an aluminum pot, the result is a light yellow-amber oil.

2. A mixture of equal elements of crude oil and hot water is passed into the steam for 1-2 hours. After that, the oil is allowed to settle, while the water will collect at the bottom of the vessel, the clear oil will float to the top, but the sludge will occupy an average location between the water and the oil. After 5 days, the transparent layer of oil is drained into the boiler and heated for 2 hours up to 110 ° C to remove the remaining water. It is recommended to add 2% water of 1% sulfuric acid to the oil mixture before passing. This method also simultaneously bleaches oil, which, moreover, is lightened much more quickly. It is possible to add a few more pounds of cloth clay or barite sulphate, which will carry the sludge down to the bottom and thus reduce the time for clarification. This sediment can be consumed for making putty, and the craftsmen who make it are happy to acquire these precipitates. The oil processed by this method has a very light color.

3. Shake 250 elements of linseed oil in a glass flask with a solution of 5 parts of potassium permanganate per 125 elements of water, leave not to move for 24 hours in a warm place and then add 7.5 parts of crushed sodium sulphite, and after filled dissolution - 10 parts of hydrochloric acid. After the mash is discolored with good agitation, the oil is washed with water, to which a little chalk is added, until the reaction of the flowing water does not cease to be acidic; to get rid of water, the oil is filtered through anhydrous Glauber's salt.


Preparation of drying oil

Since the drying of the drying oil requires a specialized boiler and is dangerous in the fire relation, we present a method for preparing the drying oil without cooking. For 20 weight elements of flaxseed oil, 1 part platelet (lead oxide) and 1 part lead sugar (lead acetate oxide) are taken. Lead sugar is dissolved in a small amount of water. At room temperature, you need 2 elements of water, but if you take hot water, it is much less. In a solution of lead sugar, add half of the platelet and shake the mixture. The remaining portion of golet diligently dissolved with a small amount of flaxseed oil. When the glue dissolves in the oil, the rest of the linseed oil is added to it, and the stirring is continued, then the above-mentioned lead sugar hastily is added, carefully, about 2 hours, stirred, after which the mixture is allowed to settle. The oil will float to the top, but the water will settle down below with lead salts dissolved in it. Then the oil is drained plus filtered through a sheet. It turns out light, transparent linseed oil, somewhat more liquid than boiled. This drying oil prktically always contains a small number of lead salts, which are undesirable for light paints and oil varnishes, since lead has the ability to darken over time. This is explained by the fact that lead combines with hydrogen sulfide. To remove lead from drying oil, proceed as follows: take a 25% solution of sulfuric acid, pour it into the drying oil and stir it for half an hour. At first, the linseed oil also becomes cloudy and takes on a milky hue, but soon becomes transparent again, but the lead salts settle to the bottom.


Simple and inexpensive paint for fences.

For painting fences, etc. durable is also at the same time inexpensive is the subsequent composition. Prepare a dry mash of 50 elements of chalk, 10 parts of some paint (ocher, umber, etc.), 10 elements of alum, 25 elements of dextrin and 5 parts of finely planed soap. When used, the mixture prepared in this way is dispersed in cold or warm water to the required thickness. This paint covers fences and the like. items. This paint is very good resistance to moisture and other atmospheric influences is also very durable.


Linseed oil surrogate

100 parts of casein are mixed with 10-15 parts of the soap solution and 20-50 parts of hydrated lime. This mass is thoroughly mixed, and 25-40 elements of turpentine are gradually added to it. Then it is diluted with water almost to the same consistency, which owns ordinary oil linseed oil. To avoid precipitation of casein lime, which is formed during prolonged storage, a little liquid ammonia is added to it. This product, being much cheaper than ordinary oil drying oil, can, however, not less, successfully replace it. He quickly dries. Mixed with paint, it can be used for painting buildings, wooden walls, etc. The dried layer does not dissolve it in water. In addition, it is very well kept on metal surfaces.


Printing ink

A good printing ink should have a bright color, be uniform, strong, durable. It must hastily dry, easily wash off the font, not spread out on paper, not soak the paper through, not have an unpleasant smell.

For printing ink, the best linseed oil is taken, as if the bad varieties give a reddish tone also have an undesirable smell. Oil cleaning is made by prolonged heating with 3% strong sulfuric acid. Heating is carried out at a temperature not exceeding 100 ° C. Then the oil is settled, drained without sludge is also washed with warm water until the last traces of sulfuric acid disappear, which is tested by a litmus test. The oil purified in this way has a light yellow color with no smell at all.

When cooking, one should keep in mind that the oil purified by sulfuric acid boils very violently, so it is advisable to take all the measures so that the escaped oil does not touch the flame. To avoid this, the boiler must be filled no more than up to half. The heating moves quickly, and the oil also boils, emitting a special raspy sound when bubbling, produced by water vapor escaping from the oil.

When the oil is free from water, it will boil quieter, little by little it will also darken to thicken. With further heating, the oil begins to decompose into gases (vapors). At first, bubbles appear in hotter places, i.e. at the walls of the boiler. Then the oil swells, spreading the sharp, unwanted smell of decomposition products. At this time it is necessary to monitor the oil in order to prevent the formation inside the mass of impressive gas bubbles that can throw the oil out of the boiler.

If the firebox doesn’t allow the fire to be diminished in a hurry, then you need to pour less oil, and part of it should be left in stock so that the infusion of cold oil can cool the boiling oil too much in the boiler. Adjusting the heating of the oil so that the oil boils more slowly also does not boil out of the boiler, it must be boiled down until the cooled drop of oil does not stretch between the fingers into fibers up to 10 cm in length. When this is achieved, the linseed oil is also ready to be allowed to cool.

The larger the print should be (for example, for posters), and the sooner the paint should dry (for example, for newspapers), the less it is necessary to boil the linseed oil. For art printing linseed is reduced thicker and therefore more expensive paint.

When cooking a varnish for printing ink, you can add to it some substances, such as, for example, pine resin, which reduces the time of boiling, or soap, which makes the paint easier to wash off the font, or Paris blue, which gives black paint the best tone. All these impurities must be in a perfectly clean, dry and also crushed form. They are added to the drying oil, at what time the decomposition of the oil begins, and small bubbles appear at the walls of the boiler. For 50 parts of oil, 20 elements of resin are taken, five parts of soap are also 0.5 elements of Parisian blue. With such impurities, the varnish is called typographic varnish.

Sometimes expensive linseed oil when cooking typographical varnish is replaced by cheaper products: 1) hemp oil, the product goes no worse, but has an unpleasant smell, also 2) resin oil, which recently began to be mined in large sizes by distillation of cheap tar, and rather cheap printing inks are obtained. 1000 elements of resin oil, 400 elements of resin, 100 elements of soap.


Black printing ink

For black printing ink, varnish is ground with
soot. For the best grades of paint they take the best, more expensive soot also in sufficient quantity, for cheap grades they take soot less also the more affordable grade. In the final case, the paint is not black, but grayish with a red tint.

Rubbing soot with varnish is the most difficult operation in the manufacture of printing ink. Soot should be evenly mixed with varnish. This is achieved by prolonged grinding of the mixture.

Linseed oil

Tar oil

Resin

Tar soap

Thick turpentine

140

240

210

5

5

110

240

210

5

5

90

240

210

5

5


Color Printing Varnishes

To obtain a thin powder paint, you must have a grinder for grinding paints, disk or roller. The latter is preferable, as if the mass is being pounded thinner. The paints are ordinary, but the lacquer is made from 16 parts of kerosene, 4 elements of glycerin, 4 parts of typographical varnish, 1 elements of caustic ammonia plus 1 elements of water. The components are stirred, allowed to stand for 2 hours and then mixed with printing ink. For gold paint take: 10 elements of kerosene, 10 elements of glycerin, 4 elements of varnish, 1 share of caustic ammonia and 1 part of water. The method of preparation is the same.