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Technology of manufacturing special paints

Paint to protect iron from rust

Instead of the usual staining of iron with oil colors, it is recommended to cover it with paints (which must contain white) diluted in turpentine. Experience has shown that the main product is much inferior to the final one, since turpentine with whitewash cracks much better in the pores plus the iron wells and, therefore, incomparably better protects it from damage by rust, as if on the atmosphere, and also in water.


Clarifying linseed oil

1. Clarification is carried out by heating, for which the crude oil is kept at a temperature of 275 ° C for 30 minutes. The faster this heating is produced, the faster the coagulation of protein substances will also proceed. This coagulation best occurs at a temperature of 275-310 ° C. But, despite all of the above, it is better to heat the oil slowly, until it stops foaming. After heating, the oil is allowed to cool, and the precipitate having a light brown color settles to the bottom. Then oil can be filtered or filtered. If heating is carried out in an iron boiler, the oil acquires a reddish color, similar to the coloring of varnish; if it is heated in an aluminum boiler, the result is a light yellow-amber oil.

2. A mixture of equal elements of crude oil and hot water is passed into steam for 1-2 hours. After this, the oil is allowed to stand, while the water will be collected on the days of the vessel, the clear oil will float upward, but the sediment will occupy the middle position between the water and the oil. After 5 days, the transparent layer of oil is drained into the boiler and heated for 2 hours up to 110 ° C to remove the remaining water. It is recommended that before passing two add 1% sulfuric acid to the oil mixture. This method also simultaneously bleaches the oil, which, in addition, is much quicker lightened. It may be similar to add a few more pounds of briar clay or sarate barite, which will entrain the sludge to the bottom, and so reduce the time of clarification. This sediment can be consumed for the preparation of putty, as well as the masters who make it, gladly get the precipitation data. The oil treated by this method has a very light color.

3. 250 parts of linseed oil are shaken in a glass flask with a solution of 5 parts potassium permanganate for 125 elements of water, leave not to move for 24 hours in a warm place, and then add 7.5 parts of ground sodium sulphate, and after the filled dissolution, 10 parts of hydrochloric acid. After a mash with good stirring becomes discolored, the oil is rinsed with water, to which a little chalk is added, until the reaction of the flowing water is no longer acidic; To get rid of water, the oil is filtered through anhydrous Glauber's salt.


Preparation of drying oil

Since cooking varnish requires a specialized boiler and is dangerous in the fire relation, we give a method for preparing drying oil without cooking. 20 parts by weight of linseed oil are taken 1 part of the gland (lead oxide) and 1 part of lead sugar (acetic acid lead oxide). Lead sugar is dissolved in a small amount of water. At room temperature, you need 2 elements of water, but if you take hot water, it is much less. In a solution of lead sugar, half the glue is added and the mixture is shaken. The remaining portion of the glue is diluted with a small amount of linseed oil. When the glue dissolves in the oil, add to it, the rest of the linseed oil also continues to stir, then add the above-mentioned lead sugar mash also carefully, about 2 hours, stir, then allow the mixture to settle. The oil will float upward, but below it will be water with lead salts dissolved in it. Then the oil is drained off and filtered through the linen. It turns out bright, transparent drying oil, somewhat more liquid than boiled. Such linseed practically always contains a small number of lead salts, which are undesirable for light paints also of oil varnishes, since lead has the property to darken over time. This is explained by the fact that lead combines with hydrogen sulphide. To remove lead from linseed oil, proceed as follows: take a 25% solution of sulfuric acid, pour it into linseed oil and stir for half an hour. At first the drying oil becomes turbid and takes a milky shade, but soon it becomes transparent again, but the lead salts settle to the bottom.


Simple also inexpensive paint for fences

For painting fences, etc. The following composition is also lasting at the same time inexpensive. Prepare a dry mix of 50 elements of chalk, 10 parts of some paint (ocher, umber, etc.), 10 elements of alum, 25 elements of dextrin, and 5 parts of finely planed soap. When used, the mixture so prepared is dissolved in cold or warm water to the required density. This paint is covered with fences, etc. subjects. This paint very well resists dampness and other atmospheric influences also differs great strength.


Surrogate of varnish

100 parts of casein are mixed with 10-15 parts of a soap solution also with 20-50 parts of hydrated lime. This mass is thoroughly mixed, and 25-40 elements of turpentine are gradually added to it. Then it is diluted with water almost to the same consistency as the ordinary oil drying oil. To avoid sedimentation of casein lime, which is formed during prolonged storage, a little ammonia is added to it. This product, being much cheaper than an ordinary oil varnish, can, however, not less, with success replace it. It dries quickly. In a mixture with paint it can be used for painting buildings, wooden walls, etc. The dried layer does not dissolve in water. In addition, it is very well held also on metal surfaces.


Printing inks

A good ink must have a bright color, be homogeneous, strong, durable. It should dry quickly, it is easy to wash off the font, do not blur on paper, do not soak through the paper, do not have an unpleasant smell.

For the printing ink, the best linseed oil is taken, as if bad grades give a red tone also have an undesirable odor. Oil cleaning is carried out by prolonged heating with 3% strong sulfuric acid. Heating is carried out at a temperature not exceeding 100 ° C. Then the oil settles, merges without sludge, it is also washed with warm water until the last trace of sulfuric acid disappears, which is tested with a litmus test. Purified in this way, the oil owns a light yellow paint with a complete lack of odor.

When cooking, you need to keep in mind that the sulfuric acid refined oil boils very rapidly, so it is desirable to take all the measurements so that the escaped oil does not touch the flame. To avoid this, the boiler must be filled no more than up to half. Heating moves quickly, and the oil boils, producing a bubbling special rattling sound produced by volatilizing water vapor.

When the oil is freed from water, it will begin to boil more calmly, gradually grow darker. With further heating, the oil starts to decompose into gases (vapors). First bubbles appear in more heated places, i.e. at the walls of the boiler. Then the oil swells, spreading the sharp, undesirable smell of decomposition products. At this time, you need to monitor the oil to prevent the formation inside the mass of impressive gas bubbles that can throw oil out of the boiler.

If the furnace does not allow a rapid reduction in the fire, then you need to pour less oil, and some of it to own in stock, so that the infusion of cold oil can cool too much boiling oil in the boiler. By adjusting the heating of the oil so that the oil boils slower also does not boil out of the boiler, it is necessary to boil it until the cooled drop of oil does not stretch between the fingers in fibers up to 10 cm in length. When this is achieved, the drying oil is also ready for cooling.

The larger the print should be (for example, for posters), the sooner the paint should dry (for example, for newspapers), the less must be waxed drying oil. For the artistic press, the drying oil boils harder, too, so the paint is more expensive.

When cooking oil for printing ink, you can add to it some substances, such as, for example, a pine resin that reduces the time of boiling, or a soap that gives the paint a smoother appearance, or Parisian blue, which gives the black paint a better tone. All these impurities must be in a completely clean, dry and crushed form. They are added to drying oil, at what time the decomposition of the oil begins, small bubbles appear at the walls of the boiler. For 50 parts of oil, 20 elements of resin are taken, five parts of soap are also 0.5 elements of Parisian blue. With such impurities, linseed oil is called printing varnish.

Sometimes expensive linseed oil is replaced with cheaper products when cooking the typographic varnish: 1) hemp oil, the product is not worse, but has an unpleasant smell, and 2) resin oil, which in the last time was extracted in large sizes by distillation of cheap resins, quite cheap typographic paints are obtained. 1000 elements of resin oil, 400 elements of resin, 100 elements of soap.


Black ink

To obtain a black ink, the printing ink is triturated from
soot. For the best grades of paint, the best, more expensive soot is also taken in sufficient quantities, for less expensive varieties, soot is also used for less than the more affordable grade. In the final case, the paint is not black, but grayish with a red tinge.

Rubbing soot with varnish is the most difficult operation in the manufacture of ink. The soot must be evenly mixed with varnish. This is achieved by prolonged trituration of the mixture.

Linseed oil

Smolyan oil

Resin

Smooth Soap

Thick terpentine

140

240

210

5

5

110

240

210

5

5

90

240

210

5

5


Colored printing varnishes

To obtain a fine paint powder, you need to have a mill for rubbing the paints, disk or roller. The latter is preferable, as if the mass is thinned more thinly. The paints are ordinary, but the varnish is made of 16 parts of kerosene, 4 elements of glycerin, 4 parts of the printing varnish, 1 element of caustic ammonia plus 1 element of water. The constituents are stirred, allowed to stand for 2 hours, and then mixed with the printing lacquer. For gold paint, take: 10 elements of kerosene, 10 elements of glycerin, 4 elements of lacquer, 1 part of caustic ammonia, and 1 part of water. The method of preparation is the same.