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Wood processing

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Bronze wood

A diluted solution of liquid glass is evenly coated with a brush with wood objects, only then they are sprinkled with gold bronze from a jar, the neck of which is tied with muslin. Bronze after drying, so strongly adheres to the object, that its surface can even be polished with agate. This method is recommended for bronzing frames to pictures also for other objects.


Waxing wood

There is the following simple method, quite suitable for preparation of wax for waxing by wooden furniture. Take 100 g of good yellow wax, finely chop it also add 12 g of mastic or 25 g powdered rosin. These substances are piled in an earthen vessel and disbanded on coal. When the whole mass melts, it is removed from the flame, and immediately 50 g of warm turpentine is added. All thoroughly stirred also poured into a tin or stone jar. In this form, the composition is stored until use. To polish the furniture take a small amount of the composition on a piece of woolen cloth also rub the tree, which hastily acquires a very beautiful as soft glow. Waxed furniture thus very longly preserves beautiful polishing.


Liquid bronze

Liquid bronze, which does not give on the objects of green color from the education of the yar-median, is obtained when neutralizing the acids contained in the dammarovoy resin. To do this, proceed as follows: 250 g finely chopped dammarovoy resin dissolve with frequent shaking in 1000 parts of gasoline. Then add 250 grams of a 10% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, shake for 10 minutes, and leave it not to move. Two layers are formed quickly: the upper layer containing resin solution in gasoline, the lower one - an aqueous solution of sodium salts with resin acids. The main one is poured, mixed with a new portion of 10% sodium hydroxide solution, shaken and allowed to stand. This higher layer containing resin is completely free of acids. To this solution, you can add ¼ liters of golden bronze, without fear of raising yare-copper.


Staining of a tree

Abroad, the following method of wood staining is widespread, having the advantage over commonly used methods in that, with this method, the wood is impregnated with paints to a considerable depth and can also be polished without damaging the applied paint. The method is as follows. Prepare a batter from rye, wheat or potato torture, smear it on a piece of paper, cardboard or thin sheet a 0.5 mm thick. On this layer, paints are applied in the form of a powder or in the semi-liquid state in which they are used to prepare colored paper, after which everything is applied to the object to be painted; On top of paper or cardboard put a holeted sheet also tighten brackets. In this form, all this is immersed in boiling water. Here, the colorants dissolve and impregnate the tree, only the dough hardens so firmly that it keeps the overlaid paints next to them, not allowing them to merge with each other. Thus, it is possible to paint the log directly in different colors, not allowing the final to merge; it is possible to apply veins, drawings, etc. all kinds of colors. The deeper you must penetrate into the log of paint, the longer it takes to have objects in hot water. At the end of the dyeing process, the dough is washed off with water and the colored surfaces are allowed to dry well in a dark place. Instead of the direct use of dry paints in powder, which are suitable for each kind of paint used in the dyeing session, another more accessible method can be used, which is that the wood chips are impregnated with paints beforehand and already applied in the above way to the liquid dough.


Cleaning of gilding

Cleaning gilding, especially on a log, requires very careful handling. Pre-gilding should be swept away all the speck of dust, then gild it gently wipe with a soft sponge, even better a piece of cotton wool slightly moistened with wine alcohol or turpentine. Instead of these liquids used are similarly good strong beer, a solution of so-called Marseille soap or a mishmash of 10 elements of ammonia and 40 parts of soap alcohol. A good tool for cleaning gilding is similar to egg whites, which are gently wiped off the object with a piece of flannel. You can use a hodgepodge of proteins (2-3 eggs) with 18 grams of javelin water; this liquid mixture with a soft brush wipe gilding slightly, especially the most tarnished places. Finally, pure wine vinegar, covered with gilding by means of a soft brush, sponge or a piece of a patch, can serve the same purpose. After 5 minutes, vinegar is carefully washed off with clean water, without wiping anything.

For cleaning of gilded bronze, in addition to liquid ammonia diluted with water, the following method alienates good results: the gilding is wiped first with a brush moistened with water. Then cover with a soft brush a mixture composed of 60 elements of water, 15 elements of nitric acid and 2 elements of alum, after which the liquids allow to dry without wiping it.


Preparation of wax polishes for polishing wooden products

Of the many compositions, the following can be considered the best:

1) 25 weight elements of finely planed stearin are added to 12.5 parts of turpentine and the mixture is heated until the stearin is completely dissolved.

2) Dissolve 25 wax elements in the glazed pot and then at what time the wax will dissolve, the vessel is removed from the flame and 40 parts of turpentine are also added to the wax.

3) Heating 10 elements of a dagger varnish, add to it 40 elements of wax and also, at what time the final will dissolve, add, slowly stirring, 75 elements of turpentine.

4) 30 elements of wax also 1.5 elements of rosin are dissolved on fire, then, removing the vessel from the fire, add 14.5 elements of turpentine.

5) 2.5 elements of potash are taken for 30 elements of water and boiled, after which 5 elements of finely stratified wax are added and the whole mixture is heated until a homogeneous soap mass is obtained.


Carpentry treatment

The polish is selected according to the shade according to the color of the polished wood, from reddish-brown to snow-white color, or rather, colorless. The desired shade is obtained if you take in different proportions two main varnishes.

Red-brown polish

White polish

1 part scarlet shellac, 4 elements of alcohol.

1 part of bleached shellac, 5 parts of alcohol.

The bleached shellac makes the preparations from the usual one as follows: 4 weight elements of shellac are mixed with 1 part of soda and are also dissolved by stirring in 15 parts of water until the resin dissolves completely, i.e. until the liquid becomes completely clear. Then allow to stand up also drain the clear solution without settling into another bowl. Here to a clear solution add a solution of 4 parts by weight of bleach in 4 parts by weight of water and leave a mish-mash in inactivity for a couple of days. After this, a little bit of hydrochloric acid is poured into the mash before the resin settles. Then it remains only to thoroughly wash the resin with water to remove traces of hydrochloric acid, and dry it.


Aniline mordants for wood

In the last time, aniline inks gradually replaced all previous vegetable colors due to cheapness and an easy way of using.

Yellow mordant

Green mordant

Blue mordant

light yellow:
100 g of yellow aniline in 3 l of soft water are dissolved;

light green:
dissolve 100 g of methyl herbs in 2 liters of soft water.

light blue:
dissolve 100 g of Bleu de ciel in 3 liters of water.

dark yellow:
dissolve 100 g of xanthine in 2.5 liters of water;

dark green:
100 g of methyl greens, 20 g of blue aniline (alkaline) in 2.5 l of water are dissolved.

dark blue:
dissolve 100 g of Bengal blue in 2 liters of water.

saffron-yellow:
dissolve 100 g of safranin in 2 liters of water.

yellow-green:
dissolve 100 g of green (acid) in 2.5 liters of water.

greenish blue:
dissolve 100 g Bleu tres vert in 2 liters of water.

lemon yellow:
100 g of naphthalene yellow in 2.5 liters of water is dissolved.

herbaceous-green:
100 g of malachite green, 10 g of yellow naphthalene in 2.5 l of water are dissolved.

orange-yellow:
dissolve 100 g of orange aniline in 2.5 liters of soda.

malachite-green:
dissolve 100 g of malachite green in 2 liters of water.

red-yellow:
dissolve 100 g of orange aniline, 20 g of eosin in 2.5 l of water.

Violet mordant

light violet: dissolve 100 g of methyl alcohol in 3 liters of soft water.

dark violet: dissolve 100 g of methyl alcohol in 2 liters of water.

reddish-violet: dissolve 100 g of methyl phenol, 20 g of eosin in 3 liters of water.

bluish-violet: dissolve 100 g of methyl violet, 20 g of Bleu de ciel in 2.5 liters of water.


Turpentine mordant

As is known, when etching logs up to now use solutions of organic paints in water or alcohol. This means, however, has one significant flaw: the surface of the log to be painted is made of alcohol or water, which is why it must be smoothed with a glass sheeting after the etching, and such a grinding is wiped away with the paint applied, and there is a need for another coating, which entails a new grinding etc., until you get an impeccably smooth surface. Patented by the firm "Yungas" in Württemberg mordant is that instead of alcohol or water, the solvent of the paints is turpentine. With the use of such mordants, the fibers of the wood do not swell at all, what precludes the appearance of roughness, and, consequently, the necessity of grinding. Depending on the structure of the tree, more thin or rough, it turns out that one or a pair of coatings is sufficient to obtain the required shade. Sami solutions for walnut tree, rosewood, radiant or gloomy oak, etc. are prepared in the usual way with the replacement of water or alcohol with turpentine. So, to get a good mordant under a walnut tree, dissolve 600 g of brown paint and 15 g of orange in 1 liter of turpentine. The solution is then filtered and a filtered solution of 100 g black ink in 3 liters of turpentine is added to it. If the resulting mordant turns out to be viscous or inadequate to the desired tone, it is bred with turpentine.


Stain for wooden (smoking) pipes

A good mordant, which gives extremely beautiful shades on the wooden heads of the tubes, is prepared by grinding in the water of equal parts of potassium dichloride (hrompic) and oxalic acid. When the release of gases from the liquid stops, the mordant is ready. It can be stored for a long time in a well-sealed flask. The stronger the solution, the more dark the color becomes. If one dive or coating is not enough to achieve the desired color, the operation should be repeated. This same mordant can also be consumed for other similar wooden products.