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Technology of manufacturing varnishes
Glossary of terms
The following varnishes are suitable not only for snow-white tin, but for all metals common.
I. 2 elements of pine resin, 4 elements of turpentine, 1 part of dessicant, 2 elements of boiled linseed oil.
II. 2 elements of dammarovoi resin, 4 elements of turpentine, 1 part of desiccant, 2 elements of drying oil. The varnish can be painted in fine brownish yellow and golden paint with dragon blood, and asphalt is also gummy.
III. 2 elements of shellac in grains, 8 parts of Venetian turpentine, 12 parts of sandaraka, 155 elements of alcohol.
IV. 200 elements of sandaraka, 34 elements of Venetian turpentine, 100 elements of mastic, 666 parts of alcohol.
V. 15 elements of shellac, 2 elements of Venetian turpentine, 8 elements of sandaraka, 75 parts of alcohol.
VI. 15 elements of dammarovoy resin are pulverized, fused in the boiler, add 1 part of the Venetian turpentine, remove the boiler from the flame, and carefully add 20-40 parts of warmed turpentine.
VII. 9 elements of dammarovo resin, 13 elements of linseed oil, 17 elements of turpentine. The varnish is stained with dragon blood, gumigut and others.
VIII. Greenish-gold varnish. Triturate in a porcelain mortar 10 elements of crystalline acetic acid copper oxide in a fine powder, which is poured a thin layer on a flat plate, also put on some time in a warm room, with crystallization water and a share of acetic acid volatilize. The powder, which later became light brown, is ground in a mortar with turpentine, where 30 elements of the copal varnish, heated up to 70 ° C, are added, with constant stirring, if the acetic acid oxide of copper is well ground, then, with stirring, a large portion of it dissolves into for 15 minutes, after which the lacquer is poured into a bottle, which is stored for several days in a warm room, from time to time shaking. The lacquer prepared in this way is evenly applied to the coated tin, which is then dried in a drying oven. Correspondingly, the degree of heating is obtained on the tin or that of a different color; First there is a greenish color which, when the heating is increased, the yellow also becomes a dark yellow golden color, then the orange is additionally, after all, a reddish-brown hue. Coloring data does not change in any way from the effect of sunlight, which has a place when using English golden varnish, and surpass it in gloss. The strength of the resulting coating depends on the quality of the used kopalovoy lacquer: if the final was of proper quality, then the varnished tin can be squeezed out also bend without fear of damaging the lacquer. Education of golden color is due to the fact that copper oxide turns into nitrous, in addition, the more is taken away by heating the copper salt of oxygen, the darker the color turns out. If you want to apply this varnish with a green coating, then apply it five times, and the next coating is applied, at which time the previous one has dried completely; then it should be similar to make drying with moderate heating.
IX. Golden lacquer. 14 elements of shellac, 8 parts of sabur, 8 elements of sandaraka are ground into powder, gradually added to 70 parts of heated turpentine, and the mash is heated up to dissolution.
Triturate in a porcelain mortar 40 g of crystalline acetic acid copper oxide in a fine powder addition, pouring on a small plate a thin layer, put on some time in a warm place. When the powder acquires a light brown color, it is triturated in a mortar with turpentine and 120 g of fat copal varnish heated up to 70 ° C are also added with constant stirring. In this operation, a considerable portion of the acetic acid salt dissolves within 15 minutes, after which the varnish is poured The bottle is also stored for several days in a warm room, shaking from time to time. The lacquer prepared in this way is evenly applied to the tin, which is then dried in an oven. Accordingly, the degree of heating on the tin is obtained by one or the other color - first greenish, which when more heated turns into a dark yellow gold, then into an orange, in addition, in a reddish-brown color. Painting with this varnish has significant advantages over the commonly used English gold varnish. First, it exceeds its brilliance, only in the second place, in contrast to English varnish, does not change at all from the effect of daylight. In addition, if the copal varnish was of good quality, then the varnishing of the tin with the newly made varnish is so strong that the tin can be bent into any shape without any fear of damaging the coating.
The varnishes, the recipes of which we reproduce below, are suitable for all metals.
I. Golden lacquer. Dissolve 20 elements of shellac, 1 share of boric acid, 1 share of picric acid (or more), 179 parts of alcohol.
II. Dissolve 7.5 elements of dragon blood, 40 parts of gumigut, 30 elements of mastic, 30 parts of shellac, 7.5 elements of resin "Elemi", 20 parts of sandalwood, 20 parts of sandaraka, 15 elements of Venetian turpentine, 850 elements of alcohol.
III. Dissolve when heated 100 parts of granular shellac, 80 elements of Venetian turpentine, 100 elements of sandaraka, 25 parts of gumigut, 700 elements of turpentine.
IV. 15 elements of gum millet, 5 elements of mastic, 5 parts of sandaraka, 1 share of orléans, 1 part of dragon blood, 1 share of gummogut, 2 parts of sandal logs scarlet (in powder), 5 parts of Venetian turpentine, 100 parts of 96% alcohol. V. 5 elements of mastic, 10 parts of sandaraka, 5 elements of Copaic balsam, 2.5 parts of Venetian turpentine, 3 parts of turpentine, 28 elements of alcohol (96%) are dissolved and mixed with a solution of 2.5 elements of shellac, 22.5 elements of dragon blood also 25 parts of alcohol (96%).
VI. 4 elements of gum millak, 8 elements of sandaraka, 8 parts of resin "Elemi", 80 elements of alcohol are dissolved also stained with tincture of gumigut with a tincture of dragon blood or a solution of magenta or picric acid.
VII. 10 elements of shellac, 1 share of sandaraka, 1 part of mastic, 2 elements of sabur, 5 elements of turmeric powder, 0.5 elements of saffron in powder, 1 part of dragon blood, 0.5 elements of Venetian turpentine, 100 elements of alcohol (96%) insist and filtered. The objects are cleaned, heated to 35 ° C, then the oil is quickly applied with a thin layer.
VIII. 2,5 elements of picric acid, 0.5 elements of boric acid, 1 share of dragon blood, 20 parts of shellac, 0.75 elements of Venetian turpentine, 80 elements of alcohol (96%).
Below are the recipes of a pair of varnishes.
I. Take 2 elements of sandaraka, 1 share of mastic, 1 part of Venetian turpentine, 1 part of granular shellac, 1 fraction of incense, dissolve everything in 12 parts of alcohol and filter.
II. Dissolve in 35 parts of alcohol 35 parts sandaraka, 24 elements of Venetian turpentine and 20 elements of mastic are also filtered.
These varnishes can be dyed in yellow and yellowish red with tinctures of dragon blood and gummigut.
Heat almost up to a boil of 1 kg of tar and add 50 g of iron sulfate in the powder. This varnish, still hot, is covered with a heated oven; it dries quickly, handsomely enough, and has no smell in any way.
As is known, many color alcohol paints for coating metals are found on the market. But even the best of them are distinguished by one very large flaw: they are very fragile on a polished metal surface and easily bounce off it. The chosen means for eliminating this flaw was an impurity to the lacquer of an insignificant number of pure crystalline boric acid. The experiment showed that it is sufficient to add 0.5% of boric acid to the alcoholic varnish in order to obtain a very strong coating: a polished metal surface, and it seems that the clean sheet covered with such varnish differs so far with a hard glaze-like varnish that, unlike the ordinary one, to separate. It is necessary, but, to keep in mind: do not consume crystalline boric acid more than the specified proportion, otherwise the varnish can largely lose the brightness of its color.
Dissolve in 1 part of water 1 part of borax, heat to boiling additionally, with constant stirring. add a solution of 5 elements of snow-white shellac and 5 elements of alcohol. Then add methylene blue paint until the desired shade. Cleaned steel items are covered with this varnish.