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Confusing Optical Illusions

Оптические иллюзии

Optical illusion is an impression of a visible object or phenomenon that is not true, that is, an optical illusion. Some visual illusions have long had a scientific explanation, others still remain a mystery.

We at the editorial board of Shram.kiev.ua collected and tested the coolest optical illusions. Be careful: some of the illusions can cause tearing , nausea and disorientation in space .

See three pretty girls?

Оптические иллюзии

Now flip the image ...

Оптические иллюзии

Our brains rarely encounter inverted images, so we cannot notice distortions in them.

Illusion 13 people

Оптические иллюзии

Initially, we see 12 people here, but after moving, another 13th appears.

Which way is the window open?

Оптические иллюзии

You can change direction just by thinking about it.

Distortion of perception of movement

Оптические иллюзии

These blocks do not move one after another - their speed is the same.

Color filling

Оптические иллюзии

Look at the black dot in the center. Keep looking at her when the picture changes. Did you see a color photo? Now look away from the point.

Contrast simulation

Оптические иллюзии
Оптические иллюзии

It seems that the squares on the left side are darker than the squares on the right. However, they are actually the same color.

Dynamic gradient brightness

Оптические иллюзии

Slowly move your eyes closer to the screen and the “light” in the middle will become brighter. Move back and it will become weak again.

Vanishing points

Оптические иллюзии

Focus on the green dot in the middle. After a while, the yellow dots will disappear one after another. In fact, they remain in place, just static frames disappear from our consciousness if they are surrounded by constantly changing images.

The Four Circle Illusion

Оптические иллюзии
Оптические иллюзии

In fact, none of them intersect.

Be careful! This optical illusion can cause a headache lasting up to two hours.

Droste effect

Оптические иллюзии

Droste effect - looped recursive image.

The illusion of perception

Оптические иллюзии

The color of the strip in the center is actually uniform and the same over the entire length.

Moving poster

Оптические иллюзии

Turn the mouse wheel up and down and you will see how the poster "moves".

Selective perception

Оптические иллюзии

There are two photos, and there is one difference between them. Try to find it, and as soon as you notice the difference, it will be impossible not to see it.

Endless chocolate

Оптические иллюзии

If you cut a bar of chocolate 5 by 5 and rearrange all the pieces in the order shown, then, from nowhere, an extra piece of chocolate will appear.

Look at the cross in the center

Оптические иллюзии

Peripheral vision turns beautiful faces into monsters.

Black and white or color

Оптические иллюзии

If you look closely at a point in the center of a black and white image for 15 seconds, the picture takes on color.

Impossible elephant

Оптические иллюзии

Drawing by Roger Shepard.

Ferris wheel

Оптические иллюзии

Which direction does the wheel spin?

Gardner's Dragon or Jerry Andrus's Dragon

Gardner's dragon or Jerry Andrus's dragon (by the name of the creator) no matter how you look at him all the time looking at the observer.

The same or different?

Оптические иллюзии

How can two cigarettes be different and the same size at the same time?

Invisible Chair

Оптические иллюзии

The optical effect, which creates a false impression of the seat location, is due to the original design of the chair, invented by the French studio Ibride.

Color illusion

Оптические иллюзии

Do not stop looking at the cross and you will see how the purple spots turn green. And then they completely disappear.

Black and white illusion

Оптические иллюзии

Watch thirty seconds at the four points in the center of the picture, then move your eyes to the ceiling and blink. What did you see?

The illusion of the interior

Оптические иллюзии

Pulsating poster

Оптические иллюзии

At what point in the picture you would not focus your eyes, the picture does not stop moving for a second.

Checkerboard cells

Оптические иллюзии

Are the colors of cells A and B of the chessboard different? The illusion of color perception, published by the professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Edward H. Adelson in 1995.

Sorting Squares

Оптические иллюзии

It seems that the four white lines move randomly. But it’s worth imposing images of squares on them, as everything becomes quite natural.

The birth of animation

Оптические иллюзии

The animation image is obtained by superimposing a black grid on the drawing. Before our eyes, static objects begin to move.

Hypnosis

Оптические иллюзии

Look, without blinking, in the middle of the image for 20 seconds, and then look at someone's face or just a wall.

Sailor

Sailor - Pictures of the riddle

The fact that the sailor so intently looks out through the telescope, is hiding under his nose. Well, or not quite under the nose In a word, try to find a girl in the picture.

Hidden dog

Hidden Dog - Puzzle Pictures

A dog is hidden on this sign of the wedding salon. Squint and, taking the man’s hand by the dog’s nose, try to see it.

Riddle for the savvy

Riddle for the savvy - Riddle pictures

Riddle for the savvy: where did the law of gravity go? Why is water above and not below?

Association

Association - Pictures of the riddle

What associations do you have?

Association

Association - Pictures of the riddle

What associations do you have?

Hearts

Hearts - Pictures of the riddle

Well, how many heart-shaped figures are there?

Fishing

Fishing - Puzzle Pictures

What did the fisherman catch? Or whom?

Mountains and highlanders

Mountains and Highlanders - Pictures of the riddle

In the picture - not only the mountains, but also, in fact, the highlanders. The only question is how many are there?

Who is here except the fox

Who is here except the fox - Pictures of the riddle

In addition to the fox, someone else is hiding here. Who?

Frogs

Frogs - Pictures of the riddle

How many frogs are there that amaze with the miracles of disguise?

Mill

Mill - Pictures of the riddle

What kind of people and animals are hiding in this mill?

Found 13 faces of people 1, 1 bear 1 donkey 1 snake 1 horse 1 cow, 1 Woman!

While the girls dance, the guys peep :)

While the girls are dancing, the guys are peeping - Pictures of the riddle

While the girls dance, the guys peep :) You don't see three guys here? Take a closer look!

Ames's room

Оптические иллюзии

Ames 's room is an irregularly shaped room used to create a three-dimensional optical illusion. It was designed by the American ophthalmologist Albert Ames in 1934 and built in 1935.

Ames's room
True and apparent
human position in the room
with Ames, and the shape of this room

Ames’s room is designed so that in front it looks like an ordinary room of a cubic shape with a back wall and two side walls parallel to each other and perpendicular to the horizontal planes of the floor and ceiling. However, the true shape of the room is trapezoidal: the walls are tilted, the ceiling and floor are also tilted, and the right corner is much closer to the observer who entered the room than the left, or vice versa.

As a result of the optical illusion, a person standing in one corner seems to the observer a giant, while a person standing in another corner seems to be a dwarf. The illusion is so convincing that a person moving forward and backward from the left corner to the right corner “grows” or “decreases” in front of his eyes.

Studies have shown that an illusion can be created without the use of walls and ceilings, for it to create a sufficiently visible horizon (which is not really horizontal) against the corresponding background, and also to allow the observer to look at an object whose height exceeds the height of this horizon.

The principle of Ames’s room is widely used in cinema and on television to create special effects, when a person of really normal growth needs to be shown as a giant or a dwarf in comparison with others.

Artwork

Illusion "Circles or spirals?"
Illusion "Circles or spirals?"
Running light green circle
Running light green circle
Red on white seems lighter, on black - darker
Red on white seems lighter
on black - darker.
Closer to the left
the white stripes appear redder
and red on black
to the right edge - whiter.
When looking at
the middle of the picture is from stripes of black to white,
the latter "shift" up
Adelson's color perception illusion
The illusion of the color perception of Adelson.
Marked Upper Parallelogram
seems darker than the marked lower;
mark on the “light” parallelogram
It seems brighter and brighter than on the "dark"
Parallelograms A and B, the line through them is all the same color
Parallelograms A and B,
line passing through them
- all the same color
If you look at the parallelograms A, B and their connecting for a long time, they will become the same color
If you look at
parallelograms A, B and their connecting,
then they will become the same color
Contrast illusion
Contrast illusion
Central strip of one brightness
Central strip of one brightness
In fact, the centers are identical
In fact, the centers are identical
Small squares of the same brightness
Small squares of the same brightness
Circles “bend” the sides of the square
Circles “bend” the sides of the square
Lines abut illusory circles
Lines abut illusory circles
Illusion of movement
The illusion of movement:
if you do not focus your eyes
the figure will seem
that the spiral is spinning
Grid Illusion
The illusion of the grid.
When moving eyes
white dots in the image
"turn" into black
Illusory Triangles
Illusory Triangles
The illusion of perception of size
The illusion of perception of size
Hexagonal grid
Hexagonal grid
creates the effect of appearance
triangles of different sizes
in different places
Illusion of movement
Illusion of movement
(you should look at the black dot
in the center and move your head back and forth;
circles around the point will begin to move)
With prolonged peering into the "darkness of the pipe" the stripes begin to "move"
With long peering
into the "darkness of the pipe" strip
start to “move”.
When you take a look at
F visible negative
The illusion of the figure
Leaving Elements
architectures create the illusion
figures alternately
(convex) ("pyramids"),
then the (concave) square well
The illusion of the second white square
The illusion of the second white square
Hinge bending directions
Hinge bending directions
seem mutually perpendicular
(forward-backward or left-right)
The circle line of the lower image eliminates the illusion of a bright illusory circle of the upper
Lower circle line
images eliminates the illusion
light illusory circle of the upper
The silhouette will rotate left or right, clockwise or counterclockwise
Left or right
clockwise or counterclockwise
the silhouette will rotate
from a person’s preference.
Another example of the illusion of movement
Another example of the illusion of movement
McCullough Effect
McCullough Effect:
at first glance it seems that
all fragments of a square of the same color,
however, if you enlarge the image,
it will seem that two fragments
have a dark red tint.

Optical illusion

Optical illusion

Illusion "Circles or spirals?"

Riddle pictures

In fact, the centers are identical

Riddle pictures

Central strip of one brightness

Riddle pictures

Small squares of the same brightness

Riddle pictures

Circles “bend” the sides of the square

Riddle pictures

The illusion of the grid. When you move your gaze across the image, white dots “turn” into black

Riddle pictures

The hexagonal lattice creates the effect of the appearance of triangles of different sizes in different places

Riddle pictures

Changeling - "duckbill"

Riddle pictures

With prolonged peering into the "darkness of the pipe" the stripes begin to "move". When you transfer your gaze to F, a negative is visible

Riddle pictures

Hinge bending directions appear mutually perpendicular (forward-backward or left-right)

Riddle pictures

And finally, to all of you - a present - A blooming flower !!!

Riddle pictures

Or is it not worth it? ...

The red lines are parallel to each other! Or not?

What do you see - a spiral or just circles?

Look only at the point. Move your head back and forth ...

Look to the center. Move your head back and forth ...

Abstract illusion

Spirals or circles?

I guess everything is moving :) ?

How many wolves are there? There must be five. Can you guess?

Riddle pictures

In the picture - 10 eagles. If six can be seen right away, then not everyone can find four more!

Riddle pictures

Counting the jaguars. Must be at least 10

Riddle pictures

One, the largest deer, we see immediately. But there are some more classified ones in the picture. Your task is to find them.

Riddle pictures

How many horse heads are there?

Riddle pictures

What animals are hidden in the picture? Wolves don't count!

Riddle pictures

Count the pandas. Must be 10.

Riddle pictures

Somewhere here, among the flowers, 15 whole birds hid. Can anyone find them all?

Riddle pictures

The artist made several mistakes in this picture. Which ones?

Riddle pictures

Optical illusion

Optical illusion (visual illusion) - an error in visual perception caused by inaccuracy or inadequacy of processes of unconscious correction of the visual image (moon illusion, incorrect estimation of the length of segments, the value of the angles or color of the depicted object, illusion of movement, “illusion of the absence of an object” - banner blindness, etc. .), as well as physical reasons (“flattened moon”, “broken spoon” in a glass of water). The causes of optical illusions are investigated both when considering the physiology of vision, and in the framework of studying the psychology of visual perception.

In artistic images, deliberate distortion of perspective causes special effects, best known from the works of Maurice Escher ( see, for example, his lithograph: Up and Down (1947), Convex and Concave (1955), Belvedere (1958) etc. )

The creation of optical illusions was often the theme of the works of Salvador Dali ( see, for example, his paintings “Slave Market with the Appearance of the Invisible Bust of Voltaire” (1938), “Swans Reflecting in Elephants” (1937), etc. ).

Some optical illusions have been studied within the framework of gestalt psychology ( e.g. Akiyoshi Kitaoka ).

Illusions of the visual system

Optical illusion

There is an effect of visual perception when the observer consciously or involuntarily gives an incorrect explanation of the picture he observes. It is well known to everyone who observed clouds running across the sky, sometimes taking the form of well-known visual objects. The same effect can occur when observing the distribution pattern of shadows of three-dimensional objects at some of their angles with respect to light sources.

This explains the reports of the observation of a human head on Mars, which have the form of a sensation in the media, etc.

At the same time, the explanation of a randomly created spot is sometimes used by psychologists to elucidate the properties of the intellect of the subject, in whom delusion is intentionally caused. (Rorschach Spot Test)

Illusions of color perception

It has been known for about a hundred years that when an image consisting of light and dark areas appears on the retina of the eye, the light from the brightly lit areas seems to flow into the dark areas. This phenomenon is called optical irradiation.

One such illusion was described in 1995 by the professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Edward Adelson ( “the illusion of Adelson’s shadow” ). He drew attention to the fact that the perception of color significantly depends on the background and the same colors on different backgrounds are perceived by us as different, even if they are close and visible to us at the same time.

Depth perception

The illusions of depth perception are an inadequate reflection of the perceived object and its properties. Currently, the most studied are the illusory effects observed in the visual perception of two-dimensional contour images. The brain unconsciously sees patterns only one-convex (one-concave). Perception depends on the direction of the external (real or implied) lighting. 3D effect (2D images seem voluminous).

Negative Disparity creates the conditions for a person to perceive the illusion of a reverse perspective. That is, if a person looks at a concave or convex object, for example, through a Pseudoscope, then in his field of view the object will look convex or concave, respectively. This illusion is best observed when considering simple symmetrical objects.

Size perception

Illusions often lead to completely incorrect quantitative estimates of real geometric quantities. It turns out that you can make a mistake of 25% or more, if you do not check the eye ratings with a ruler.

The glomerular estimates of geometric real values ​​very much depend on the nature of the background image. This applies to lengths (Ponzo illusion), areas, radii of curvature. It can also be shown that what has been said is true with respect to angles, shapes, and so on.

Changeling

Changeling - a type of optical illusion in which the nature of the perceived object depends on the direction of view. One of such illusions is the “duckling”: the image can be interpreted both as an image of a duck and as an image of a hare.

Stereo illusions

Stereopairs superimposed on a periodic structure (Bela Yulles, Hungary) allow you to watch a stereo image in the same way as an ordinary stereo pair. The periodic image facilitates the "dilution" of the eyes (usually to infinity), which, after focusing the eyes at a distance of several tens of centimeters, allows you to see the stereo image.

The method allows you to partially combine images of stereo pairs, removing restrictions on their size, however, it imposes some restrictions on the content of drawings and is practically calculated using computers.

Ames's room

A room invented by Adelbert Ames Jr. in 1946, is an example of a three-dimensional optical illusion. The room is designed in such a way that when viewed from the front it seems ordinary, with perpendicular walls and a ceiling. In fact, the shape of the room is a trapezoid, where the distant wall is located at a very sharp angle to one wall and, accordingly, at an obtuse angle to the other. The right corner is thus much closer to the observer than the left.

Due to the illusion reinforced by correspondingly distorted chess cells on the floor and walls, a person standing in the near corner looks like a giant compared to standing in the far corner. When a person moves from corner to corner, it seems to the observer that he is growing sharply or, conversely, decreasing.

Moving illusions

The effect is enhanced by tilting, rotating, approaching / removing the head:

  • A still image seems to be moving.
  • When looking at the same moving balls, you can see that they are of different sizes.
  • The same animated image can depict a rotating object clockwise, counterclockwise or alternately (make oscillating movements).