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Optical illusions that are confusing

Оптические иллюзии

Optical illusion - the impression of a visible object or phenomenon that does not correspond to reality, that is, an optical illusion. Some visual illusions for a long time already have a scientific explanation, others still remain a mystery.

We edited Shram.kiev.ua collected and checked the coolest optical illusions. Be careful: some of the illusions can cause tearing , nausea and disorientation in space .

See three pretty girls?

Оптические иллюзии

Now turn the image around ...

Оптические иллюзии

Our brain rarely encounters inverted images, so it can not notice the distortion in them.

Illusion 13 people

Оптические иллюзии

Initially, we see 12 people here, but after the movement there appears another one, the 13th.

Which way is the window open?

Оптические иллюзии

You can change the direction just by thinking about it.

Distortion of perception of movement

Оптические иллюзии

These blocks do not move one after the other - their speed is the same.

Color fill

Оптические иллюзии

Look at the black dot in the center. Keep looking at it when the picture changes. See a color photo? Now take your eyes off the point.

Contrast simulation

Оптические иллюзии
Оптические иллюзии

It seems that the squares on the left side are darker than the squares on the right. However, they are actually the same color.

Dynamic gradient brightness

Оптические иллюзии

Slowly bring your eyes to the screen and the “light” in the middle will become brighter. Move back - and he will become weak again.

Vanishing points

Оптические иллюзии

Concentrate on the green dot in the middle. After some time, the yellow dots will disappear one after the other. In fact, they remain in place, just static frames disappear from our consciousness if they are surrounded by constantly changing images.

The Four Circle Illusion

Оптические иллюзии
Оптические иллюзии

In fact, none of them intersect.

Be careful! This optical illusion can cause headaches for up to two hours.

Droste effect

Оптические иллюзии

The Droste effect is a looped recursive image.

Illusion of perception

Оптические иллюзии

The color of the strip in the center is actually uniform and the same along the entire length.

Moving poster

Оптические иллюзии

Roll the mouse wheel up and down and you will see how the poster "moves."

Selective perception

Оптические иллюзии

There are two photos, and between them there is one difference. Try to find it, and as soon as you notice the difference, it will be impossible not to see it.

Endless chocolate

Оптические иллюзии

If you cut a chocolate bar 5 by 5 and rearrange all the pieces in the order shown, then, out of place, an extra chocolate piece will appear.

Look at the cross in the center.

Оптические иллюзии

Peripheral vision turns beautiful faces into monsters.

Black and white or color

Оптические иллюзии

If you look closely at the dot in the center of the black-and-white image for 15 seconds, the picture acquires colors.

Impossible Elephant

Оптические иллюзии

Figure Roger Shepard.

Ferris wheel

Оптические иллюзии

Which way is the wheel spinning?

Dragon gardner or dragon jeri andrus

The dragon Gardner or the dragon Jeri Andrus (on behalf of the creator), whatever it may say, always looks at the observer.

Same or different?

Оптические иллюзии

How can two cigarettes be at the same time different and the same size?

Invisible chair

Оптические иллюзии

The optical effect, which creates a false impression on the viewer of the seat, is due to the original design of the chair, invented by the French studio Ibride.

Illusion of color

Оптические иллюзии

Without stopping, look at the cross and you will see how the purple spots will turn green. And then completely disappear.

Black and white illusion

Оптические иллюзии

See thirty seconds at four points in the center of the picture, then move your eyes to the ceiling and blink. What did you see?

Interior illusion

Оптические иллюзии

Pulsating poster

Оптические иллюзии

At whatever point of the picture you focus your eyes, the picture never stops moving.

Checkerboard cages

Оптические иллюзии

Are the colors of cage A and B different? The illusion of color perception, published by a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Edward Edelson (Edward H. Adelson) in 1995.

Ordering squares

Оптические иллюзии

It seems that the four white lines move erratically. But it is necessary to impose on them images of squares, as everything becomes quite natural.

Birth animation

Оптические иллюзии

An animation image is obtained by overlaying a black grid pattern. Before our eyes, static objects begin to move.

Hypnosis

Оптические иллюзии

Look, without blinking, in the middle of the image for 20 seconds, and then look at someone's face or just a wall.

Sailor

Sailor - Pictures Riddles

The fact that a sailor is so intently looking out of a telescope is hidden under his nose. Well, or not quite under your nose. In a word, try to find a girl in the picture.

Hid dog

Hidden Dog - Pictures Riddles

A dog is hidden on this signboard in the bridal salon. Squint and, taking the man’s hand by the dog’s nose, try to see it.

Riddle for savvy

Riddle for savvy - Pictures Riddles

Riddle for savvy: where did the law of gravity? Why is water above and not below?

Association

Association - Pictures Riddles

What are your associations?

Association

Association - Pictures Riddles

What are your associations?

Hearts

Hearts - Pictures Riddles

Well, how many heart-shaped figures are there?

Fishing

Fishing - Picture puzzles

What did the fisherman catch? Or whom?

Mountains and mountaineers

Mountains and mountaineers - Pictures of riddles

In the picture - not only the mountains, but, in fact, the highlanders. The only question is, how many are there?

Who is here except fox

Who is here except the fox?

Besides the fox, someone else is hiding here. So who

Frogs

Frogs - Pictures Riddles

How many frogs are there, surprising in the wonders of disguise?

Mill

Mill - Pictures of Riddles

What kind of people and animals are hiding in this mill?

Found 13 faces of people 1, 1 bear 1 eagle 1 darling 1 horse 1 cow, 1 woman!

While the girls are dancing, guys are peeping :)

While girls are dancing, guys are peeping - Pictures of riddles

While the girls are dancing, guys are peeping :) Can you see three guys here? Take a closer look!

Ames room

Оптические иллюзии

Ames room is an irregularly shaped room used to create a three-dimensional optical illusion. It was designed by American ophthalmologist Albert Ames in 1934 and built in 1935.

Ames room
Scheme of true and apparent
the position of the person in the room
with Ames and the shape of this room

The Ames room is built in such a way that it looks like a normal cubic room with a back wall and two side walls parallel to each other and perpendicular to the horizontal planes of the floor and the ceiling. However, the true shape of the room is trapezoidal: the walls are tilted, the ceiling and the floor are also tilted, and the right corner is much closer to the observer who has entered the room than the left, or vice versa.

As a result of optical illusion, a person standing in one corner seems to be a giant as an observer, while a person standing in another corner seems to be a dwarf. The illusion is so convincing that a person going back and forth from the left corner to the right corner “grows” or “decreases” in front of his eyes.

Studies have shown that an illusion can be created without the use of walls and ceilings — to create a sufficiently visible horizon (which is actually not horizontal) against the corresponding background, and also to let the observer look at an object whose height exceeds the height of this horizon.

The principle of the Ames room is widely used in film and television to create special effects, when a person is in fact of normal growth must be shown as a giant or a dwarf compared to others.

Illustrations

The Illusion of "Circumference or Spiral?"
The Illusion of "Circumference or Spiral?"
Running light green circle
Running light green circle
Red on white seems brighter, on black - darker.
Red on white seems lighter,
on black - darker.
Closer to the left
white stripes appear redder
and red on black
to the right - whiter.
When translating a look at
the middle of the pattern from black to white stripes,
the latter are "shifting" up
Illusion of color perception of Adelson
Illusion of color perception of Adelson.
Tagged top parallelogram
it seems darker than the marked bottom;
label on the light parallelogram
it seems brighter and brighter than on the "dark"
Parallelograms A and B, the line passing through them - all of the same color
Parallelograms A and B,
line through them
- all the same color
If you look at the parallelograms A, B and their connecting ones for a long time, they will become one color
If you look at
parallelograms A, B and their connecting,
they will become one color
Contrast illusion
Contrast illusion
The central band of one brightness
The central band of one brightness
In fact, the centers are identical
In fact, the centers are identical
Small squares of the same brightness
Small squares of the same brightness
Circles "bend" the sides of the square
Circles "bend" the sides of the square
The lines rest on the illusory circles.
The lines rest on the illusory circles.
Illusion of movement
Motion illusion:
if you don't focus your eyes
the picture will appear
that the spiral is spinning
Grid illusion
Lattice illusion.
When you move your eyes
according to the image white dots
"turn" into black
Illusory Triangles
Illusory Triangles
Size perception illusion
Size perception illusion
Hexagonal grid
Hexagonal grid
creates an appearance effect
triangles of different sizes
in different places
Illusion of movement
Illusion of movement
(should look at the black dot
in the center and move your head back and forth;
circles around the point will move)
With long-term peering into the “darkness of the pipe,” the strips begin to “stir”.
With long stare
in the "darkness of the pipe" strip
begin to "move."
When transferring a look at
F visible negative
Figure illusion
Moving away elements
architectures create an illusion
figures alternately
(convex) ("pyramids"),
then (concave) square well
The illusion of the second white square
The illusion of the second white square
Hinge bend directions
Hinge bend directions
appear mutually perpendicular
(forward-backward or left-right)
The line circumference of the lower image eliminates the illusion of the bright illusory circle of the upper
Lower circumference line
image eliminates the illusion
light illusory circle top
Left or right, clockwise or anticlockwise, the silhouette will rotate
Left or right
clockwise or counterclockwise
the silhouette will rotate depends
from the preferences of man.
Another example of motion illusion
Another example of motion illusion
McCullough Effect
McCullough Effect:
at first glance it seems that
all fragments of a square of the same color
However, if you enlarge the image,
two fragments will appear
have a dark red tint.

Optical illusion

Optical illusion

The Illusion of "Circumference or Spiral?"

Mystery Pictures

In fact, the centers are identical

Mystery Pictures

The central band of one brightness

Mystery Pictures

Small squares of the same brightness

Mystery Pictures

Circles "bend" the sides of the square

Mystery Pictures

Lattice illusion. When you move your gaze through the image, the white dots "turn" into black

Mystery Pictures

Hexagonal grid creates the effect of the appearance of triangles of different sizes in different places

Mystery Pictures

Changeling - "Utkozayats"

Mystery Pictures

With prolonged gazing into the "darkness of the pipe," the strips begin to "move." When you move the view on F, negative is visible

Mystery Pictures

The hinge bending directions appear mutually perpendicular (forward-backward or left-right)

Mystery Pictures

And finally, to you all - a gift - a blooming flower !!!

Mystery Pictures

Or not? ...

The red lines are parallel to each other! Or not?

What do you see - a spiral or just circles?

Look only at the point. Move your head back and forth ...

Look to the center. Move your head back and forth ...

Abstract illusion

Spirals or circles?

You must be moving :) ?

How many wolves are there? Must be five. Can you guess?

Mystery Pictures

In the picture - 10 eagles. If you can see six of them at once, then not everyone can find four more!

Mystery Pictures

Consider the jaguars. Must be at least 10

Mystery Pictures

One, the largest deer, we see immediately. But in the picture there are a few more classified ones. Your task is to find them.

Mystery Pictures

How many horse heads are there?

Mystery Pictures

What animals are hidden in the picture? Wolves - do not count!

Mystery Pictures

We consider pandas. Must be 10.

Mystery Pictures

Somewhere here, among the flowers, hid as many as 15 birds. Can anyone find them all?

Mystery Pictures

The artist made a few mistakes on this picture. What kind?

Mystery Pictures

Optical illusion

Optical illusion (visual illusion) - an error in visual perception caused by inaccuracy or inadequacy of the processes of unconscious correction of the visual image (lunar illusion, incorrect assessment of the length of segments, angles or color of the depicted object, illusion of movement, "the illusion of the absence of an object" - banner blindness, etc. .), as well as physical causes ("flattened Moon", "broken spoon" in a glass of water). The causes of optical illusions are investigated both when considering the physiology of vision, and in the study of the psychology of visual perception.

In artistic images, deliberate distortion of perspective causes special effects, best known for the work of Maurice Escher ( see, for example, his lithographs: Up and Down (1947), Convex and Concave (1955), Belvedere (1958) and so on )

The creation of optical illusions was often the theme of the works of Salvador Dali ( see, for example, his paintings “The Slave Market with the Invisible Bust of Voltaire” (1938), “The Swans Reflected in Elephants” (1937), etc. ).

Some optical illusions were studied in the framework of Gestalt psychology ( eg Akiyoshi Kitaoka ).

Illusions of the visual system

Optical illusion

There is an effect of visual perception, when the observer consciously or involuntarily gives an inappropriate explanation of the picture he observes. It is well known to everyone who watched clouds running across the sky, sometimes taking the form of known visual objects. The same effect can occur when observing the picture of the distribution of shadows of three-dimensional objects at some of their angles with respect to light sources.

This explains the reports of the observation of a human head on Mars, etc., in the media, which form a sensation in mass media.

At the same time, the explanation of a randomly created spot is sometimes used by psychologists to ascertain the properties of the subject's intellect, whose optical illusion is deliberately called. (Rorschach spot test)

Illusions of color perception

For about a hundred years, it has been known that when an image appears on the retina consisting of light and dark areas, the light from brightly lit areas seems to flow into dark areas. This phenomenon is called optical irradiation.

One of these illusions was described in 1995 by a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Edward Adelson ( “the illusion of the shadow of Adelson” ). He noted that the perception of color essentially depends on the background and the same colors on different backgrounds are perceived by us as different, even if they are close and visible at the same time.

Depth perception

Depth perception illusions are an inadequate reflection of a perceived object and its properties. Currently, the most studied are the illusory effects observed in the visual perception of two-dimensional contour images. The brain unconsciously sees only one-convex (single-curved) drawings. Perception depends on the direction of the external (real or implied) lighting. 3D effect (2D images appear voluminous).

Negative disparity creates conditions for a person to perceive the illusion of reverse perspective. That is, if a person looks at a concave or convex object, for example, through a Pseudoscope, then in his field of view the object will look like a convex or concave, respectively. This illusion is best observed when considering simple symmetrical objects.

Size perception

Illusions often lead to completely incorrect quantitative estimates of real geometrical quantities. It turns out that it is possible to make a mistake by 25% or more if the visual evaluations are not checked with a ruler.

Eye estimations of geometrical real quantities very strongly depend on the nature of the background of the image. This refers to the lengths (Ponzo illusion), areas, radii of curvature. It can also be shown that what is said is true with respect to angles, shapes, and so on.

Shifters

A shifter is a type of optical illusion in which the nature of the perceived object depends on the direction of the gaze. One of these illusions is “utkozayats”: the image can be interpreted both as an image of a duck and as an image of a hare.

Stereo illusions

Stereo pairs superimposed on a periodic structure (Bela Yulles, Hungary) make it possible to observe a stereo image in the same way as a regular stereo pair. A periodic image facilitates the “dilution” of the eye (as a rule, to infinity), which, after focusing the eye at a distance of several tens of centimeters, allows you to see a stereo image.

The method allows partially combining stereopair images, removing restrictions on their size, but imposes some restrictions on the content of the drawings and is practically calculated using computers.

Ames room

Room, invented by Adelbert Ames-ml . in 1946, is an example of a three-dimensional optical illusion. The room is designed in such a way that when viewed from the front it seems normal, with perpendicular walls and ceiling. In fact, the shape of the room is a trapeze, where the far wall is located at a very acute angle to one wall and, accordingly, at an obtuse angle to another. The right angle is thus much closer to the observer than the left.

Due to the illusion strengthened by the distorted chess cells on the floor and walls, the man standing in the near corner looks like a giant compared to the one in the far corner. When a person moves from corner to corner, it seems to the observer that he is dramatically increasing or, conversely, is decreasing.

Moving illusions

The effect is enhanced when bending, rotating, approaching / removing the head:

  • The still image seems to be moving.
  • When viewing identical moving balls, you can see that they are of different sizes.
  • The same animation image can represent a rotating object clockwise, counterclockwise or alternately (to make oscillatory movements).