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HYDROGEN HYDROXIDE FOR SECURITY. FUTURE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE H 2 O 2
In 1818 , the French chemist L. Zh. Tenard discovered "oxidized water." after this substance is called hydrogen peroxide . Its density is 1464.9 kg / cubic meter . So, the resulting substance has the formula H 2 O 2 , endothermically, it cleaves oxygen in the active form with a high heat release: H 2 O 2 > H 2 O + 0.5 O 2 + 23.45 kcal.
Chemists before knew about the property of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent: H 2 O 2 solutions (hereinafter referred to as " peroxide ") ignited combustible substances, and it was not always possible to quench them. Therefore, to apply peroxide in real life as an energy substance, but still not requiring additional oxidizing agent, occurred to the engineer Helmut Walter from the city of Kiel . Specifically, on submarines, where every gram of oxygen must be taken into account, especially since it was 1933 , and the fascist elite took all measures to prepare for war. Immediately work with peroxide were classified. H 2 O 2 - the product is unstable. Walter found products (catalysts) that contributed to the more rapid decomposition of the peroxide . The reaction of oxygen removal ( H 2 O 2 = H 2 O + O 2 ) went instantly to the end. However, it became necessary to "get rid" of oxygen. Why? The fact is that peroxide is the richest compound with O 2 is almost 95% of the total weight of the substance. And since atomic oxygen is initially released, it was simply inconvenient not to use it as an active oxidant.
Then, in the turbine, where the peroxide was applied, they began to deliver fossil fuel, and also water, since the heat was released quite enough. This contributed to the growth of engine power.
In 1937 , successful bench tests of steam and gas turbine installations were completed, and in 1942 the first F-80 submarine was built, which developed a speed of 28.1 knots under water ( 52.04 km / h ). The German command decided to build 24 submarines, which should have had two power plants with a capacity of 5,000 hp each . . They consumed 80% peroxide solution. In Germany, production capacities were being prepared for the production of 90000 tons of peroxide per year. However, for the "thousand-year Reich" came the inglorious end ...
It should be noted that in Germany, peroxide began to be used in various modifications of aircraft, as well as on the V-1 and V-2 missiles. We know that all these works could not change the course of events ...
In the Soviet Union, work with peroxide was conducted in the interests of the submarine fleet. In 1947 , BS Stechkin , a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, who consulted specialists on liquid-jet engines, which they then called ZhRDists, at the institute of the Academy of Artillery Sciences, instructed the future academician ( L. ) L. peroxide proposed by academician E. A. Chudakov . For this purpose, serial diesel engines of the Pike -type submarines were used. And practically "blessing" for work was given by Stalin himself. This made it possible to force development and obtain additional space on board the boat, where it was possible to place torpedoes and other weapons.
Works with peroxide were performed by academicians Stechkin , Chudakov and Warsaw in a very short time. Until 1953 , according to available information, 11 submarines were equipped. Unlike the work with peroxide , which was conducted by the United States and England, our submarines left no trace behind them, while the gas turbines (the United States and the United Kingdom) had a unmasking bubble plume. But Khrushchev put an end to the domestic introduction of peroxide and its use for submarines: the country went to work with nuclear submarines. And a powerful backlog of H 2 weapons cut into scrap metal.
However, what do we have in the "dry residue" with peroxide ? It turns out that you need to cook it somewhere, and then fill up the tanks (tanks) of the cars. This is not always convenient. Therefore, it would be better to get it directly on board the car, and even better before it is injected into the cylinder or before it is fed to the turbine. In this case, complete safety of all works would be guaranteed. But what source fluids are needed to obtain it? If you take some acid and peroxide , say, barium ( Ba O 2 ), this process becomes very inconvenient for use directly on board the same Mercedes! Therefore, we draw attention to the simple water - H 2 O ! It turns out that you can safely and efficiently use it to get peroxide ! And you just need to fill the tanks with ordinary well water and you can go on a journey.
The only caveat: with such a process, atomic oxygen is again formed (remember the reaction with which Walter collided), but even here, as it turned out, you can proceed wisely. To use it properly, you need a water-fuel emulsion, as part of which it is enough to have at least 5-10% of a certain hydrocarbon fuel. The same fuel oil may well be suitable, but even when it is used, the hydrocarbon fractions will ensure the phlegmatization of oxygen, that is, react with it and give an additional impulse, precluding the possibility of an uncontrolled explosion.
According to all calculations, cavitation comes into its own, the formation of active bubbles, which are capable of destroying the structure of the water molecule, isolating the OH hydroxyl group and forcing it to combine with the same group in order to obtain the desired H 2 O 2 peroxide molecule.
This approach is very beneficial from any point of view, because it eliminates the process of manufacturing peroxide outside the object of use (i.e., makes it possible to create it directly in an internal combustion engine). This is very profitable, since it excludes the steps of separate refueling and storage of H 2 O 2 . It turns out that only at the moment of injection the formation of the required compound occurs and, bypassing the storage process, the peroxide enters into operation. And in the tanks of the same car can be a fuel-water emulsion with a tiny percentage of hydrocarbon fuel! That would be the beauty! And it would be absolutely not terrible if one liter of fuel had a price of even $ 5 . In the future, you can switch to solid fuel such as coal, and quietly synthesize gasoline from it. Coal is still enough for several hundred years! Only Yakutia at a small depth stores billions of tons of this fossil. This is a huge region bounded below by the BAM string, the northern border of which goes far above the Aldan and May rivers ...
However, peroxide according to the described scheme can be prepared from any hydrocarbons. I think that the main word in this issue remains for our scientists and engineers.
Author: Vladimir ROMANOV
PS Material is protected.
Publication date 27.10.2006