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The mechanical effect on the liquid leads to its heating, J. Joule and R. Mayer established. And a century and a half later inventions were made on this subject [1]. It was found that the internal energy of the liquid (in cavitation mode) can be converted into heat, and the water temperature may not correspond to the expended mechanical energy , To excite the cavitation regime, a vortex effect is used. The primacy in the creation of a vortex liquid heater (VNZh) belongs to the professor of the Kuibyshev Aviation Institute A.Merkulov (1960s). Energy resources in those years did not really count, so the discovery did not develop for a long time.

Currently in Russia, residence permits are produced by a number of companies (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tula, etc.). The use of residence permits is beneficial for the construction of electrified facilities, the laying of gas pipelines and CHP pipes to which it is impossible or not economical. The efficiency of the apparatus can be very high, since the "losses" in the pump completely go to heat the heated system. With the help of the permit, it is possible to heat any liquids, while the heaters are fire-hazardous and susceptible to scale.

There are two types of residence permit. Static devices do not contain moving parts and are characterized by low cost, high reliability in work; Contain a swirler, a chamber with an outlet branch pipe and a braking device; The effectiveness of static residence permits is small, they are not economical. Dynamic type includes a residence permit, in which there are rotors connected kinematically with a source of torque. Dynamic residence permits provide much greater efficiency than static ones, but they have their shortcomings. Both types are described below.

Author's version of the permit (hydropulse, turbine type) is a new type of heater (mixed), combining the benefits of static and dynamic residence permit. The working process of residence permit is described on the basis of the theory of fluid structuring, developed by the Kiev professor IM Fedotkin.

According to this theory, the values ​​of the relative static permittivity , Heat capacity C, other indicators of structured water can differ significantly from the reference values ​​(taken for conventional water). The cause of these differences are cavitation phenomena. Developed cavitation in the working body (in each cubic milliliter of liquid contains up to 10 5 cavitation caverns with an average diameter of about 10 microns). Specific heat of structured water С в can approach the parameters of the solid phase. Because The specific heat of water is 2 times higher than the specific heat of ice, the change in the heat capacity of water during the transition from the liquid state L 1 to a structured ice-like state of L 2 is accompanied by an excess heat release Q from:

The amount of heat Q emitted during the operation of a residence permit is the sum of two components:

Where Q is due to the exothermic transformation of water (the heat of transition ), a Is obtained by converting the electric power U into equivalent heat.

Q cb depends on the intensity of cavitation, the degree of difference in molar heat capacity of water in the free and structured states, and the initial water temperature:

Where: C в1 and C в2 - specific heat at constant pressure of free water L 1 and cavitating water L 2 , respectively.

C в2 can be represented in the form C в2 = k 2 C n , where:

  • - a constant characterizing the degree of difference in the heat capacity C 2 of structured water (phase L 2 ) from the heat capacity of ice C l ;
  • K 1 is the coefficient of structuring of water caused by cavitation (mass partial fraction of the partially ordered phase of B 2 in activated water); ;
  • M is the mass of structured water;
  • T 1 and T pl is the temperature of the water entering the residence permit and the melting point of the ice, respectively;
  • M = 18,015 is the molar mass of water.

In case of complete structuring , Where k is a constant, .

Thus, in the residence permit there is a significant additional heat release Qizb.

In the closed circuit of operation (VLP 1, pump 2 and heat exchanger 3 are connected in series, Fig. 1), the heat Q is released without changing the energy content of the circuit.


Fig. 1

Heating capacity of the circuit in time Determine by the temperature difference on the heat exchanger And the flow rate G of the water:


Where k is the proportionality coefficient.

Efficiency of work of residence permit:


Where U is the electricity consumed by the pump over time , a always , because the .

The effectiveness of the residence permit is determined by means of a calorimeter 4 (shown in Fig. 1 as a dotted line). By changing the temperature T of the reference fluid in the reservoir over time , It is possible to determine the amount of heat , Given by the heat exchanger of the sample liquid during this time, and reliably estimate the efficiency of the residence permit according to the formula (5). Initially, the heat released and then absorbed can not change the generator's efficiency in such a way that its efficiency exceeds unity .

But things are completely different with the open scheme of the work of the residence permit (from the "main line-donor" - the pipeline of running water), Fig. If the donor is to return the relaxing water to the main line, and constantly to supply "fresh" in the residence permit (with the internal energy not used for heat generation), the efficiency of the heating system will significantly exceed unity! The law of conservation of energy is not violated, the process passes through the inverse thermodynamic cycle [44], [45]. Such a regime is provided not only by the permit itself, but also by the method of heat extraction from an external low-temperature source -the water supply system, with the expenditure of mechanical work.


Fig. 2

Taking into account the above trends, the author developed a fundamentally new version of the residence permit with a rotary activator-turbine driven by the current working body (patent application RU2005136836), Fig.


Fig. 3

Vortex chambers in the apparatus of a new type are located on the periphery of the first rotor, which is an active hydroturbine. The second rotor is made in the form of a reactive hydroturbine. The rotors rotate in the opposite direction, and hydro-impacts are cyclically generated (by overlapping a part of the vortex chambers with the second rotor of the sections). Hydro-shock waves are transmitted to the rear zones of open chambers. Means are also provided for self-regulation of the energy exchange of rotors with a working body. All this provides a large amplitude and wide frequency spectrum of oscillations, as well as high efficiency of cavitation with low hydraulic resistance . The construction of the apparatus in Fig. 3 provides for a departure from the general shortage of analogues - the presence of shafts with rigidly set rotors on them (see below). Optimum in the ratio of "cost-effectiveness" means increased efficiency and expanded its functional capabilities (aimed, in particular, to increase the efficiency of steam boilers).

To fundamental differences of the new residence permit became clear to the reader, let's consider the features of known types of spacecraft.

In static spacecraft, there are no mobile structural elements [2] - [19], [21] - [26], and a braking device having a large hydraulic resistance (for example, [11] and 18]) is necessary. Hydrodynamic wave generators in a liquid are also known [27]. Cascade connections of such generators are known - sequential and parallel [28]. These devices do not heat the working fluid and can not be a means of increasing the efficiency of steam boilers.

Dynamic space vehicles have rotary (perforated [20], [25], [31], [33] - [40], or bladed [32] activators, rigidly fastened to drive shafts , and fixed chamber chambers with input cavity And outlet nozzles. The large moment of inertia of the rotors kinematically connected with the shaft of the drive motor is a common drawback of all known dynamic residence permits. This deficiency is inherent in the residence permit "TS" (Tula), Fig. 4.. Apparatus "TC" requires an energy-intensive drive of the rotor shaft, an expensive dynamic balancing of the massive rotor, the use of outboard bearing supports with radial seals. "TC" require the use of soft starters and are not suitable for increasing the efficiency of steam boilers when working together with standard booster feed pumps without an additional electric drive .


Fig. 4

The author has documentary evidence of Rostov entrepreneurs about the low consumer qualities and reliability of "TS", which is due to the above-mentioned organic properties of the structure.

Among the analogs of this kind, the means for creating self-oscillations in the working chamber are known [20], [41], similar to the claimed device of designation. For example, in the "Rotary Hydro Shock Pump - Heat Generator" [42], the cavitation zone with the impeller of the pump is combined, which reduces the efficiency of the latter [29] and the efficiency of the entire heating system. This is inherent in other similar spacecraft [32], [35], [38], [39].

The heating of the working fluid in the autonomous operation of the spacecraft discussed above starts with an initial (network) temperature not exceeding twenty degrees Celsius usually. This entails a large expenditure of energy and increases the payback period of the spacecraft.


In modern boilers, the working fluid is pumped through the economizer through the economizer to the zone of evaporation. At the same time, it is not used for the first time by the author to increase the temperature of the working fluid by direct action of a regular feed pump . According to the invention, in the steam boiler the working medium is pumped by a feed pump through an economizer, where the heat of the combustion products of the fuel heats the working fluid to a temperature not lower than 336 ° K. From the economizer, the working medium is sent to the zone of cavitation and wave action, which is created by the generator . The compression time of the cavitation bubble is very slight, the process of its collapse occurs adiabatically. Inside the bubbles, the pressure can be raised to a value of 10 8 Pa, and the temperature can be increased to 10 4 ° C [43] . The internal energy of the working fluid is released, as a result of which the latter boils off in an abrupt manner [10]. The collapse of cavitation caverns leads to the generation of ultrasonic vibrations. This causes secondary cavitation ( avalanche process with positive feedback ). At the same time, the energy expenditure of the feed pump for generation of cavitation and waves is incomparably less than the released internal energy of the working fluid (in the form of heat). Heating of boiler feed water with waste gases in the economizer to a temperature not lower than 336 ° K, its subsequent direction to the generator, and out of it to the zone of external heat supply, provides a super-lunar effect - an increase in the efficiency of the boiler at an incomparably low expenditure of energy of the feed pump to push water through generator.

It is necessary to pay attention to the expediency of using the invention to intensify and reduce the toxicity of combustion of heavy oil fractions (by cavitation-wave treatment of the fuel oil mixture before feeding into the burners or combustion chambers).

The diagram of the device in this capacity is shown in Fig. 5, where the items are: 20 - hydrodynamic generator, 21 - pump, 22 - nozzle, 23 - combustion chamber with cooling jacket 24, 25 - heat exchanger, 26 - supply tank, 27 - ejector , 28 - two-channel flow controller, 29 - gas burner.

Fig.5 Use of the invention for intensification and reduction of combustion toxicity


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print version
Author: Sergey Geller,
Phone + 7 (863) 270 13 49
PS The material is protected.
Date of publication 10.12.2006гг