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A mechanical effect on a liquid leads to its heating, established by D. Joule and R. Mayer. And a century and a half later, inventions were created on this subject [1]. It was found that the internal energy of the liquid can also be converted into heat (in cavitation mode), while the temperature of the water may not correspond to the expended mechanical energy , A vortex effect is used to excite the cavitation regime. The superiority in creating a vortex fluid heater (VNZh) belongs to A.P. Merkulov, professor of the Kuibyshev Aviation Institute (1960s). Energy resources were not particularly considered in those years, so the discovery did not develop for a long time.

Currently, in Russia residence permits are produced by a number of companies (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tula, etc.). The use of a residence permit is beneficial in the construction of electrified facilities, the laying of gas pipelines and pipes of thermal power plants to which is impossible or not economical. The efficiency of the apparatus can be very high, since the “losses” in the pump are completely spent on heating the heated system. Using a residence permit, you can heat any liquids, while heating elements are fire hazard and are subject to scale.

Two types of residence permits are known. Static apparatuses do not contain moving parts and are characterized by low cost, high reliability; contain a swirl, a chamber with an outlet pipe and a brake device; the effectiveness of static residence permits is low, they are not economical. The dynamic type includes a residence permit, in which there are rotors, kinematically connected with a source of torque. Dynamic residence permits provide significantly greater efficiency than static ones, but have their drawbacks. Both types are described in more detail below.

The author's version of the residence permit (hydroimpulse, turbine type) is a new type of heater (mixed), combining the advantages of static and dynamic residence permit. The workflow of the residence permit is described on the basis of the theory of fluid structuring developed by Kiev professor I.M. Fedotkin.

According to this theory, the values ​​of relative static dielectric constant , specific heat C, other indicators of structured water can differ significantly from the reference values ​​(accepted for ordinary water). The reason for these differences are cavitation phenomena. Developed cavitation in the working fluid (each cubic milliliter of liquid contains up to 10 5 cavitation cavities with an average diameter of about 10 microns). The specific heat of structured water C in may approach the parameters of the solid phase. Because the specific heat of water is 2 times higher than the specific heat of ice, a change in the heat capacity of water during the transition from the liquid state L 1 to a structured ice-like state L 2 is accompanied by excess heat Q barges :

The amount of heat Q released during the operation of the residence permit is the sum of two components:

where Q huts are caused by the exothermic transformation of water (heat of transition ), a obtained by converting electricity U to its equivalent heat.

Q huts depends on the intensity of cavitation, the degree of difference in the molar heat capacities of water in free and structured states, and the initial temperature of the water:

where: C b1 and C b2 are specific heat at constant pressure of free water L 1 and cavitating water L 2 , respectively.

C B2 can be represented as C B2 = k 2 C l , where:

  • - a constant characterizing the degree of difference in heat capacity C B2 of structured water (phase L 2 ) from the heat capacity of ice C l ;
  • k 1 - coefficient of water structuring caused by cavitation (mass fraction of partially ordered phase B 2 in activated water), ;
  • m is the mass of structured water;
  • T 1 and T PL - the temperature of the water entering the residence permit, and the melting point of the ice, respectively;
  • m = 18.015 is the molar mass of water.

In case of full structuring where k is a constant, .

Thus, in the residence permit there is a significant additional heat release Qizb.

In a closed operation scheme (residence permit 1, pump 2 and heat exchanger 3 are connected in series, Fig. 1), the heat Q huts are released without changing the energy content of the circuit.


Fig. 1

The heating capacity of the circuit in time determined by the temperature difference on the heat exchanger and flow rate G of water:


where k is the coefficient of proportionality.

The effectiveness of the residence permit:


where U is the electricity consumed by the pump over time , a is always , because the .

The effectiveness of the residence permit is determined using calorimeter 4 (shown in dashed lines in Fig. 1). By changing the temperature T of the reference fluid in the tank over time , you can determine the amount of heat given by the heat exchanger of the reference fluid during this time, and reliably evaluate the effectiveness of the residence permit according to the formula (5). Initially, the heat released and then absorbed cannot change the performance of the generator so that its efficiency exceeds unity .

But the situation is completely different with the open-loop operation scheme of the residence permit (from the “donor highway” - the running water pipeline), Fig. 2. If you return relaxing water to the donor highway and constantly supply “fresh” water (with internal energy not used for heat generation) to the residence permit, the efficiency of the heating system will significantly exceed unity! The law of conservation of energy is not violated, the process goes through the inverse thermodynamic cycle [44], [45]. This mode is provided not only by the residence permit itself, but also by the method of heat extraction from an external low-temperature source - a water supply system, with the cost of mechanical work.



Based on the stated trends, the author has developed a fundamentally new type of residence permit with a rotary activator-turbine driven by the current working fluid (patent application RU2005136836), Fig. 3.



Vortex chambers in the apparatus of a new type are located on the periphery of the first rotor, which is an active hydraulic turbine. The second rotor is made in the form of a jet turbine. The rotors rotate in the opposite direction, while hydroshocks are cyclically generated (by overlapping sections of the vortex chambers with the second rotor). Hydroshock waves are transmitted to the rear areas of open cameras. Means of self-regulation of energy exchange of rotors with a working fluid are also provided. All this provides a large amplitude and a wide frequency spectrum of oscillations, as well as high cavitation efficiency with low hydraulic resistance . The design of the apparatus according to Fig. 3 provides a way out of the general drawback of analogues - the presence of shafts with rotors rigidly mounted on them (see below). Optimum in terms of the “cost-effectiveness” ratio, the efficiency has been increased and its functionality has been expanded (aimed, in particular, at increasing the efficiency of steam boilers).

To make the fundamental differences of the new residence permit clear to the reader, we consider the features of the known types of spacecraft.

In static spacecraft there are no movable structural elements [2] - [19], [21] - [26] and it is necessary to have a braking device with high hydraulic resistance (for example, [11] and 18]). Hydrodynamic generators of waves in a liquid are also known [27]. Cascade connections of such generators are known - serial and parallel [28]. These devices do not heat the working fluid and cannot be a means of increasing the efficiency of steam boilers.

Dynamic spacecraft have rotary (perforated [20], [25], [31], [33] - [40], or scapular [32]) activators, rigidly fastened to the drive shafts , and stationary working chambers formed by the body cavity with an input and outlet pipes. A large moment of inertia of the rotors kinematically connected with the shaft of the drive electric motor is a common disadvantage of all known residence permits of a dynamic type. This drawback is inherent in the residence permit "TS" (Tula), Fig. 4. The TS devices require an energy-intensive rotor shaft drive, costly dynamic balancing of a massive rotor, and the use of remote bearing bearings with radial seals. “TS” require the use of soft start equipment and are unsuitable for increasing the efficiency of steam boilers when working together with standard boiler feed pumps without an additional electric drive .


Fig. 4

The author has documentary evidence of Rostov entrepreneurs about low consumer qualities and reliability of the TS, which is due to the above-mentioned organic properties of the structure.

Among analogues of this kind are known means of creating self-oscillations in the working chamber [20], [41], similar to the claimed destination device. For example, in the “Rotary hydroshock pump - heat generator” [42], the cavitation zone is combined with the impeller of the pump, which reduces the efficiency of the latter [29] and the efficiency of the entire heating system. This is inherent in other similar spacecraft [32], [35], [38], [39].

The heating of the working fluid during autonomous operation of the spacecraft considered above begins with an initial (network) temperature, usually not exceeding twenty degrees Celsius. This entails high energy costs and increases the payback period of the spacecraft.


In modern boilers, the working fluid is pumped through the economizer through the economizer into the vaporization zone. In this case, the opportunity, first found by the author, to increase the temperature of the working fluid by direct exposure to a regular feed pump is not used. According to the invention, in the steam boiler the working fluid is pumped through the economizer by the feed pump, where the heat of the fuel combustion products heats the working fluid to a temperature of at least 336 oK. From the economizer, the working fluid is sent to the zone of cavitation and wave action, which creates a generator . The compression time of the cavitation bubble is very little, the process of its collapse occurs adiabatically. Inside the bubbles, the pressure can increase to 10 8 Pa, and the temperature can increase to 10 4 ° C [43] . The internal energy of the working fluid is released, as a result of which the latter boils abruptly [10]. The collapse of cavitation cavities leads to the generation of ultrasonic vibrations. This causes secondary cavitation ( an avalanche-like process with positive feedback ). At the same time, the energy consumption of the feed pump for the generation of cavitation and waves is incomparably less than the released internal energy of the working fluid (in the form of heat). The boiler’s feed water heating in the economizer to a temperature not lower than 336 ° K, its subsequent direction to the generator, and from it to the external heat supply zone, provides an over-cumulative effect - increasing the boiler efficiency with a relatively small expenditure of energy of the feed pump to push water through generator.

It is necessary to pay attention to the feasibility of using the invention to intensify and reduce the toxicity of combustion of heavy oil fractions (by means of cavitation-wave treatment of a vapor-oil mixture before feeding it into a burner or combustion chamber).

The operation diagram of the apparatus as such is shown in Fig. 5, where the positions denote: 20 — hydrodynamic generator, 21 — pump, 22 — nozzle, 23 — combustion chamber with cooling jacket 24, 25 — heat exchanger, 26 — supply tank, 27 — ejector , 28 - two-channel flow regulator, 29 - gas burner.

Fig. 5 Use of the invention to intensify and reduce combustion toxicity


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Publication date 12/10/2006