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Patent of the Russian Federation RU2227947
CAPACITOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEATER CONVERTER
The name of the inventor: Zaev Nikolay Emelyanovich
The name of the patent owner: Zayev Nikolay Emelyanovich
Address for correspondence: 143930, Moscow Region, Saltykovka Village, ul. Boundary, 8, NEZaevu
The effective date of the patent: 2002.09.11
The invention relates to the field of nonlinear capacitors. According to the invention, the capacitive converter is a nonlinear voltage with a nonlinear dielectric, which is an organic pyroelectric dielectric with a ferroelectric polarization, capable of increasing the permeability in a charge and discharge cycle 0 ~ 1.2 to V ~ 8 in a variable field E so that Thereby ensuring > 1, where W p - power at discharge, W 3 - modality at charge. The technical result of the invention is an increase in specific weight and volume characteristics.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Utilization: a capacitive medium-to-energy converter (C-kessor (an energy medium converter) is an autonomous power generator for all consumers with a capacity from a fraction of a watt to several kilowatts. The energy produced by S-Kessor is selected as heat from the environment, without the use of any fuel. The invention is carried out by carrying out the "Charging-Discharging" cycles of special non-linear dielectrics-capacitors with a frequency f. Condensers are combined in batteries by parallel and serial connection. The frequency of the "RR" cycles f depends on the capacitance C of the battery at "Charge" and C p at "Discharge"; At an alternating current of 50 Hz it is equal to 100 Hz.
The technical result of the work of the C-kessor is that the battery power at the load at "P" - W p - is greater than the power consumption W, at "З"; Attitudes This generated power W = W p -W з ~ (0,3-0,4) W з arises due to the ability of nonlinear dielectrics (capacitors) to transform their internal free energy when discharging into electric, cooling for each cycle of "3P" by small parts of a degree. After the "ZR" cycle, the heat comes from the environment to the battery.
C-kessors are known, with capacitors in which industrially manufactured variconds serve [1, 2]. In them, a dielectric is a ceramic mass based on barium titanate. These C-kessors have a specific volumetric generated power at 100 Hz And the specific gravity m W = = 0.442 kW / t.
Note. Calculation from the data from [1, 2]: the unit capacitance of the capacitor-varicode VK2B 0.15 F, D = 26 mm, h = 10 mm, volume 3,714 cm 3 , density 4.7 g / cm 3 , weight ~ 18 g. With V = 55 V, f = 100 Hz, C n = 33 F (220 variconds in parallel) the coefficient of nonlinearity is K ~ 6 (C 55 = С n · 6). The battery weight is 3960 g, the volume is 836 cm 3 . At 96 V K = 12. At 55 V in VK2B, the energy density is a volume energy v A u 0.366 · 10 -3 J / cm 3 and m А db ~ 0.075 · 10 -3 J / g. For comparison, in a PET film (lavsan), m A ud ~ 2 J / g .
The object of the invention is to provide a C-kessor with higher specific volume and mass characteristics.
The problem is solved by using a new class of nonlinear organic (recently discovered, in 1969) dielectric substances in C-kessors instead of ceramic dielectrics . These are the so-called liquid crystal and pyroelectric polymers [4, pp. 609-618]. However, in the form of films, as an industrial product, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and copolymers of vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene and tetrafluoroethylene are currently available. According to the catalog of the company Kureha (Japan), its PVDF film type KF has a density of 1.8 g / cm 3 , e. Strength of ~ 700 kV / mm (on film thickness of 25 M), = 11-10.7 at 60-1000 Hz of alternating current.
Studies of recent years established a relationship (E), which is due to the ferroelectric polarization in these substances. For PVDF field E of 60-90 kV / mm for 10 -1 -10 -3 s can theoretically increase the initial value of the dielectric constant by 50-100 times . In the experiments, the increase is at the level of 3-8; Times, depending on the frequency and level of E, thus ensuring > 1.
The advantages of a C-kessor with new dielectrics are seen from the following example.
Example. C-kessor, a battery of capacitors connected to blocks in parallel n pieces (the same C n ), and in the battery N blocks connected in series or in parallel, based on charging conditions or load characteristics during discharge. Each of the n capacitors has a nominal capacity, for example, 0.15 F, dielectric - a film of KF (PVDF) thickness of 9 · 10 -3 mm. At V = 750 V, K = 6, its capacity is 0.9 F and in it E = 83 kV / mm. The area of the film is S = 142 · 10 -3 cm 2 , its weight is 0.23 g. The energy in it So that m A u 1.1 J / g and v A ud 2 J / cm 3 ; By the specific energy density, the capacitance with PVDF exceeds VK2B by a factor of about a thousand.
If n = 220, then in block C n = 33 · 10 -6 F and there is a dielectric of 50.6 g. According to , approximately the volume of a single capacitor with a selected film (by 750 V) is 2.5-3 cm 3 , The entire battery is 660 cm 3 , and its weight is 1320 g, if the density is 2 g / cm 3 . This block is three times lighter than the prototype, and by volume - by ~ 40% less.
At a frequency of cycles f = 100 Hz and = 1.35 power generation by this battery per unit volume
And per unit mass
those. In terms of the volumetric density of the generated energy, the proposed C-kessor exceeds the prototype by 1300 times, by mass density - by 3000 times.
Provision of the obtained specific powers is possible only if the energy losses in the charging chain are reduced to a level of 2-3%. For this, it is necessary to increase the charging voltage U s in a function close to the exponential:
Where t is the time, U m is the desired voltage on the capacitance at the end of the charge, AU m is the initial charging voltage, and is the dimensionless ratio of the allowable losses to the charged-capacity energy. Since at the end of charging Then at practically acceptable a and A ~ 0.01-0.005, t is maximum at a = 0.01 and A = 0.005:
T = 1 · 10 -2 · R · C · (ln2 · 10 2 +1) = 1 · 10 -2 · R · C · 6.3 = 6.3 · 10 -2 · R · C.
It can be seen from U3 (t) that for such small t it is possible to increase U3 and with respect to the sinusoid Even linear growth will reduce the energy loss for charging. The power generation devices for charging capacitances with U 3 (t) according to various laws are described in  without the selection of the preferred U3 (t).
1. Zaev NE, Spiridonov Yu.S. Capacity - the converter of heat of the environment in the electric power. Electrical Engineering, No. 12, 1998. P.53-55.
2. Variables in electronic pulse circuits. M., Soviet Radio, 1971.
3. Renne V.T. Film capacitors with an organic dielectric. L., Energia, 1971. P.144-149.
4. Lines M., Glass A. Ferroelectrics and related materials. M., Mir, 1981.
5. Abramova NA, Andreev AM, Zhuravleva N.М. Optimization of film impregnated insulation of energy-intensive capacitors. - Electrical Engineering, 1998, №5, С.1-4.
6. Gromovenko AV, Opre VM, Fedorov A.V. Inductive charge of capacitive storage. - Electrical Engineering, 2001, N3, P.51-55
1. A capacitive medium heat converter into electric power, which is a nonlinear voltage with a nonlinear dielectric, charged and discharged by cycles "3R" with a frequency f Hertz and yielding during the discharge the conversion energy by the quantity > 1 from the charging energy to the load, characterized in that the nonlinear dielectric is an organic pyroelectric dielectric with a ferroelectric polarization, capable of reversibly increasing the permeability in the "3P" cycle 0 ~ 1.2 to V ~ 8 in a variable field E so that , Thereby ensuring > 1, where , Where W p - power in the discharge, W 3 - power when charging.
2. The capacitive converter of claim 1, characterized in that the field strength E at charging is 40 ÷ 110 kV / mm when operated in the "RR" cycle for at least 5 · 10 -3 s.
3. A capacitive converter according to claim 2, characterized in that the level = 1.3-1.4 reaches at a charging voltage U 3
If U m - maximum voltage per capacitance, R - resistance of the charging circuit, t - time, A, - dimensionless coefficients 0.01-0.005, the duration of the full charge
Date of publication 13.01.2007gg