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Patent of the Russian Federation RU2277643



The name of the inventor: Katargin Rudolf Klavdievich (RU)
The name of the patent owner: Katargin Rudolf Klavdievich (RU)
Address for correspondence: 129090, Moscow, ul. Shchepkina, 27, building 1, apartment 2, RK Katargin
Date of commencement of the patent: 2004.11.18

(EN) The invention relates to the field of engineering. A plasma current source is a prototype of a magnetohydrodynamic current generator. It consists of two sources of ions of the opposite charge, one of them is hydrogen (fuel) with positive ions, the other is oxygen (oxidative) with negative ions. Both sources are located at an angle to each other so that their expiring ionic jets intersect and mutually compensate charges. A hydrogen source, using high-frequency plasma and a magnetic field, generates electrons on the grid at the bottom of the quartz cylinder, which flow through the payload (light bulb or electric motor) through the electric conductors to the grid of the oxygen source. Here oxygen, also heated by its high-frequency inducer to the atomic state, by virtue of its property of affinity to the electron, absorbs the electrons coming from hydrogen, transforming into electronegative ions. The current ring from the oxygen grid passes through ion-fluxes closed in space-through the plasma of the hydrogen body to the grid, from where it comes to the oxygen electrode-grid through the load (electric motor or lamp). The magnetic field is, as in MHD generators, the main acting element, spatially separating the electron and ion streams of fuel and oxidant, in order to accomplish useful work in the electric motor. The invention makes it possible to simultaneously generate electricity and neutralize the charges of electric motors.


The invention relates to the field of mechanical engineering, in particular to plasma ion sources intended for generating electric power and performing the function of a magnetohydrodynamic current generator (MHD).

The known MHD convert the chemical energy of the fuel into electrical energy by thermal ionization of the gas stream and its separation into electronic and ionic components due to blowing in a transverse magnetic field. Further connection of electron and ion fluxes through payload conductors (bulbs, electric motors, etc.) gives the necessary amount of electric power for consumers. The principle of such obtaining of electricity is theoretically very promising, however, it did not go into further practice because of the low resistance to temperatures of constructional materials of our time [Mirdel G. Electrophysics, Moscow: Mir, 1972, p.242] .

On the principle of separation of gaseous substances into ions and electrons, both ion sources with both positive and negative ions are created and successfully used [Physics and technology of ion sources, ed. J. Braun, M., Mir, p.382] . On the basis of ion sources, electrically reactive engines for space vehicles are used to correct the orientation of earth satellites in space. Due to such promising developments, ion sources on engines are brought to high efficiency, efficiency ( efficiency ) reaches up to 70-80% [Favorsky ON. Et al. Fundamentals of the theory of cosmic electro-reactive propulsion systems. M .: Higher School, 1978, p.170] , which is quite comparable with the performance of fuel cells.

In principle, an electrically reactive engine is an ion source, just dressed in a cover-case. Due to the motor application of ion sources outside the atmosphere, a very unusual feature emerged. When an accelerated ion stream flows out of the nozzle into space, which is usually positive, a charge of the opposite sign is formed on the engine body, and if the necessary measures are not taken, the Coulomb force stops the ion flow and all the charged charged particles are forced back. And no matter how powerful a source of electric current does not work to create an ionic jet, the return of ions back is assured. In view of this, another source of the opposite charge (usually electronic) is installed near the nozzle cutter to neutralize the ion jet, merging with electrons compensates for the charge of the main flow [Grishin SD Electric rocket engines. M .: Mechanical Engineering, 1975, p.111] and thereby removes the charge from the housing by electrically connecting the wires of the neutralizing device of electrons with the engine electrode far from the nozzle. On this principle, it is possible to create a current source for direct energy conversion when fuel is oxidized into electrical energy in a manner analogous to an MHD generator.

The technical result, to which the invention is directed, is to increase the efficiency of generating electricity.

Said technical result is achieved by the fact that a plasma current source including an ionic electro-reactive engine with an ion source and electric electrodes closing through a payload comprises a second electrically reactive motor with a second ion source of opposite charges arranged at an angle to the first motor to provide an intersection The electrodes of the engines are made in the form of a grid, the oxidizer gas is heated only to the atomic state and, as a result of excitation, it takes electrons from the output electrode-grid (at the nozzle of the oxygen source), and it, in turn , Receives them from a fuel source of positive ions from an electrode far from the nozzle.

For this, it is necessary to use two electrically reactive engines, one of which produces a jet of, say, positive hydrogen ions (fuel), another oxygen (oxidizer) emits a negative ion flux. Imagine that the motor casing is not electrically connected, we will try to start them and allow both ionic jets to cross (unite). The outgoing ion streams compensate for their charges in space behind the engines, but only at the beginning. The expiration of both jets after the first pulse will stop, since both engine shells are charged by the amount of the emitted ions. The hydrogen body is a negative sign - an excess of electrons, the oxygen charge is charged with a positive sign - the lack of electrons. If we connect the motor casing with a conductor through a light bulb or an electric motor, then we allow electrons from the hydrogen body to flow to the oxygen body, and then the ion fluxes from the nozzles will flow normally with the further formation of water vapor when connected in space and the motor will rotate or the lamp will turn on. The motion of electrons along a conductor is also an electric current, i.e. A current generator is obtained.


FIG. 1 shows an example of a structural construction of an electric motor.


FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a current source comprising two electrically reactive motors. FIG.

For an example of constructive execution of this principle of current formation, it is reasonable to use the simplest, in our opinion, electrically reactive engine RIT-10 , developed in the FRG in the early seventies [Grishin SD Electric rocket engines. M .: Mechanical Engineering, 1975, p.97] . The engine is ( FIG. 1 ) a quartz cylinder 1 with a bottom (like a glass), encircled by an inductor 2 of a high-frequency electromagnetic field with a frequency in the range of 10-300 MHz. Through the bottom and the electric electrode - the anode grid 3 hydrogen is introduced from the balloon 4, which immediately enters the high-frequency electromagnetic field of the inductor, resulting in the formation of plasma. In it, under the influence of high frequency, the atoms of the gas break up into ions and electrons, and the latter, due to the negative charge, are forced back to the anode grid 3, charged positively from the current source. Hydrogen ions, having a positive charge, are accelerated by the electric field of the current source to the negative electrode of the cathode 5 and due to the large mass (in comparison with the electron) and the speed jump through the grid 5, which is the escape nozzle, where they jet out into outer space. Here, at the nozzle, slightly to the side, to compensate for the positive charge of the jet, a neutralizer is usually put in the form of an electron source, which emits them in the direction of the positive jet.

If, as a neutralizer, we use not electrons but a source of negative oxygen ions, whose atom, as we know, is easily converted into a minus ion due to the high affinity for an additional electron (ozone in nature), then the charge compensation of the hydrogen jet is provided by the combination of ions with formation Water vapor.

For a specific example, FIG. 2 shows an installation of two electro-reactive engines, one hydrogen, another oxygen-driven, gas-moving gases at right angles to intersect with jet streams. On the hydrogen engine casing 1, in addition to the high-frequency inductor 2, a coil 6 of a constant magnetic field is located along the axis of the housing, the purpose of the local magnetic field amplification device is to install a coil 9 to create a magnetic plug at the nozzle. The same principle of the use of a magnetic plug was very successfully tested on an electrically reactive engine (SPD) AI Morozova [Favorsky ON. Et al. Fundamentals of the theory of cosmic electro-reactive propulsion systems. M .: Higher School, 1978, p.162] .

The operation of the plant is in principle similar to the previously described single engine. When gas is supplied from cylinder 4 to the cavity of the hydrogen (fuel) cylinder in the high-frequency field of the inductor, the gas becomes a clot of plasma heated to 14-19 thousand degrees [High-frequency electrothermy. Reference book, red. AVDonskoy, Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1965, p. 275] and decays into ions and electrons. In the longitudinal magnetic field of coil 3, electrons, by virtue of their negative charge, rotate around the lines of force of the magnetic field and are forced to drift to the left toward the bottom of the cylinder and settle on the electric electrode-grid 5 [Artsimovich LA Movement of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields. Moscow: Nauka, 1972, p.55, p.207] . If by chance the electron goes along the magnetic line to the right, it will fall into the field of the strong magnetic coil of the coil 9, it will be reflected and rushes back to the grid 3. Hydrogen ions, having a positive charge, and also due to rotation from the Lorentz force, direct to the right along the magnetic lines and beyond An increased mass account slips through the magnetic plug and is emitted through the ring 7 from the engine nozzle into the space. Accidentally left ion in the direction of the bottom (to the left) will lose energy for dissociation and ionization of molecules coming from the balloon 4 and return to the center of the high-frequency field. Similarly, in MHD generators, the gas is divided into ionic and electronic components by a magnetic field, where ions and electrons, thanks to different charge signs, wind on the magnetic lines in opposite directions and drift to their electrodes.

The body of the oxygen engine 8 does not have a constant magnetic field as unnecessary, the high-frequency field of the inductor by limited heating of the gas causes the molecules to decay into individual atoms and no more. Such atoms are thermally excited and, under pressure of the mass of gas from the balloon, are forced to approach the grid 5, on which they, due to their large affinity for the electron [Gray. Electrons and chemical bonds. M .: Mir, 1967, p.45] take the electrons they need from the grid and exit negatively charged from the nozzle to meet positively charged hydrogen ions. Formed water molecules by inertia go into the surrounding space. A grid 5 depleted of electrons by contact with oxygen atoms along the electric circuit conductors receives an excess of electrons from the electrode 3 through the electric motor 10, to which hydrogen electrons again and again come from the plasma of the high-frequency discharge of the hydrogen engine due to the magnetic field of the solenoids. A closed circular chain of motion of charges is formed, consisting of two closing ion currents and one electronic, similar to the ring current chain formed during operation of a fuel cell [Korovin NV New chemical sources of current. M .: Energia, 1978, p.77] . An electrical circuit with a current source, a switch 11 ( FIG. 2 ), and a ring 7 is only needed for initial ignition, and after starting the process it turns off as unnecessary.

Of course, you can work successfully and with the power source turned on, however, for the sake of economy it is permissible to turn it off.

High-frequency inductors for gas heating usually consume relatively little power, but more than solenoid coils. To increase the efficiency of the installation in a hydrogen stream, it is reasonable to introduce a limited amount of oxygen, then in the high-frequency zone, when a certain amount of heat is released from the partial chemical reaction, the inductor will need less energy to create the same dissociation and ionization result of the gas molecules, which reduces the electric power of the high-frequency inductor.

The use of a plasma source of current has a promising value, especially in the field of transport engineering. Since the proposed plasma current source is lighter in weight per unit of power and incomparably more durable in the operation of a conventional fuel cell, it is quite possible to use it in electric vehicles, autonomous power units, in general, where power sources require medium and large electrical powers. The described method of obtaining electricity makes it possible to use a variety of fuels instead of hydrogen up to colloidal coal powder, which greatly expands the area of ​​application of the plasma source of current in everyday life, industry and agriculture.

High-frequency plasma sources with the use of gases due to the absence of contact current electrodes have been worked out by modern industry in technical terms to perfection. They are used as high-temperature burners where it is necessary to melt or obtain chemically pure refractory materials, but also for heating gas streams in aerodynamic testing of models and materials intended for supersonic and space flights [High-frequency electrothermy, Handbook, Ed. A.V.Donskoy. M .: Mechanical Engineering, 1965, p.278] in the paint and varnish industry, for melting metals and many other areas. Using them to produce an electric current will enrich the practice with an entirely new direction in the development of technology along with other types of ion sources that can equally well be used as power generators.


A plasma current source including an ionic electro-reactive motor with an ion source and electric electrodes closing through a payload, characterized in that it comprises a second electrically-reactive motor with a second ion source of opposite charges arranged at an angle to the first motor to provide for crossing by the nozzles emerging from the nozzles Jets and neutralizing their charges, the electric electrodes of the motors being made in the form of a grid, the oxidizer gas is heated only to the atomic state and, as a result of excitation, it takes electrons from the output electrode-grid (at the nozzle of the oxygen source), and it, in turn, Chain through the payload receives them from a fuel source of positive ions from an electrode far from the nozzle.

print version
Date of publication 01.12.2006гг