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CHEAP FUEL GAS AND HYDROGEN FROM WATER FECALAL SOLUTIONS
EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM WATER WITH THE HELP
CAPILLARY ELECTRIC LIQUIDS
Valery Dudyshev, Russia, Samara
Samara Technical University
The article discusses a promising new scientific and technical direction of hydrogen energy - the latest electrocapillary technology for producing n 2 and fuel gases . It is based on experimentally tested a new electrophysical effect of intense “cold” evaporation and dissociation of aqueous-organic solutions into fuel gases in a strong electric field. The open effect is the physical basis of many new "breakthrough" technologies in the fuel and hydrogen energy. The technology has been tested ...
Efficient production of hydrogen from water is an old tempting dream of civilization. The urgent and urgent problem of energy is also in the gasification of solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, more specifically in the creation and implementation of energy-saving technologies for the production of combustible fuel gases from any hydrocarbons, including coals. The prospect of turning any liquid organic waste into cheap fuel gas is tempting ..
There are various methods for producing hydrogen from the decomposition of water: thermal, electrolytic, catalytic, thermochemical, thermogravitational, electropulse, and others. Significant energy consumption in obtaining fuel gas from water in known technologies is spent on overcoming the intermolecular bonds of water in its liquid state of aggregation. Biometrics for the gasification of organics do not have universality, high productivity and are critical to many parameters. A new proven technology for producing fuel gas from organic solutions using an electric field is proposed. The simplest operating device for the experimental realization of the effect of high-voltage capillary electroosmosis for “cold” evaporation and dissociation of water molecules is shown in Fig.1.
The simplest device ( Fig. 1 ) for implementing the proposed method for producing combustible gas from aqueous solutions consists of a dielectric capacitance 1 , with liquid 2 poured into it (water-fuel emulsion or plain water), from a fine-porous capillary material, for example, a fiber wick 3 , immersed in this liquid and pre-moistened in it, from the upper evaporator 4 , in the form of a capillary evaporation surface with a variable area in the form of an impermeable screen (not shown in Fig. 1 ). The structure of this device includes high-voltage electrodes 5, 5-1 , electrically connected to the opposite terminals of a high-voltage adjustable source of a constant electric field 6 , with one of the electrodes 5 made in the form of a perforated needle plate, and placed movably above the evaporator 4 , for example, in parallel him at a distance sufficient to prevent electrical breakdown on the wetted wick 3 , mechanically connected to the evaporator 4 .
Another high-voltage electrode ( 5-1 ), electrically connected at the input, for example, to the “+” output of the field source 6 , is mechanically and electrically connected to the lower end of the porous material, wick 3 , almost at the bottom of the capacitance 1 . For reliable electrical insulation, the electrode is protected from the body of the container by a 1- pass electrical insulator 5-2. The device is supplemented with a modular gas collector 7 . Essentially, a device containing blocks 3, 4, 5, 6 , is a combined device of an electroosmotic pump and an electrostatic liquid evaporator 2 from the tank 1 .
Block 6 allows you to adjust the intensity of the constant ( “+”, “-“ ) electric field from 0 to 20 kV / cm . The electrode 5 is made perforated or porous so that the formed vapor can pass through it. The device (Fig. 1) also provides the technical possibility of changing the distance and position of the electrode 5 relative to the surface of the evaporator 4. In principle, ceramic monoelectrets can be used instead of the electric unit 6 and electrode 5 to create the required electric field .. For the first time, “cold evaporation” and electrocapillary dissociation of liquids was carried out using water-fuel emulsions and faecal solutions of various concentrations as liquids .. Fuel gases were very different nye composition and heat capacity. Under the action of electrostatic forces of the longitudinal electric field, the dipole polarized liquid molecules move through the capillaries from the tank towards the opposite electric potential of the electrode 5 ( electroosmosis ), are broken by these electric field forces from the surface of the evaporator 4 and turn into visible fog first, and then dissociate in an electric field at the minimum energy consumption of the source of the electric field ( 6 ). Partial electroradiolysis, thermokinetic and electrofield dissociation of liquid molecules evaporated by the field occurs by colliding with each other and with air and ozone molecules, electrons in the ionization zone between the evaporator 4 and the upper electrode 5 . As experiments show, these occur with the formation of combustible gas. Further, this fuel gas enters through the gas collector 7 , into the accumulator, for example, into the combustion chambers of a motor vehicle.
The composition of this combustible fuel gas includes hydrogen molecules ( H 2 ), % oxygen, water molecules, methane and other complex organic fuel molecules, etc. It has been experimentally shown that the intensity of the process of evaporation and dissociation of its vapor molecules and the composition of fuel gases significantly depend on the change parameters of water solutions, installation and electric field. The calorific value of the fuel gas was estimated by burning it to heat the control volume of water.
Experiments have shown high performance of this capillary technology of cold evaporation of aqueous solutions and gas formation. So, in 10 minutes with a diameter of a capillary tow and a working cylinder 10 cm . capillary electro-vapor evaporates a sufficiently large volume of water-fuel emulsion ( 1 liter) with virtually no energy costs. At a concentration of fuel gas from 10 to 30% of the volume of the evaporated solution. Experiments show that in each of the capillaries with electrified liquid, the currentless electrostatic works simultaneously ion pump, which both raise the column by a polarized and partially ionized field in a micron capillary of the diameter of a liquid (water) column from one potential la an electric field supplied to the liquid itself and the lower end of the capillary to the opposite electrical potential, placed with a gap relative to the opposite end of the capillary. As a result, such an ion-electrostatic pump intensively breaks the intermolecular bonds of water, actively moves polarized water molecules and their radicals along the capillary with pressure and then injects these molecules along with the torn electrically charged radicals of water molecules beyond the capillary to the opposite potential of the electric field. Experiments show that the partial dissociation (rupture) of solvated molecules of aqueous-organic solutions is the greater, the higher the electric field. It is precisely the potential energy of the electric field that is used in all these complicated and simultaneously occurring processes of a capillary electroosmosis of a liquid. At the same time, at the exit from the capillaries, the gaseous molecules of water and solvates are disrupted by electrostatic forces of the electric field to methane, H 2 and O 2 . Since this process of phase transition of liquid water into water mist (gas) and dissociation of water molecules proceeds in the experiment without any apparent expenditure of energy (heat and trivial electricity), it is likely that the potential energy of the electric field is spent in some way. Thus, the high-voltage capillary electroosmosis of an aqueous liquid, through the use of the potential energy of the electric field, provides indeed intensive and energetically inexpensive evaporation and the splitting of water molecules into fuel gas ( H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O ). Despite the relative simplicity of the technical implementation of the technology itself, nevertheless, the real physics and energy of the processes in the implementation of this effect is very complex and is fully understood.
Since capillary electroosmotic “cold” evaporation and dissociation of liquids, many different electrochemical, electrophysical, electromechanical and other processes take place simultaneously and alternately, especially when the aqueous solution moves through the capillary injecting molecules from the capillary edge in the direction of the electric field.
Simply put, the physical essence of the new effect and the new technology is the transformation of the potential energy of the electric field into the kinetic energy of the movement of fluid molecules and structures through the capillary and outside it. At the same time, in the process of evaporation and dissociation of a liquid, electric current is practically not consumed, because it is the potential energy of the electric field that is consumed. It is the electric field in capillary electroosmosis that triggers and maintains the occurrence and simultaneous flow in the liquid during the conversion of its fractions and state of aggregation to the device at once many useful effects of converting molecular structures and liquid molecules into a combustible gas. Namely: high-voltage capillary electroosmosis simultaneously provides powerful polarization of water molecules and its structures with simultaneous partial rupture of intermolecular bonds of water in an electrified capillary, crushing polarized water molecules and clusters into charged radicals in the capillary itself by means of the potential energy of an electric field.
Adjusting the intensity of the formation of water mist (intensity of cold evaporation) is achieved by changing the parameters of the electric field directed along the capillary evaporator and (or) by changing the distance between the outer surface of the capillary material and the accelerating electrode, which creates the electric field in the capillaries.
Regulation of the performance of obtaining hydrogen from water is carried out by changing (adjusting) the size and shape of the electric field, the area and diameter of capillaries, changing the composition and properties of water. These conditions for optimal dissociation of a liquid vary depending on the type of liquid, on the properties of the capillaries, on the parameters of the field. and dictated by the required performance of the process of dissociation of a particular fluid. Experiments show that the most efficient production of H 2 from water is achieved by splitting the molecules of the water mist obtained by electroosmosis with a second electric field, the rational parameters of which were chosen mainly experimentally ( Fig . 2 ). In particular, it became clear that the final splitting of the water mist molecules should be carried out precisely by a pulsed sign-constant electric field with a field vector perpendicular to the vector of the first field used in electroosmosis water. The effect of the electric field on the liquid in the process of its conversion into fog and further in the process of splitting the molecules of the liquid can be carried out simultaneously or alternately.
Thanks to these described mechanisms, when combined electroosmosis and the influence of two electric fields on the liquid (water) in the capillary, it is possible to achieve maximum productivity of the process of producing a combustible gas and practically eliminate the electrical and thermal energy costs when receiving this gas from water from any water-fuel liquids.
This technology is in principle applicable to the production of fuel gas from any liquid fuel or its aqueous emulsions.
The resulting fuel gas, depending on the concentration of fuel mist and H 2 in it, had a different heat capacity. It was estimated by burning it and heating the control volume of water. Most effectively this gas burned in an electric field / 4 / .
Other general aspects of the practical implementation of the new technology
Let us consider some more practical aspects of the implementation of the proposed new revolutionary electrotechnology technology for the decomposition of hydrocarbon water solutions, its other possible effective options for the development of the basic scheme for the implementation of the new technology, as well as some additional explanations, technological recommendations and technological tricks useful for its practical implementation.
Some other proven variants of electroosmotic fuel generators are presented in a simplified form in Figure 2-3 . One of the simple variants of the combined method of producing combustible gas from a water-fuel mixture or water can be implemented in the device ( Fig. 2 )
It consists essentially of a combination of the device ( Fig. 1 ) with an additional device containing flat transverse electrodes 8, 8-1 , connected to a second source of a strong electric field 9 .
The fuel gasifier is equipped with a thermal heater 10 , placed, for example, under the bottom of the tank 1 . On motor vehicles, this may be the exhaust manifold of hot exhaust gases, the side walls of the engine housing itself. Blocks 3, 4, 5, 6 together form a combined device of an electroosmotic pump and an electrostatic liquid evaporator. Block 6 allows you to adjust the electric field strength from 1 kV / cm to 30 kV / cm . The device ( Fig. 2 ) also provides for the technical possibility of changing the distance and position of the plate mesh or porous electrode 5 relative to the evaporator 4 , and the distance between the flat electrodes 8 and 8-1 .
To increase the intensity of fuel gas production, it is advisable to activate the liquid (water) first (preheating, its preliminary separation into acid and alkaline fractions, electrification and polarization, etc.). Pre-electroactivation of water (and any aqueous emulsion) with its separation into acid and alkaline fractions is carried out by partial electrolysis by means of additional electrodes placed in special semi-permeable diaphragms for their subsequent separate evaporation ( Fig . 3 ).
It is quite possible to use this method for dissociation and the production of fuel gases from virtually any water-organic emulsion. Our experiments show that this technology makes it possible to effectively use any liquid organic solutions (for example, liquid fecal waste of humans and animals) as a raw material for the production of fuel gas. Such hybrid fuel gas derived from organic waste is less explosive than H 2 . Thus, the present fuel technology is effectively applicable both for the gasification of water-fuel emulsions, and for the useful gasification of liquid organic waste. Graphs of the dependence of the fuel gas productivity on the process parameters are shown in Fig. four
A new electrophysical effect of an intense high-voltage capillary “cold” evaporation and dissociation of molecules of any liquids in strong electric fields of certain parameters was discovered and experimentally investigated.
The essence of the new method of obtaining fuel gases by dissociating virtually any liquid consists in breaking its intermolecular and molecular bonds by high-voltage capillary electroosmosis .
The proposed energy-saving technology for the production of fuel gases from any weakly conducting aqueous solutions is applicable for the efficient production of fuel gas from any liquid fuels and water-fuel emulsions, including liquid organic waste.
- V.Dudyshev “New effect of cold evaporation and dissociation of liquids based on the capillary electroosmotic effect“ in the well ”New Energy” “№1 / 2003
- Evaporation- New Energy Technologies –Januar 2003
- DUDYSHEV VALERY DMITRIEVICH (RU) ZAVYALOV STANISLAV YURIEVICH (RU); METHOD FOR DISSOCIATING LIQUID- Requested Patent WO0207874 - Application Number WO2001EN00308 20010725
- V.Dudyshev “Electro-fire technology — an effective way to solve energy and environmental problems-“ Ecology and Industry of Russia ”, No. 3/97
- Stanley Meier US Patent 4.936,961 Fuel Gas Production Method
Authors: Dr. tech. Sciences, Professor N.Dudyshev
Publication date 12.10.2006