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CHEAP FUEL GAS AND HYDROGEN FROM AQUEOUS FEECAL SOLUTIONS
EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM WATER USING
CAPILLARY ELECTRIC DRAINAGE OF LIQUIDS
Dudyshev Valery, Russia, Samara
Samara Technical University
The article discusses a new promising scientific and technical direction of hydrogen energy - the latest electrocapillary technology for producing n 2 and fuel gases . It is based on the experimentally tested new electrophysical effect of intense “cold” evaporation and dissociation of aqueous-organic solutions into fuel gases in a strong electric field. The open effect is the physical basis of many new “breakthrough” technologies in fuel and hydrogen energy. The technology has been tested ...
The efficient production of hydrogen from water is a long-standing tempting dream of civilization. An urgent and urgent problem of energy is gasification of solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, more specifically, the creation and implementation of energy-saving technologies for the production of combustible fuel gases from any hydrocarbons, including fossil fuels. The prospect of turning any liquid organic waste into cheap fuel gas is tempting ..
There are various methods for producing hydrogen by decomposition of water: thermal, electrolytic, catalytic, thermochemical, thermogravitational, electro-pulse and others. Significant energy consumption in obtaining fuel gas from water in known technologies is spent on overcoming the intermolecular bonds of water in its liquid state of aggregation. Organic gasification biomethods do not have universality, high productivity, and are critical to many parameters. A new proven technology for producing fuel gas from organic solutions using an electric field is proposed. The simplest operating device for the experimental realization of the effect of high-voltage capillary electroosmosis for “cold” evaporation and dissociation of water molecules is shown in Fig. 1.
The simplest device ( Fig. 1 ) for implementing the proposed method for producing combustible gas from aqueous solutions consists of a dielectric tank 1 , with liquid 2 (water-fuel emulsion or ordinary water) poured into it, from a finely porous capillary material, for example, a fibrous wick 3 , immersed in this liquid and pre-moistened in it, from the upper evaporator 4 , in the form of a capillary evaporation surface with a variable area in the form of an impermeable screen (not shown in Fig. 1 ). The structure of this device also includes high-voltage electrodes 5, 5-1 , electrically connected to the opposite terminals of the high-voltage regulated source of an alternating electric field 6 , one of the electrodes 5 being made in the form of a hole-needle plate, and placed movably above the evaporator 4 , for example, in parallel him at a distance sufficient to prevent electrical breakdown on the wetted wick 3 , mechanically connected to the evaporator 4 .
Another high-voltage electrode ( 5-1 ), electrically connected at the input, for example, to the “+” terminal of the field source 6 , is mechanically and electrically connected to the lower end of the porous material, wick 3 , almost at the bottom of the tank 1 with its output. For reliable electrical insulation, the electrode is protected from the tank body 1 by a 5–2 electrical insulator through passage. The device is supplemented by a prefabricated gas collector 7 . Essentially, a device containing blocks 3, 4, 5, 6 is a combined device of an electroosmotic pump and an electrostatic liquid evaporator 2 from a tank 1 .
Block 6 allows you to adjust the intensity of alternating ( “+”, ”-“ ) electric fields from 0 to 20 kV / cm . The electrode 5 is made holey or porous for the possibility of passing through itself a generated vapor. The device (Fig. 1) also provides the technical possibility of changing the distance and position of the electrode 5 relative to the surface of the evaporator 4. In principle, ceramic monoelectrets can be used instead of the electric unit 6 and electrode 5 to create the required electric field .. The first experiments of “cold evaporation” and electrocapillary dissociation of liquids was carried out using water-fuel emulsions and fecal solutions of various concentrations as liquids. Fuel gases were very different nye composition and heat capacity. Under the action of electrostatic forces of a longitudinal electric field, dipole polarized liquid molecules move through the capillaries from the capacitance in the direction to the opposite electric potential of the electrode 5 ( electroosmosis ), these fields are disrupted by the electric forces from the surface of the evaporator 4 and first turn into visible fog, and then dissociate in an electric field with minimal energy consumption of the electric field source ( 6 ). Partial electroradiolysis, thermokinetic and electric field dissociation of field-evaporated liquid molecules occurs by collision with each other and with air and ozone molecules, electrons in the ionization zone between evaporator 4 and upper electrode 5 . As experiments show, these occur with the formation of combustible gas. Further, this fuel gas enters through the gas collector 7 , into the storage device, for example, into the combustion chambers of a motor vehicle.
The composition of this combustible fuel gas includes hydrogen ( H 2 ) molecules, % oxygen, water molecules, methane and other complex organic fuel molecules, etc. It has been experimentally shown that the intensity of the process of evaporation and dissociation of its vapor molecules and the composition of fuel gases significantly depend on the change parameters of aqueous solutions, installation and electric field. The calorific value of fuel gas was estimated by burning it to heat a control volume of water.
The experiments showed the high performance of this capillary technology for the cold evaporation of aqueous solutions and gas formation. So, in 10 minutes with a diameter of a capillary bundle and a working cylinder of 10 cm . capillary electro-cosmos evaporated a sufficiently large volume of water-fuel emulsion ( 1 liter) with virtually no energy consumption. At a concentration of fuel gas from 10 to 30% of the volume of the evaporated solution. Experiments show that in each of the capillaries with an electrified liquid, practically non-current electrostatic and simultaneously works ion pump, which raise a pole of a polarized and partially ionized field in a micron capillary in diameter of a liquid (water) column from one potential la an electric field supplied to the liquid itself and the lower end of the capillary to the opposite electrical potential, placed with a gap relative to the opposite end of the capillary. As a result, such an ion-electrostatic pump intensely breaks the intermolecular bonds of water, actively moves polarized water molecules and their radicals through the capillary with pressure, and then injects these molecules together with the torn electrically charged radicals of the water molecules outside the capillary to the opposite electric field potential. Experiments show that the partial dissociation (rupture) of solvated molecules of aqueous-organic solutions is the greater, the higher the electric field strength. In all these complicated and simultaneously proceeding processes of capillary electroosmosis of a liquid, it is precisely the potential energy of the electric field that is used. At the same time, at the exit from the capillaries, the gaseous molecules of water and solvates are broken by the electrostatic forces of the electric field into methane, H 2 and O 2 . Since this process of phase transition of a water liquid into water fog (gas) and dissociation of water molecules proceeds in an experiment without any visible expenditure of energy (heat and trivial electricity), it is likely that the potential energy of the electric field is consumed in some way. Thus, the high-voltage capillary electroosmosis of an aqueous liquid provides, through the use of the potential energy of the electric field, a really intense and energy-free evaporation and splitting of water molecules into fuel gas ( H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O ). Despite the relative simplicity of the technical implementation of the technology itself, the real physics and energetics of the processes during the implementation of this effect is very complex and is still fully understood.
Since during the capillary electroosmotic “cold” evaporation and dissociation of liquids, many different electrochemical, electrophysical, electromechanical and other processes occur simultaneously and alternately, especially when the aqueous solution moves along the capillary of molecular injection from the edge of the capillary in the direction of the electric field.
Simply put, the physical essence of the new effect and new technology consists in converting the potential energy of the electric field into the kinetic energy of the movement of liquid molecules and structures along the capillary and outside it. Moreover, in the process of evaporation and dissociation of a liquid, practically no electric current is consumed, because it is the potential energy of the electric field that is consumed. It is the electric field in capillary electroosmosis that triggers and supports the occurrence and simultaneous occurrence of many beneficial effects of the conversion of molecular structures and molecules of a liquid into a combustible gas during the conversion of its fractions and state of aggregation to a device. Namely: high-voltage capillary electroosmosis provides both powerful polarization of water molecules and its structures with simultaneous partial breaking of intermolecular bonds of water in an electrified capillary, crushing of polarized water molecules and clusters into charged radicals in the capillary itself through the potential energy of an electric field.
The adjustment of the intensity of formation of water fog (the intensity of cold evaporation) is achieved by changing the parameters of the electric field directed along the capillary evaporator and (or) by changing the distance between the outer surface of the capillary material and the accelerating electrode, with which an electric field is created in the capillaries.
The performance of producing hydrogen from water is controlled by changing (regulating) the magnitude and shape of the electric field, the area and diameter of the capillaries, and changing the composition and properties of water. These conditions for optimal dissociation of a liquid are different depending on the type of liquid, on the properties of capillaries, and on the field parameters. and dictated by the required performance of the process of dissociation of a particular liquid. Experiments show that the most efficient production of H 2 from water is achieved by splitting the molecules of the water fog obtained by electroosmosis with a second electric field, the rational parameters of which were selected mainly experimentally ( Fig . 2 ). In particular, the expediency of the final splitting of the water fog molecules was found to be produced precisely by a pulsed alternating electric field with a field vector perpendicular to the vector of the first field used in water electroosmosis . The effect of an electric field on a liquid during its conversion to fog and then in the process of splitting liquid molecules can be carried out simultaneously or alternately.
Thanks to these described mechanisms, with combined electroosmosis and the action of two electric fields on a liquid (water) in a capillary, it is possible to achieve maximum productivity of the process for producing combustible gas and to practically eliminate the electric and thermal energy costs when this gas is obtained from water from any water-fuel liquids.
This technology is, in principle, applicable for the production of fuel gas from any liquid fuel or its aqueous emulsions.
The resulting fuel gas, depending on the concentration of water-fuel fog and H 2, had different heat capacities. It was evaluated by burning it and heating a control volume of water. Most effectively, this gas burned in an electric field / 4 / .
Other general aspects of the practical implementation of the new technology
Let us consider some more practical aspects of the implementation of the proposed new revolutionary electrical technology for the decomposition of hydrocarbon water solutions, its other possible effective options for developing the basic scheme for the implementation of the new technology, as well as some additional explanations, technological recommendations and technological “tricks” useful in its practical implementation.
Some other proven options for electroosmotic fuel generators are presented in a simplified form in Fig . 2-3 . One of the simple options for a combined method of producing combustible gas from a water-fuel mixture or water can be implemented in a device ( Fig. 2 )
It consists essentially of a combination of the device ( Fig. 1 ) with an additional device containing flat transverse electrodes 8, 8-1 attached to a second source of strong electric field 9 .
The fuel gasifier is equipped with a thermal heater 10 , located, for example, under the bottom of the tank 1 . In vehicles, this may be the exhaust manifold of hot exhaust gases, the side walls of the engine housing. Blocks 3, 4, 5, 6 comprise in total the combined device of an electroosmotic pump and an electrostatic liquid evaporator. Block 6 allows you to adjust the electric field strength from 1 kV / cm to 30 kV / cm . The device ( Fig. 2 ) also provides the technical ability to change the distance and position of the plate mesh or porous electrode 5 relative to the evaporator 4 , and the distance between the flat electrodes 8 and 8-1 .
To increase the intensity of obtaining fuel gas, it is advisable to first activate the liquid (water) (pre-heating, preliminary separation of it into acid and alkaline fractions, electrification and polarization, etc.). The preliminary electroactivation of water (and any water emulsion) with its separation into acid and alkaline fractions is carried out by partial electrolysis by means of additional electrodes placed in special semipermeable diaphragms for their subsequent separate evaporation ( Fig . 3 ).
It is possible to use this method for the dissociation and production of fuel gases from almost any water-organic emulsion. Our experiments show that this technology makes it possible to efficiently use any liquid organic solutions (for example, liquid fecal wastes of human and animal life) as raw materials for fuel gas production. Such a hybrid fuel gas derived from organic waste is less explosive than H 2 . Thus, the present fuel technology is effectively applicable both for gasification of water-fuel emulsions and for useful gasification of liquid organic waste. Graphs of the dependence of fuel gas productivity on process parameters are shown in Fig. 4
A new electrophysical effect of intense high-voltage capillary - “cold” evaporation and dissociation of molecules of any liquids in strong electric fields of certain parameters has been discovered and experimentally investigated.
The essence of the new method for producing fuel gases by dissociating virtually any liquid is to break its intermolecular and molecular bonds by high-voltage capillary electroosmosis .
The proposed energy-saving technology for producing fuel gases from any weakly conducting aqueous solutions is applicable for the efficient production of fuel gas from any liquid fuels and water-fuel emulsions, including liquid organic waste.
- Dudyshev V.D. “A New Effect of Cold Evaporation and Dissociation of Liquids Based on the Capillary Electroosmotic Effect“ in Rail ”New Energy” “No. 1/2003
- VDDudyshev New Effekt of gold Evaporation- New Energy Technologies –Januar 2003
- DUDYSHEV VALERY DMITRIEVICH (RU) ZAVYALOV STANISLAV YURIEVICH (RU); METHOD FOR DISSOCIATING LIQUID- Requested Patent WO0207874 - Application Number WO2001RU00308 20010725
- Dudyshev V.D. “Electro-firing technology is an effective way to solve energy and environmental problems -“ Ecology and Industry of Russia ”, No. 3/97
- Stanley Meyer US Patent 4,936,961 Fuel Gas Production Method
Authors: Doctor tech. sciences, professor N. Dudyshev
Publication date 10/12/2006