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CHEAP FUEL GAS AND HYDROGEN FROM WATER FACIAL SOLUTIONS
EFFECTIVE RECOVERY OF HYDROGEN FROM WATER BY HELP
CAPILLARY ELECTROOSYME OF LIQUIDS
Dudyshev Valery Dmitrievich, Russia, Samara
Samara Technical University
The article discusses a new promising scientific and technical direction of hydrogen energy - the newest electrocapillary technology for obtaining n 2 and fuel gases . It is based on experimentally tested a new electrophysical effect of intense "cold" evaporation and dissociation of water-organic solutions into fuel gases in a strong electric field. The open effect is the physical basis of many new "breakthrough" technologies in fuel and hydrogen energy. The technology has been tested ...
Effective production of hydrogen from water is a long-standing dream of civilization. A pressing and urgent energy problem is also in the gasification of solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, more specifically in the creation and implementation of energy-saving technologies for the production of combustible fuel gases from any hydrocarbons, including coal. The prospect of turning any liquid organic waste into a cheap fuel gas is tempting.
Various methods of obtaining hydrogen are known for the decomposition of water: thermal, electrolytic, catalytic, thermochemical, thermogravitational, electropulse, and others. Significant energy costs in obtaining fuel gas from water in known technologies are spent on overcoming intermolecular water bonds in its liquid aggregate state. Biomethods of gasification of organic matter do not possess universality, high productivity and are critical to many parameters. A new proven technology for obtaining fuel gas from organic solutions using an electric field is proposed. The simplest operating device for the experimental realization of the effect of high-voltage capillary electroosmosis for the "cold" evaporation and dissociation of water molecules is shown in Fig.
The simplest device ( Fig. 1 ) for implementing the proposed method for producing a combustible gas from aqueous solutions consists of a dielectric tank 1 with a liquid 2 (water-fuel emulsion or ordinary water) poured into it, from a fine-porous capillary material, for example, a fibrous wick 3 , immersed in this liquid and pre-wetted in it, from the upper evaporator 4 , in the form of a capillary evaporative surface with a variable area in the form of an impermeable shield (not shown in Fig. 1 ). This device also includes high-voltage electrodes 5, 5-1 electrically connected in opposite ends of the high-voltage controlled source of the sign-static electric field 6 , one of the electrodes 5 being made in the form of a hole-needle plate and placed movably above the evaporator 4 , for example, in parallel at a distance sufficient to prevent electrical breakdown of the wet wick 3 mechanically connected to the evaporator 4 .
Another high-voltage electrode ( 5-1 ) electrically connected to the input, for example to the "+" terminal of the field source 6 , is mechanically and electrically connected to the lower end of the porous material, wick 3 , almost at the bottom of the container 1 , by its output. For reliable electrical insulation, the electrode is protected from the body of the tank 1 by a walk-through electrical insulator 5-2. The device is supplemented with a gas collector 7 . As such, the device comprising the units 3, 4, 5, 6 is a combined device of an electroosmotic pump and an electrostatic liquid evaporator 2 from the container 1 .
Block 6 allows you to adjust the tension of a constant ( "+", "-" ) electric field from 0 to 20 kV / cm . The electrode 5 is made to be perforated or porous to allow the generated vapor to pass through itself. In the device (Fig. 1), it is also possible to change the distance and position of the electrode 5 relative to the surface of the evaporator 4. In principle, ceramic mono-electric devices can be used instead of the electric block 6 and the electrode 5 to create the required electric field strength .. First experiments of "cold evaporation" and electrocapillary dissociation of liquids were carried out using water-fuel emulsions and faecal solutions of various concentrations as liquids. The fuel gases were very different nye composition and heat capacity. Under the action of the electrostatic forces of the longitudinal electric field, the dipole polarized molecules of the liquid move along the capillaries from the vessel towards the opposite electric potential of the electrode 5 ( electroosmosis ), are torn off by these electric field forces from the surface of the evaporator 4 and transform first into visible fog and then dissociate in the electric field with the minimum energy consumption of the source of the electric field ( 6 ). Partial electroradialysis, thermokinetic and electric-field dissociation of liquid molecules evaporated by the field arises by colliding with one another and with molecules of air and ozone, electrons in the ionization zone between the evaporator 4 and the upper electrode. As experiments show, these occur with the formation of a combustible gas. Further, this fuel gas flows through the gas collector 7 , into the accumulator, for example, into the combustion chambers of the motor vehicle.
The composition of this combustible fuel gas includes hydrogen molecules ( H 2 ), % oxygen, water molecules, methane and other complex organic molecules of fuel, etc. It has been experimentally shown that the intensity of the process of evaporation and dissociation of its vapor molecules and the composition of fuel gases essentially depend on the change parameters of aqueous solutions, installation and electric field. The calorific value of the fuel gas was estimated by burning it to heat the reference volume of water.
The experiments showed the high productivity of this capillary technology of cold evaporation of aqueous solutions and gas formation. So, for 10 minutes with the diameter of the capillary harness and working cylinder 10 cm . the capillary electrospot evaporates a sufficiently large volume of a water-fuel emulsion ( 1 liter) with virtually no electricity consumption. At a fuel gas concentration of 10 to 30% of the volume of the vaporized solution. The experiments show that in almost all electrolytic capillaries with electrically- ion pump, which raise the column polarized and partially ionized by the field in the capillary of a micron-sized column of liquid (water) from one potentiometer la an electric field supplied to the liquid itself and the lower end of the capillary to the opposite electrical potential, placed with a gap relative to the opposite end of the capillary. As a result, such an ion-electrostatic pump intensively breaks the intermolecular bonds of water, actively moves with polarized water molecules and their radicals through the capillary, and then injects these molecules together with torn electrically charged radicals of water molecules beyond the capillary to the opposite potential of the electric field. Experiments show that the partial dissociation (rupture) of solvated molecules of aqueous-organic solutions is the greater, the higher the electric field strength. In all these complicated and simultaneous processes of capillary electroosmosis, the liquid is precisely the potential energy of the electric field. Simultaneously, at the outlet of the capillaries, the gaseous molecules of water and solvates are ruptured by electrostatic forces of the electric field to methane, H 2 and O 2 . Since this process of the phase transition of a liquid of water into water fog (gas) and the dissociation of water molecules proceeds in the experiment in general without any apparent expenditure of energy (heat and trivial electric power), then it is probably the potential energy of the electric field that is used in some way. Thus, the high-voltage capillary electroosmosis of an aqueous liquid provides, by using the potential energy of the electric field, really intense and energetically non-volatile evaporation and splitting of water molecules into a fuel gas ( H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O ). Despite the relative simplicity of the technical implementation of the technology itself, the real physics and energy of the processes in the realization of this effect is very complicated and is fully understood until the end.
Since many electrochemical, electrophysical, electromechanical and other processes take place simultaneously and alternately in the process of capillary electroosmotic "cold" evaporation and dissociation of liquids, especially when the aqueous solution moves through the capillary of the injection of molecules from the edge of the capillary in the direction of the electric field.
Simply put, the physical essence of the new effect and the new technology consists in converting the potential energy of the electric field into the kinetic energy of the movement of the fluid molecules and structures along and outside the capillary. At the same time, in the process of evaporation and dissociation of the liquid, an electric current is practically not consumed, because the potential energy of the electric field is expended. It is the electric field in the capillary electroosmosis that triggers and maintains the emergence and simultaneous flow in the liquid during the conversion of its fractions and aggregate states to the device of many useful effects of the transformation of molecular structures and molecules of liquid into combustible gas. Namely: high-voltage capillary electroosmosis provides simultaneously powerful polarization of water molecules and its structures with simultaneous partial disruption of intermolecular water bonds in the electrified capillary, fragmentation of polarized water molecules and clusters into charged radicals in the capillary itself through the potential energy of the electric field.
Adjustment of the intensity of formation of water fog (the intensity of cold evaporation) is achieved by changing the parameters of the electric field directed along the capillary evaporator and (or) by changing the distance between the outer surface of the capillary material and the accelerating electrode, with which an electric field is created in the capillaries.
Regulation of hydrogen production from water is carried out by changing (controlling) the magnitude and shape of the electric field, the area and diameter of the capillaries, the composition and properties of water. These conditions for the optimal dissociation of the liquid are different depending on the type of liquid, the properties of the capillaries, and the field parameters. and are dictated by the required productivity of the process of dissociation of a particular liquid. Experiments show that the most efficient production of H 2 from water is achieved by splitting the molecules of the water mist obtained by electroosmosis with a second electric field, the rational parameters of which were chosen predominantly experimentally ( Fig . 2 ). In particular, the expediency of the final splitting of the water mist molecules was determined precisely by a pulsed sign-constant electric field with the field vector perpendicular to the vector of the first field used in the electroosmosis of water. The effect of electric field on the liquid during its transformation into fog and further during the splitting of the liquid molecules can be carried out simultaneously or alternately.
Owing to these described mechanisms, combined electroosmosis and the action of two electric fields on the liquid (water) in the capillary make it possible to achieve the maximum productivity of the process of producing combustible gas and practically eliminate the electric and thermal energy costs when this gas is extracted from water from any water-fuel fluids.
This technology is in principle applicable to the production of fuel gas from any liquid fuel or its aqueous emulsions.
The resulting fuel gas, depending on the concentration of water-fuel mist and H 2 in it, had a different heat capacity. It was estimated by burning it and heating the reference volume of water. This gas was most effective in an electric field (4) .
Other general aspects of the practical implementation of the new technology
We will also consider some practical aspects of the implementation of the proposed new revolutionary electrotechnology for the decomposition of hydrocarbon water solutions, its other possible effective options for the development of the basic scheme for the implementation of the new technology, and some additional explanations, technological recommendations and technological "tricks" useful in its practical implementation.
Some other approved versions of electro-osmotic fuel generators are presented in a simplified form in Fig . 2-3 . One of the simple variants of the combined method for producing combustible gas from a water-fuel mixture or water can be realized in the device ( Fig. 2 )
It consists essentially of a combination of the device ( Fig. 1 ) by an additional device containing flat transverse electrodes 8, 8-1 connected to the second source of a strong electric field 9 .
The fuel gasifier is provided with a thermal heater 10 located, for example, under the bottom of the container 1 . On vehicles this can be the exhaust manifold of hot exhaust gases, the side walls of the engine body itself. Blocks 3, 4, 5, 6 constitute in aggregate a combined device of an electroosmotic pump and an electrostatic liquid evaporator. Block 6 allows you to adjust the intensity of the electric field from 1 kV / cm to 30 kV / cm . The device ( Fig. 2 ) also provides the technical possibility of changing the distance and position of the plate-like mesh or porous electrode 5 with respect to the evaporator 4 , a and the distance between the planar electrodes 8 and 8-1 .
To increase the intensity of production of fuel gas, it is advisable to first activate the liquid (water) (preheating, preliminary separation into acid and alkaline fractions, electrification and polarization, etc.). Preliminary electroactivation of water (and any aqueous emulsion), dividing it into acid and alkaline fractions, is carried out by partial electrolysis through additional electrodes placed in special semipermeable diaphragms for their subsequent separate evaporation ( Fig . 3 ).
It is quite possible to use this method for dissociation and production of fuel gases from virtually any water-organic emulsion. Our experiments show that this technology makes it possible to effectively use any liquid organic solutions (for example, liquid fecal waste of human and animal life) as a raw material for the production of fuel gas. Such a hybrid fuel gas derived from organic waste is less explosive than H 2 . Thus, the present fuel technology is effectively applicable both for the gasification of water-fuel emulsions and for the useful gasification of liquid organic waste. Graphs of fuel gas productivity versus process parameters are shown in Fig. 4
A new electrophysical effect of intense high-voltage capillary - "cold" evaporation and dissociation of molecules of any liquids in strong electric fields of certain parameters was discovered and experimentally investigated.
The essence of a new method for obtaining fuel gases by dissociation of practically any liquid consists in breaking its intermolecular and molecular bonds by high-voltage capillary electroosmosis .
The proposed energy-saving technology for producing fuel gases from any weakly conducting aqueous solutions is applicable for the efficient production of fuel gas from any liquid fuels and water-fuel emulsions, including liquid organic waste.
- Dudyshev V.D. "A new effect of cold evaporation and dissociation of liquids based on the capillary electroosmotic effect" in the "New Energy" magazine "No. 1/2003.
- VDDudyshev New Effekt of gold Evaporation - New Energy Technologies -Januar 2003
- DUDYSHEV VALERY DMITRIEVICH (RU) ZAVYALOV STANISLAV YURIEVICH (RU); METHOD FOR DISSOCIATING LIQUID-Requested Patent WO0207874 - Application Number WO2001RU00308 20010725
- Dudyshev V.D. "Electro-fire technology is an effective way of solving energy and environmental problems-" Ecology and Industry of Russia ", No. 3/97
- Stanley Meyer US Patent 4.936,961 Method for producing fuel gas
Authors: Doktor tehn. Sciences, Professor N. Dudyshev
Date of publication 12.10.2006гг