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INTERRELATION BETWEEN QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL PHYSICS
Mirgorodsky Alexander Illarionovich
RELATIONSHIP OF UNCERTAINTY OF SPACE AND TIME
Concepts are definable and undetectable. For example, the notion of a parallelogram is a definable concept: a parallelogram is a quadrangle whose opposite sides are pairwise parallel. The concept of a quadrilateral defines the concept of a parallelogram. It is a general concept, and the notion of a parallelogram is a particular concept of it.
To define a concept, it should be brought under a more general concept. The concept of a straight line is an undefined concept. There is no other, more general, concept, to which the concept of a straight line can logically be brought, does not exist in geometry.
The concept of space is undecided by the concept. And the concept of time is undetermined by the concept. A general concept, by which they could be logically brought, does not exist.
Outstanding thinkers of different historical epochs could not define the notion of space and the concept of time because of the low level of development of the dialectical logic of that time.
According to Democritus , for example, space and time are empty receptacles of matter, which do not depend on it.
G. Leibniz argued in a polemic with S. Clark : " I do not say that matter and space are one and the same, but only assert that without matter there is no space, and that space in itself does not represent an absolute reality . "
According to Galileo , space and time are the same in all physical inertial systems. Time does not depend on space and everywhere flows evenly and equally.
I. Newton in his " Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy " claimed:
- Absolute, true mathematical time itself and by its very essence, without any relation to anything external, proceeds evenly and is otherwise called duration.
- Absolute space by its very essence, whatever it is external, remains always the same and motionless.
According to Newton , time always flows unequally and is inseparable from the state of motion of the body. Space is everywhere the same, motionless and inseparable from the state of rest of the body. The length (space) and time interval (time) are absolute values. Their relation to each other (speed) is a relative quantity, can have any values. He believed that space and time can not be known by experience.
Hegel considered space and time to be moments of motion. Space and time are primary, and matter is secondary. Matter is determined by space and time. It depends on them, but space and time do not depend on anything, they do not define anything, they form matter from themselves and fill themselves with it.
Einstein's theory of relativity establishes an organic connection between space and time. They are combined into a single space-time interval - "space-time", which is located inside the inertial frame of reference, between its two events.
In the transition from one inertial frame of reference to another, which moves relative to the first, the space-time interval remains unchanged, and the spatial quantities (distances and angles) and time values (time intervals and frequencies) change.
The principle of relativity Einstein generalizes the principle of Galileo's relativity to all physical processes and extends the Maxwellian notion of the field to gravity. The theory of relativity establishes new interpretations of space, time and mass.
In all known characteristics, the physical concepts of space and time have not been determined to the present day, nor are they logically reduced to another concept.
Philosophical categories of space and time are defined as follows: space and time are the basic forms of existence of matter that are inseparable from each other and from matter. The concept of the form of existence of matter characterizes the concept of space and time, but it does not define them. Forms of matter are all objects of the universe, from elementary particles to galaxies and globular clusters. Everything that exists in space and time in a state of rest or in a state of motion exists in the eternal circulation.
In my previous article "Corpuscular-wave properties of a simple pendulum" it was shown that the physical body is at rest, existing in a certain space for an indefinite time , and is in a state of motion , existing a certain time in an indefinite space . The relation to each other of the state of rest of the body to its state of motion is determined and expressed by the relation of each of its own space to its own time .
The space-time interval is not between two events of the physical system. It is the form of existence of the event itself. It has absolute speed, but not the speed of light, but the " internal " speed of the flow of energy transformations within the event itself.
An inertial frame of reference is not a real, but an ideal physical system. Its analogue can be considered ideal gas, ideal liquid, absolutely solid body, absolutely black body.
The method of investigating the forms of motion of matter known to us, having different levels of complexity, disposes them in the involutionary sequence. The first member of the sequence, which serves as the beginning of scientific analysis, is the most complex form of motion. It can be explored and understood in itself and is the key to understanding the less complex form of movement that is its mother. It can be understood only after a complex form of movement has already been understood. The logical transition from an investigation of a complex form of motion to an investigation of a less complex form has the form of an algorithm.
Analysis of the complex form of motion results in many of its essential properties, attributes, definitions and relationships that are already known and expressed in the form of concepts and definitions.
The resulting set is mentally divided into two subsets. The first of these includes those properties that were formed and developed together with this complex form of motion. The second subset contains the properties that existed before the emergence of a complex form of motion, belonged to the preceding form of motion and from it passed in complete safety to a complex form of motion.
The first subset of properties is mentally omitted, equated to zero, remains on the roadside of the analysis path. Together with them, in the view of the researcher, a complex form of motion disappears.
The second subset of properties is preserved in the view of the researcher and represents a form of movement that, by the power of abstraction of thought, is logically and theoretically derived from a complex form of motion. Among the known forms of motion, it is the most complex.
A complex form of motion represents a set of inherent essential properties, attributes, definitions and relationships.
A lot of its attributes and properties, definitions and relations are analyzed and divided into two subsets. The first of them includes those that were formed and developed together with it. The second subset includes those that existed and belonged to a less complex form of movement and passed to it by inheritance.
The first subset is equated to zero and remains on the roadside of the analysis path. Together with them, a complex form of movement disappears from the field of the mental gaze.
The second subset of properties belonging to a less complex form of motion is preserved in the view of the researcher. It becomes among the known forms of motion the most complex form. And so on.
In the sequence of forms of motion of the latter, a simple form of motion is analyzed that has the smallest set of essential properties, attributes, definitions and relations. Its distinctive feature is that its essential signs are universal. They belong to all the rest, more complex, forms of motion of matter. A simple form of motion, deduced by the power of abstraction from all other known forms of motion, opposes them as a universal equivalent in the universal equivalent form. It turned out to be not a simple displacement, as is commonly believed, in the philosophy of natural science, but a simple mechanical oscillatory system.
In Engels' Dialectic of Nature, Engels asserted: " Every movement is associated with some displacement-the displacement of celestial bodies, earth masses, molecules, atoms or particles of ether. The higher the form of motion, the less this movement becomes." It is by no means exhausted the nature of the corresponding movement, but it is inseparable from it, and therefore it must be investigated first of all else . "
The assertion of F. Engels that the simplest form of the movement " must be studied first of all else" is erroneous. On the contrary, according to Marx, it must be investigated after everything else: "a developed body is easier to study than a cell of this body," "human anatomy is the key to the anatomy of the monkey ."
Marx did not correct the erroneous assertion of F. Engels , whom he could not help but notice, and thereby deprived the Soviet myth of his great friendship with F. Engels. In the field of the philosophy of history, Marx was a disciple of Hegel, having analyzed all the known forms of human life up to the shepherd primitive community. In the process of involution, forms of human life are followed by life forms of animals, plants, geological forms of motion, chemical, physical and, finally, mechanical forms of motion.
I began to analyze the forms of the movement of matter in my youth, and finished in old age. A simple mechanical form of motion completes the involutionary path of analysis and serves as the beginning of the reverse evolutionary path of synthesis that runs from the simple form of motion studied by mechanics to the complex form of motion studied by political economy.
Any form of motion of matter exists in its own space and during its own time . The ratio of physical space and physical time to a simple mechanical form of motion is of paramount importance for theoretical mechanics.
Experiments show that some measuring instruments fix the corpuscular properties of vibrational mechanical systems that are in a state of motion and exist for a certain time in an indefinite space. Other measuring instruments fix the wave properties of oscillatory systems that are at rest and exist in a certain space indefinitely. It turns out that the manifestation of the corpuscular and wave properties of the vibrational system is determined by the state in which and in what space and time it exists. The definition of space and time of a physical system is an urgent task that has been waiting for its solution for a long time.
According to Newton, time flows , and space is motionless . The oscillatory system exists in time in a state of motion and exists in space at rest. This conclusion has experimental confirmation, but has no theoretical justification.
The definition of the categories of time and space is the subject of dialectical logic, which is experienced by a child. It is unrealistic for a naturalist to expect when dialectical logic will come out of childhood and reach full maturity. He is forced at his own risk and fear to understand how the concepts of space and time in general are defined and how physical space and physical time are determined in particular. It is not easy for him to abandon his field of scientific interests and decide to enter a broader field of dialectical logic.
DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND THE CONCEPT OF TIME
From the standpoint of dialectical logic, the concept of space and the concept of time are aspects of one relationship that represent the unity of opposites. Space and time have a dual character, they are both single, and directly opposite forms of the existence of moving matter. They are correlated, conditioned, inseparable, mutually supposing and excluding each other. In direct relation to each other, they define each other both directly and indirectly.
The stationary three-dimensional space is the own form of existence of its three-dimensional content, which exists in a state of rest and manifests its corpuscular properties. The current one-dimensional time is the own form of existence of its one-dimensional content, existing in a state of motion and manifesting its wave properties. The form and content of space are one and the opposite, the form and content of time are one and the opposite.
Experiments show that the spatial form and its content. The temporal form and its content in direct relation to each other are indistinguishable. Indistinguishable their attitude is a contradiction, which requires its solution.
The contradiction is resolved, if one-sided, their direct relation to each other. becomes a two-way, mediated relation. One of the concepts becomes a definable concept, and the other is a defining concept.
The content of the concept of space can be defined and expressed by the concept of time: space is time.
In the definition of the concept of space by time, three-dimensional space is likened to one-dimensional time. The concept of space, considered in itself, is a form of its content, which in it is elusive and indistinguishable from it. Indistinguishable their attitude is a contradiction, which requires its solution. In the definition of time space, a contradiction is resolved: the content of space is expressed in the form of time. It is not only different from its form, but is not in its form. A new relation of a certain three-dimensional content of space to a non-one-dimensional form has been formed.
In the formed relation the concept of space puts the concept of time in a subordinate relation, transplants its indefinite content into the concept of time, which in it becomes a definite content. The concept of space plays an active role, as it acquires for its indefinite content a new form in which it is transformed into a specific content.
The concept of time, defining and expressing the content of space, does not define its content in any form or express it. Its only content is a certain content of the concept of space. It plays a passive role. In the definition, the concept of space refers to the concept of time as to a concept similar to itself, because in content they are indistinguishable, their content is general, and the difference in form is formal and insignificant.
However, the specific content of the three-dimensional space is directly opposite to the one-dimensional time form of its expression. In the one-dimensional form of time, it is distorted beyond recognition. In it, three measures of space are merged into one closed linear measure, not fixed by any measuring instrument. The movement of content in one direction without returning to its beginning turned out to be expressed in the form of circular circulation. The observed corpuscular properties of the space content were expressed in a wave unobservable form. The state of rest is expressed in the form of a state of rotational motion, an undefined time, from instantaneous to hundreds, thousands and millions of years.
In short, the indefinite content of space broke its relationship with its form, became a definite content, resolved the contradiction existing in their relation to each other. But the established new attitude to the alien form of time, contains a new contradiction, which requires its solution.
The resolution of the contradiction of a new relationship is possible only when the time form is replaced by another form that does not contradict a certain content of space. This form is for him a form of three-dimensional space. A certain content of the concept of space is moved from the form of time to its own form: space - time - space.
The contradiction between the relation of a certain content of space to a non-native form of time was resolved by the expression of a certain content of space in its own form.
The original direct relation of the content of the concept of space was first transformed into a mediated relation, and then became that and the other relationship together and simultaneously, became the unity of opposites.
If, initially, in the definition of the content of a three-dimensional space by a one-dimensional time, three measures merged into one, then in the definition and expression of the same content by a three-dimensional space, the measure of time tripled as if it were immediately equal to three spatial measures. A certain content of space on leaving the foreign form of time was, as it were, on the fork of the three ways of three-dimensional space. One way of space represented a measure of time as past time, another way - as the present time, and the third way - as the future time. A certain amount of space has the possibility of traveling in spatial forms of time. One spatial measure represented a measure of time as past time, another as present time, and the third as future time.
In the three-term definition of space, its content was resettled twice.
The first migration of the content of space from its form into another's time form is a movement in one direction without returning to its origin. The second migration from another's time form to its spatial form is a movement in one direction without returning to its origin. The two migrations together represent a movement with a return to its beginning, circulation.
Time, a mediator in determining the content of space, bends the space so much that its end closes with its beginning. But space is not just warped and closed, and its unattainable rectilinear infinity turns into achievable infinity, which has the form of circular circulation.
Time, which acts in the definition of space as an intermediary, does not determine its content and does not express it in any form. The mediator without its specific content is an empty form, the relation of which to its content contains a contradiction that requires its resolution. Its content of the concept of time should become a definite content expressed in its own form.
The content of time can be defined and expressed in space: time is space.
In this definition, the concept of time plays an active role. It puts the notion of space into a subordinate relation and transplants its indefinite content into its three-dimensional form. The concept of time refers to the concept of space as to a similar self, because their content is one and the same and has only an insignificant formal difference.
Nevertheless, the content of one-dimensional time contradicts the three-dimensional spatial form of its definition and expression. The one-dimensional content of time, expressed in the three-dimensional form of space, is distorted beyond recognition.
In it, the measure of time starts. It assumes simultaneously three different spatial forms. The content of the measure of time is likened to the fashionista Marfushe, who looks in the tricuspid mirror and sees herself in three faces: a modest girl, a arrogant girl and a benevolent mother. In three-dimensional spatial form, time appears to be three-dimensional: the past, the present and the future. In reality, time remains the same in three different spatial forms.
The movement of the content of time in the form of circular circulation was expressed in the form of three rectilinear movements in three directions into an unreachable infinity, which Hegel called "bad" infinity. The unobserved wave properties of the content of the concept of time are expressed in the observable corpuscular form. The movement of the circulation of the content of time is expressed in the form of a resting state of a motionless indefinite space, which has neither a definite length nor a definite direction.
The indefinite content of the concept of time first broke its connection with its form, moved into another's form, transformed into it into a certain content, formed a new attitude to the alien form of its expression. The new attitude involves a new contradiction, the resolution of which requires the relocation of a certain amount of time from another's form of space into its own form of time. Formally, the notion of space is defined by the concept of time, but in reality a certain content of the concept of time moves from another's form to its form: time - space - time.
The three-term definition of time is analogous to the three-term definition of space.
It makes it possible to visualize the movement of the content of the concept of time. The first relocation of the indefinite time content into the shape of space, its transformation into a specific time content, represents a movement in one direction without returning to the beginning of the movement. The second of his migration from the form of space to the form of time also represents a movement in one direction without returning to the beginning of the movement. Both relocations of the content of the concept of time together represent a dialectical movement that has two sides - the movement of circulation and movement in one direction without returning to the beginning of the movement. Примером диалектического движения может быть движение в простом маятнике постоянного количества движения постоянной силы и переменного количества движения переменной силы.
Содержание времени определяется и выражается непосредственно в форме пространства и опосредствованно в своей временной форме. Данное определение и выражение содержания времени имеет диалектический характер. Оно является единством противоположностей: корпускулярных и волновых свойств, состояния покоя и состояния движения, определённого и неопределённого, пространства и времени и т. д.
Содержание понятия пространства не определяется и не выражается ни в своей форме, ни форме времени. Но оно с необходимостью должно быть определённым содержанием.
Сопоставляя и сравнивая трёхчленное определение содержания пространства временем с трёхчленным определением содержания времени пространством, можно установить следующее заключение. Определение содержания пространства оставляет неопределённым содержание времени, а определение содержания времени оставляет неопределённым содержание пространства.
Следовательно, любая физическая система не может находиться в состояниях, в которых её пространство и её время одновременно принимают вполне определённые, точные значения . Отношение друг к другу пространства и времени физической системы представляет собой все общее соотношение неопределённостей .
Принцип неопределённости В. Гейзенберга, который утверждает, что любая физическая система не может находиться в состояниях, в которых координаты её центра инерции и импульс одновременно принимают вполне определённые, точные значения , является частным случаем общего соотношения неопределённостей пространства и времени . Координаты центра инерции и импульс физической системы представляют собой отношение пространства и времени, поскольку в размерности импульса присутствует размерность времени.
Ландау первым обратил внимание на то, что принцип неопределённости свидетельствует об открытии человеком в природе новой закономерности, которую человеку не под силу даже представить. Но в процессе познания природы человек может оторваться от своего воображения, открыть и осознать даже то, что ему не под силу представить. Правильность утверждения Ландау была подтверждена целым рядом экспериментов.
Принцип неопределённости Гейзенберга невозможно понять и осмыслить вне его связи с отношением друг к другу содержания пространства и содержание времени реальной физической системы. Соотношение пространства и времени физической системы как всеобщего соотношения неопределённостей является логической и теоретической основой принципа неопределённости В. Гейзенберга.
Из взаимного отношения и соотношения пространства и времени физической системы вытекает целый ряд следствий.
В определении " пространство есть время " трёхмерное пространство представляется одномерным и зависимым от времени, в роли аргумента: s = v 0 t
В определении "время есть пространство" одномерное время представляется трёхмерным и зависимым от пространства, являющимся в роли аргумента:
|t||=||1||( x, y, z ),||or||t||=||1||( x ),||or||t||=||1||( y ),||or||t||=||1||( z )|
|v 0||v 0||v 0||v 0|
В формуле величина обратная постоянной абсолютной скорости представляет собой коэффициент прямой пропорциональной зависимости величины времени от величины пространства.
Коэффициентом пропорциональности является величина обратная постоянной абсолютной скорости. Раскрывается тайна основных уравнений классической электродинамики - уравнений Максвелла, которые содержат коэффициент
|1||(где с скорость света) неизвестного до настоящего времени происхождения.|
Taking into account the general uncertainty relation between space and time of the physical system, it can be concluded that Maxwell's basic equations describe physical systems that exist in an indeterminate space for a certain time in a state of motion and possess wave properties. There is no logical contradiction in the fact that in one case a physical system must take a wave that exists in the state of motion for a certain time in an indefinite space, and in the other case the same physical system must be assumed to be corpuscular, which exists indefinitely in a state of rest in a certain space.
The oscillations of the pendulum, the formula of the period of its oscillations, the displacement formulas, the velocity and the acceleration are known to the high school student. Acceleration of free fall of the pendulum and its oscillation period are tied to the Earth. Acceleration of the free fall of physical bodies on Earth is a constant, expressing the connection between the space and time of our planet. If the acceleration of gravity is multiplied by a unit of time, we get a constant speed, which is a constant no less important than the acceleration of gravity.
What is the acceleration of the free fall of the physical body - it is known, and what is a constant speed, equal to the numerical value of the acceleration of free fall - is a little known. If the constant speed is multiplied by a unit of time, we get the length of the space whose numerical value is equal to the numerical value of the acceleration of gravity. What is this constant length is even less known. I took it for the wavelength of a "test" mathematical pendulum, convenient for conducting a mental experiment.
The trial pendulum exists in time, the period T of oscillations of which is equal to a unit of time. The unit of time, expressed in three spatial forms, is three-dimensional. Each spatial form of a unit of time corresponds to a certain level of development of the form and content of the momentum of the pendulum.
Mechanical oscillations of the test pendulum, repeated over a certain period of time, have a complex structure that includes three different levels of development of the content and shape of the complete swing of the pendulum over a period of time. They can be called the three stages of a quantum of action (cycle of action) of a test pendulum.
The first stage of the quantum of the pendulum's action is the stage of a certain past tense. At this stage, the amount of motion of the pendulum takes three forms in the order of their evolutionary development.
The second stage is the stage of uncertain present time. The amount of motion of the pendulum does not take any new shape. Form formed at the end of the first stage of the form, is improved and reaches the limit of its development.
The third stage is the stage of a certain future tense. The perfect form of the amount of movement, which completes the second stage, decomposes and decomposes into three forms.
The seventh form completes one quantum of action and is the beginning of the next quantum of action. The structure of the quantum of the action of the test pendulum is determined by the ratio and ratio of its space and time. He has his time, through which the quantum of action repeats.
Quantum of action is a system for managing events of any level and forms of movement of any degree of complexity. If his structure is now presented in a theoretically consistent form, then its structure, expressed in a general form, may seem an unreasonable abstract construction. after his description will be set forth in the article devoted to him. At present, we can confine ourselves to its most general characteristic.
The time of the quantum of action is quantized. Its "internal" speed is constant and absolute. The length of its space, according to the ratio of the uncertainties of space and time, is such as it turns out. Time is a measure of the constant repetitive actions of man and nature itself. The time of the quantum of action regulates the course of the process. The event occurs during the time period of the action quantum, after which the action is repeated relatively accurately to the previous mode. The quantum of the action of a mechanical oscillatory system includes three stages and seven forms. Six forms out of seven are deterministic, and the second form is a quantum of action as it is. It is both deterministic and nondeterministic - the unity of opposites.
Incidentally, the cycle of productive capital includes three stages, but not seven forms of momentum, as a mechanical form of motion, but nine forms of capital value. Nine of its forms indicate a high level of development of the form of human life under industrial capitalism.
In the book Grabovoi Gregory Petrovich "Methods of concentration" exercises are given for each day of the month for the development of consciousness, for the development of life events in a favorable direction, for acquiring full health and for establishing harmony with the pulse of the universe. The development of consciousness, the development of life events, the development of the universe in the definiteness of its all forms of motion, are quantized, cyclical circulations, encompassing the universal form of the universal quantum of action.
On the methods of concentration GP Grabovoi, exercises should be performed on a sequence of seven colors, on a sequence of numbers from seven digits and on a sequence of numbers from nine digits. In other words, exercises must contain in themselves a quantum of action - its three stages and seven , or nine , forms. The correctness of the methods of concentration Grabovoi GP I have no doubt.
The relationship between space and time, which is a universal relation of uncertainties, can serve as a basis for explaining a whole series of phenomena that seem mysterious and inexplicable.
The examples I took are found in Vadim Chernobrov's book Secrets and Paradoxes of Time .
" During the work in the abnormal zone in the northeast of the Moscow Region the girl, a member of the expedition, disappeared in front of everyone and appeared in the same place almost a day later." For a long time she could not believe that her friends were not joking about the According to her internal biological "clock", only a moment passed ... ". / Vadim Chernobrov. "Secrets and Paradoxes of Time", M. Armada-press, 2002, p.18 /.
Commentary . If, in the eyes of friends at a certain point in time, the girl disappeared, her condition and form of existence changed, transformed into her opposite. Before disappearing, it existed at rest for an indefinite time in a certain space and exhibited the observed material features and corpuscular properties.
At the moment of disappearance, it was in a state of motion in an indefinite linear space and exhibited unobserved wave properties. For almost twenty-four hours she was in the image of her wave double. Her friends decided that she disappeared before their eyes.
Its transition from a state of rest to a state of motion could occur in a rotating electromagnetic vortex of a field in which it appeared in a linear one-dimensional space indefinitely. Its wave image, which exhibits wave properties, characterizes it as a living unobservable wave closed system. Undefined space in which the girl was before disappearing, subjected herself to her certain time and absorbed it.
The girl appeared after almost a day. She could have appeared before, and much after, hundreds of years later, in the same form and in the same clothes.
The disappearance and appearance of a girl is theoretically and logically explainable. The girl's double wave does not need a metabolism, since in itself she does not contain any atom of the substance of nature. She appeared in the same place, but could appear in a new place. The disappearance and appearance of the girl has an explanation.
" In the coal storages of Lileshal (Paddyton), according to J. Scott, a medium-sized live frog was noticed after a piece of coal had been chopped ... In the Chillingham castle, the same finding was made in a marble stone slab ... " / s. 281 ).
A comment. A living frog, or a toad, in a piece of coal, or in a marble stone slab, was for millions of years, in other words, in a certain space an indefinite time in a state of rest. A long time ago, she threw off her spatial form and assumed her temporary form, absorbed in its spatial form. It became like its wave double, did not contain any atom of matter and did not need metabolism. In a corner, or in a marble stone, if they were absolutely transparent, it would be impossible to see it. When coal is split, its existence takes the opposite form. She began to be in an indefinite space for a certain time. Everything in an indefinite space is a mortal time. At the end of time, the frog died.
Author: Mirgorodsky Alexander Illarionovich
Honored teacher of the school of the RSFSR
PS The material is protected.
Date of publication 17.11.2006гг