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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL PHYSICS
Mirgorodsky Alexander Illarionovich
RATIO OF UNCERTAINTY OF SPACE AND TIME
Concepts are definable and undefinable. For example, the concept of a parallelogram is a defined concept: a parallelogram is a quadrilateral , whose opposite sides are parallel in pairs. The concept of a quadrilateral defines the concept of a parallelogram. It is a general concept, and the concept of a parallelogram is its particular concept.
To define a concept, it should be brought under a more general concept. The concept of a straight line is an undefined concept. There is no other, more general, concept, under which it is possible to logically introduce the notion of a straight line, in geometry.
The concept of space is undefined by the concept. And the concept of time is not defined by the concept. There is no general concept for which they could be logically led.
Outstanding thinkers of different historical epochs could not define the concept of space and the concept of time due to the low level of development of the dialectical logic of that time.
According to Democritus , for example, space and time are empty containers of matter that do not depend on it.
G. Leibniz in a controversy with S. Clark argued: " I do not say that matter and space are one and the same, but only assert that without matter there is no space, and that space itself is not an absolute reality . "
According to Galileo , space and time are the same in all physical inertial systems. Time does not depend on space and flows everywhere evenly and equally.
I. Newton, in his " Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy ", stated:
- Absolute, true mathematical time, by itself and by its very essence, without any relation to anything external, flows evenly and is otherwise called duration.
- Absolute space, by its very essence, regardless of anything external, always remains the same and motionless.
According to Newton , time always flows unequally and is inseparable from the state of body movement. Space is the same everywhere, motionless and inseparable from the state of rest of the body. Length (space) and time interval (time) are absolute values. Their relation to each other (speed) is a relative value, it can have any values. He believed that space and time can not be known through experience.
Hegel considered space and time as moments of motion. Space and time are primary, and matter is secondary. Matter is determined by space and time. It depends on them, but space and time do not depend on anything, they are not determined by anything, they themselves form matter and fill themselves with it.
In the theory of relativity, Einstein established an organic connection between space and time. They are combined into a single space-time interval - "space-time", which is located within the inertial reference system, between its two events.
When moving from one inertial reference frame to another, which moves relative to the first, the space-time interval remains unchanged, and the spatial values (distances and angles) and temporal values (time intervals and frequencies) change.
The principle of relativity Einstein generalizes the principle of relativity of Galileo to all physical processes and extends Maxwell's notion of a field to gravity. The theory of relativity establishes new interpretations of space, time and mass.
In all known characteristics, the physical concepts of space and time are not defined to date, they are not logically suited for another concept.
The philosophical categories of space and time are defined as follows: space and time are the main forms of the existence of matter, which are inseparable from each other and from matter. The concept of the form of existence of matter characterizes the concept of space and time, but does not define them. The forms of matter are all objects of the Universe, from elementary particles to galaxies and globular clusters. Everything that exists in space and time in a state of rest or in a state of motion, exists in perpetual circular circulation.
In my previous article "Corpuscular-wave properties of a simple pendulum" it was shown that the physical body is at rest, existing in a certain space for an indefinite time , and is in a state of motion , existing for a certain time in an indefinite space . The relation to one another of the state of rest of the body to its state of motion is determined and expressed by the ratio of its own space to each other of its own time .
The space-time interval is not between two events of the physical system. It is the form of the existence of the event itself. It contains absolute speed, but not the speed of light, but the “ internal ” rate of flow of energy transformations within the event itself.
The inertial reference system is not real, but an ideal physical system. Its analogue can be considered an ideal gas, an ideal liquid, an absolutely solid body, an absolutely black body.
The way we study the forms of motion of matter known to us, which have different levels of complexity, places them in an involutionary sequence. The first member of the sequence, which serves as the beginning of scientific analysis, is the most complex form of movement. She can be researched and understood by herself and is the key to understanding a less complex form of movement, which is her mother. It can only be understood after the complex form of movement has been understood. The logical transition from the study of a complex form of motion to the study of a less complex form has the form of an algorithm.
The analysis of a complex form of movement has as its result a set of its essential properties, characteristics, definitions and relations, which are already known and expressed in the form of concepts and definitions.
The resulting set is mentally divided into two subsets. The first of them includes those properties that were formed and developed together with this complex form of movement. The second subset contains those properties that existed before the appearance of a complex form of movement, belonged to the previous form of movement and moved from it to full safety to a complex form of movement.
The first subset of properties is mentally omitted, equals zero, remains on the side of the analysis path. Together with them in the view of the researcher disappears a complex form of movement.
The second subset of properties is preserved in the view of the researcher and is a form of movement that is logically and theoretically derived from the complex form of movement by the power of abstraction of thinking. Among the known forms of movement, it is the most complex.
The complex form of motion is represented by the set of essential properties, attributes, definitions and relations inherent in it.
The set of its features and properties, definitions and relationships is analyzed and divided into two subsets. The first of them includes those that were formed and developed along with it. The second subset includes those that existed and belonged to a less complex form of movement and were inherited.
The first subset equals zero and remains on the verge of the analysis path. Together with them, the complex form of movement disappears from the field of the mind's eye.
The second subset of properties belonging to a less complex form of motion is preserved in the view of the researcher. Among the known forms of movement, it becomes the most complex form. And so on.
The sequence of forms of motion of the latter analyzes the simple form of motion, which has the smallest number of essential properties, characteristics, definitions, and relationships. Its distinguishing feature is that its essential features are universal. They belong to all other, more complex, forms of motion of matter. The simple form of motion, derived from the power of abstraction from all other known forms of motion, opposes them as a universal equivalent in a universal equivalent form. It turned out to be not a simple movement, as is commonly believed, in the philosophy of natural science, but a simple mechanical oscillatory system.
In "The Dialectic of Nature", F. Engels stated: " Every movement is associated with some movement - the movement of celestial bodies, earth masses, molecules, atoms or particles of ether. The higher the form of movement, the more insignificant this movement becomes. It is by no means exhausted. the nature of the movement concerned, but it is inseparable from it. Therefore, it must be investigated before the rest . "
The statement of F. Engels that the simplest form of movement “ must be investigated before the rest” is erroneous. On the contrary, according to Marx, it must be investigated after everything else: "a developed body is easier to study than the cell of this body", "human anatomy is the key to the monkey anatomy ".
Marx did not correct the erroneous statement of F. Engels , whom he could not help noticing, and thereby deprived the foundations of the myth of the Soviet time about his great friendship with F. Engels. In the field of philosophy of history, Marx was a pupil of Hegel, analyzing all known forms of human life up to the shepherd primitive community. In the process of involution, the forms of human life are followed by the life forms of animals, plants, geological forms of motion, chemical, physical and, finally, mechanical forms of motion.
I began to analyze the forms of the movement of matter in my youth, and ended up in old age. The simple mechanical form of motion completes the involutionary path of analysis and serves as the beginning of the reverse evolutionary path of synthesis, which runs from the simple form of motion studied by mechanics to the complex form of motion studied by political economy.
Any form of motion of matter exists in its own space and during its own time . The ratio of physical space and physical time to a simple mechanical form of motion is of paramount importance for theoretical mechanics.
Experiments show that some measuring devices record the corpuscular properties of oscillating mechanical systems that are in a state of motion and exist for a certain time in an indefinite space. Other measuring instruments record the wave properties of oscillatory systems that are at rest and exist in a certain space for an indefinite time. It turns out that the manifestation of the corpuscular and wave properties of the oscillatory system is determined by the state in which space and time it exists. Determining the space and time of a physical system is an urgent task, which has long been pending.
According to Newton, time flows , and space is motionless . The oscillatory system exists in time in a state of motion and exists in space at rest. This conclusion has experimental confirmation, but has no theoretical justification.
The definition of categories of time and space is the subject of dialectical logic, which is going through a child's age. It is unreasonable for a naturalist to expect dialectical logic to emerge from childhood and reach full maturity. He is forced at his own risk and fear to understand for himself how the concepts of space and time are defined in general and how physical space and physical time are defined in particular. It is not easy for him to leave his area of scientific interest and decide to enter a wider area of dialectical logic.
DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND THE CONCEPT OF TIME
From the point of view of dialectical logic, the concept of space and the concept of time are sides of the same relationship, which represent the unity of opposites. Space and time have a dual character, they are both single and directly opposite forms of the existence of moving matter. They correspond, condition each other, are inseparable, mutually suppose and exclude each other. In direct relation to each other, they define each other both directly and indirectly.
The motionless three-dimensional space is a proper form of existence of its three-dimensional content, existing in a state of rest and manifesting its corpuscular properties. The current one-dimensional time is a proper form of existence of its one-dimensional content, existing in a state of motion and manifesting its wave properties. The form and content of space are one and opposite, the form and content of time are one and opposite.
Experiments show that the spatial form and its content. The temporary form and its content in direct relation to each other are indistinguishable. Their indistinguishable attitude implies a contradiction that requires its resolution.
Contradiction is resolved if their one-sided, direct relation to each other. becomes a two-way, mediated relationship. One of the concepts becomes a definable concept, and the other becomes a defining concept.
The content of the concept of space can be defined and expressed by the concept of time: space is time.
In the definition of the concept of space by time, three-dimensional space is likened to one-dimensional time. The concept of space, considered in itself, is a form of its content, which is elusive and indistinguishable from it. Their indistinguishable attitude implies a contradiction that requires its resolution. In the definition of space by time, contradiction is resolved: the content of space is expressed in the form of time. It is not only different from its form, but is not in its form. Formed a new attitude of a certain three-dimensional content of space to their own one-dimensional form.
In the resulting relationship, the concept of space puts the concept of time in a subordinate relationship, transplants its indefinite content into the concept of time, which in it becomes a definite content. The concept of space plays an active role as it acquires for its indefinite content a new form in which it is transformed into a specific content.
The concept of time, defining and expressing the content of space, does not define and express its content in any form. Its only content is the specific content of the concept of space. It plays a passive role. In the definition, the concept of space refers to the concept of time as to a similar concept of itself, since they are indistinguishable in content, their content is common, and the difference in form is formal and insignificant.
However, a certain content of three-dimensional space is directly opposite to the one-dimensional temporal form of its expression. In the one-dimensional form of time, it is distorted beyond recognition. In it, the three measures of space are merged into one closed linear measure, not fixed by any measuring instrument. The movement of content in one direction without returning to its beginning was expressed in the form of a circuit. The observable corpuscular properties of the content of space turned out to be expressed in unobservable wave form. The state of rest is expressed in the form of a state of rotational motion, existing indefinitely, from a moment to hundreds, thousands and millions of years.
In short, the indefinite content of space has broken its relationship with its form, has become a definite content, has resolved the contradiction that existed in their relation to each other. But the established new attitude to the alien form of time, contains a new contradiction, which requires its resolution.
The resolution of the contradiction of a new relationship is possible only when replacing the form of time with another form that does not contradict the specific content of the space. Such a form is for him the form of three-dimensional space. The specific content of the concept of space is transferred from the form of time into its own form: space - time - space.
The contradiction between the relation of a certain content of space to its own form of time was resolved by the expression of a certain content of space in its own form.
The original direct relation of the content of the concept of space was first transformed into a mediated relation, and then it became a different relationship together and at the same time, it became the unity of opposites.
If, initially, in the definition of the content of three-dimensional space by one-dimensional time, the three measures merged into one, then in the definition and expression of the same content by three-dimensional space, the time measure seemed to triple, resembled three spatial measures at once. The definite content of space at the exit from the alien form of time turned out to be, as it were, at the fork of three paths of three-dimensional space. One path of space represented the measure of time as the past tense, another path as the present tense, and the third path as the future tense. A certain content of space has the opportunity to travel in the spatial forms of time. One spatial measure represented the measure of time as past tense, the other as present tense, and the third as future tense.
In the three-term definition of space its contents were resettled twice.
The first relocation of the contents of space from its form into the alien form of time is a movement in one direction without returning to its beginning. The second migration from the alien form of time into its spatial form is movement in one direction without returning to its beginning. Two relocations together represent a movement with a return to its beginning, a circuit.
Time, as an intermediary in determining the content of space, bends space so much that its end merges with its beginning. But space is not just bent and closed, but its unattainable rectilinear infinity turns into achievable infinity, which has the form of a circuit.
Time acting in the definition of space as an intermediary does not define its content and does not express it in any form. A mediator without his specific content is an empty form, the relation of which to its content contains a contradiction that requires its resolution. Its content of the concept of time must become a definite content, expressed in its own form.
The content of time can be defined and expressed by space: time is space.
In this definition, the concept of time plays an active role. It puts the concept of space in a subordinate relationship and transplants its indefinite content into its three-dimensional form. The concept of time refers to the concept of space as similar to itself, since their content is the same and has only an insignificant formal difference.
Nevertheless, the content of one-dimensional time contradicts the three-dimensional spatial form of its definition and expression. One-dimensional content of time, expressed in three-dimensional form of space, is distorted beyond recognition.
In it, the measure of time is tripled. It takes on three different spatial forms simultaneously. The content of the measure of time is likened to the fashionable woman Marfusha, who looks in a tricuspid mirror and sees herself in three faces: a modest girl, a haughty girl, and a beneficent mother. In the three-dimensional spatial form, time is three-dimensional: past, present and future. In reality, time remains the same in three different spatial forms.
The movement of the content of time in the form of a cycle turned out to be expressed in the form of three rectilinear movements in three directions into unattainable infinity, which Hegel called "bad" infinity. The unobservable wave properties of the content of the concept of time are expressed in observable particulate form. The movement of the circulation of the content of time is expressed in the form of a state of rest of a fixed indefinite space, which has neither a certain length nor a certain direction.
The indefinite content of the concept of time at first broke off its connection with its form, moved into a foreign form, transformed into a certain content in it, formed a new attitude to the alien form of its expression. A new relationship encompasses a new contradiction, the resolution of which requires the relocation of a certain content of time from an alien form of space into its own form of time. Formally, the concept of space is defined by the concept of time, but in reality, a certain content of the concept of time moves from another's form into its form: time - space - time.
The three-term definition of time is similar to the three-term definition of space.
It gives the opportunity to visualize the movement of the content of the concept of time. The first relocation of the indefinite content of time into the form of space, its transformation into a specific content of time is a movement in one direction without returning to the beginning of movement. His second relocation from the form of space into the form of time also represents movement in one direction without returning to the beginning of movement. Both relocations of the content of the concept of time together constitute a dialectical movement , possessing two sides - the movement of a circular movement and movement in one direction without returning to the beginning of movement. An example of a dialectic movement can be a movement in a simple pendulum of a constant amount of movement of a constant force and a variable amount of movement of a variable force.
The content of time is determined and expressed directly in the form of space and indirectly in its temporary form. This definition and expression of the content of time has a dialectical character. It is a unity of opposites: corpuscular and wave properties, a state of rest and a state of motion, definite and indefinite, space and time, etc.
The content of the concept of space is not defined and is not expressed either in its form or in the form of time. But it must necessarily have a specific content.
Comparing and comparing the three-term definition of the content of space by time with the three-term definition of the content of time by space, we can establish the following conclusion. The definition of the content of space leaves uncertain the content of time, and the definition of the content of time leaves uncertain the content of space.
Consequently, any physical system cannot be in states in which its space and its time at the same time take on well-defined, exact values . The relation to each other of space and time of a physical system is the entire general relation of uncertainties .
The uncertainty principle of V. Heisenberg, who argues that any physical system cannot be in states in which the coordinates of its center of inertia and momentum take on well-defined, exact values , is a special case of the general relation between the uncertainties of space and time . The coordinates of the center of inertia and the momentum of the physical system are the ratio of space and time, since the dimension of the pulse contains the dimension of time.
Landau was the first to draw attention to the fact that the principle of uncertainty testifies to the discovery by man in nature of a new pattern that man cannot even imagine. But in the process of knowing nature, a person can tear himself away from his imagination, discover and realize even what he cannot imagine. The validity of Landau’s statement was confirmed by a number of experiments.
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle cannot be understood and understood outside of its connection with the relation to each other of the content of space and the content of time of a real physical system. The ratio of space and time of a physical system as a universal uncertainty relation is the logical and theoretical basis of the uncertainty principle of V. Heisenberg.
From the mutual relation and the ratio of space and time of the physical system, a number of consequences follow.
In the definition of " space is time ", three-dimensional space is represented as one-dimensional and time-dependent, as an argument: s = v 0 t
In the definition of "time is space," one-dimensional time is represented by three-dimensional and space-dependent, which is in the role of an argument:
|t||=||one||(x, y, z),||or||t||=||one||(x)||or||t||=||one||(y)||or||t||=||one||(z)|
|v 0||v 0||v 0||v 0|
In the formula, the reciprocal of the constant absolute velocity is the coefficient of direct proportional dependence of the magnitude of time on the magnitude of space.
The proportionality coefficient is the inverse of the constant absolute velocity. Reveals the mystery of the basic equations of classical electrodynamics - Maxwell's equations, which contain the coefficient
|one||(where with the speed of light) of unknown to the present origin.|
Taking into account the general relation between the uncertainties of space and time of a physical system, we can conclude that the basic Maxwell equations describe physical systems that exist in an indefinite space for a certain time in a state of motion and have wave properties. There is no logical contradiction in the fact that in one case the physical system must be taken wave, existing in a state of motion for a certain time in an indefinite space, and in another case the same physical system must be taken corpuscular, existing in a state of rest in a certain space indefinite time.
The oscillations of a pendulum, the formula for the period of its oscillations, the formulas for displacement, velocity and acceleration are known to the high school student. By the acceleration of free fall, the oscillations of the pendulum and the period of its oscillations are attached to the Earth. The acceleration of free fall of physical bodies on the Earth is a constant, expressing the connection between space and time of our planet. If the acceleration of gravity is multiplied by a unit of time, then we get a constant speed, which is a constant, no less important than the acceleration of gravity.
What is the acceleration of free fall of a physical body is well known, and what is a constant speed equal to the numerical value of the acceleration of free fall is hardly known. If the constant speed is multiplied by a unit of time, then we obtain the length of the space, the numerical value of which is equal to the numerical value of the acceleration of gravity. What this constant length is is even less known. I took it as the wavelength of the "test" mathematical pendulum, convenient for conducting a mental experiment.
The trial pendulum exists in time, the period T of oscillations of which is equal to the unit of time. The unit of time, expressed in three x spatial forms, is three-dimensional. Each spatial form of a unit of time corresponds to a certain level of development of the form and content of the quantity of motion of the pendulum.
Mechanical oscillations of the test pendulum, repeated over a certain period of time, have a complex structure, which includes three different levels of development of the content and form of the total oscillation of the pendulum in one period of time. They can be called the three stages of the quantum of action (cycle of action) of the trial pendulum.
The first stage of the quantum of action of a pendulum is the stage of a certain past time. At this stage, the amount of motion of the pendulum takes three forms in the order of their evolutionary development.
The second stage is the stage of the indefinite present time. The amount of motion of the pendulum does not take any new form. The form formed at the end of the first stage is improving and reaches the limit of its development.
The third stage is the stage of a certain future time. The perfect form of the amount of movement that completes the second stage decomposes and breaks down into three forms.
The seventh form completes one action quantum and is the beginning of the next action quantum. The structure of the quantum of action of the test pendulum is determined by the ratio and ratio of its space and time. He has his time through which the quantum of action repeats.
Quantum of action is a system for managing events of any level and forms of movement of any degree of complexity. If its structure is now presented in a theoretically consistent form, then its structure, expressed in a general form, may seem like an unfounded abstract construction. After his description will be set forth in an article devoted to him. At present, it is possible to limit oneself to its most general characteristic.
The time of the action quantum is quantized. His "inner" speed is constant and absolute. The length of its space, according to the relation between the uncertainties of space and time, is what it turns out. Time is a measure of the constant repetitive actions of man and nature itself. Time quantum of action streamlines the process. The event occurs during the time period of the quantum of action, after which the action is repeated relatively precisely in the same manner. The period of the quantum of action of the mechanical oscillatory system includes three stages and seven forms. Six of the seven forms are deterministic, and the second form is a quantum of action as it turns out. It is both deterministic and non-deterministic - the unity of opposites.
Incidentally, the cycle of productive capital contains three stages, but not seven forms of momentum, as a mechanical form of movement, but nine forms of capital value. Its nine forms indicate a high level of development of the form of human life under industrial capitalism.
In the book by Grabovy Grigori Petrovich "Methods of Concentration", exercises are given for each day of the month for the development of consciousness, for the development of life events in a favorable direction, for attaining good health and for establishing harmony with the pulse of the Universe. The development of consciousness, the development of life events, the development of the Universe in the definiteness of its all forms of movement, are quantized, cyclic circulations, embody the universal form of a universal quantum of action.
According to the methods of concentration of G. P. Grabovoy, the exercises should be performed on a sequence of seven colors, on a sequence of numbers from seven figures and on a sequence of numbers from nine figures. In other words, the exercises should contain a quantum of action - its three stages and seven , or nine , forms. The correctness of the methods of concentration of Grabovoi G. P. I have no doubt.
The relation to each other of space and time, which is a universal relation of uncertainties, can serve as a basis for explaining a whole series of phenomena that seem mysterious and inexplicable.
The examples I took are in the book of Vadim Chernobrov "Secrets and Paradoxes of Time" .
" ... While working in the anomalous zone in the north-east of the Moscow region, the girl, the member of the expedition, disappeared in front of everyone and appeared at the same place almost a day later. She could not believe for a long time that her friends were not joking, talking about It happened. In her internal biological "clock" only an instant passed ... ". / Vadim Chernobrov. "Secrets and Paradoxes of Time", M. Armada-press, 2002, p.18 /.
Comment If a girl disappeared in front of her friends at a certain point in time, then her state and form of existence changed, transformed into her opposite. Before disappearing, it existed at rest for an indefinite time in a certain space and exhibited observable physical signs and corpuscular properties.
At the moment of disappearance, it was in a state of motion in an indefinite linear space and exhibited unobservable wave properties. For almost a day she was in the form of her wave double. Her friends decided that she was gone before their eyes.
Its transition from a state of rest to a state of motion could occur in a rotating electromagnetic field vortex, in which it found itself in a linear one-dimensional space for an indefinite time. Its wave image, manifesting wave properties, characterizes it as a living unobservable wave closed system. The indefinite space in which the girl was before the disappearance, subjugated her for a certain time and swallowed him.
The girl appeared almost a day later. She could appear before, and much later, after hundreds of years, in the same form and in the same clothes.
The disappearance and appearance of the girl is theoretically and logically explicable. The wave counterpart of the girl does not need a metabolism, since it does not contain a single atom of the substance of nature in itself. She appeared in the same place, but could appear in a new place. The disappearance and appearance of the girl has an explanation.
" In the coal warehouses of Lilleshel (Paddigton), according to J. Scott, a living medium-sized frog was noticed after a piece of coal was split ... In Chillingham Castle, the same discovery was made in a marble stone slab ... " / p. 281 /.
Comment. A living frog, or a toad, in a piece of coal, or in a marble stone slab, has been around for millions of years, in other words, in a certain space for an indefinite time at rest. Long ago, she threw off her spatial form and assumed her temporary form, absorbed in her spatial form. She was like her wave counterpart, did not contain a single atom of matter and did not need a metabolism. In the corner, or in the marble stone, if they were absolutely transparent, it would be impossible to see it. When coal is split, its existence takes the opposite form. She began to be in indefinite space for a certain time. Everything in the indefinite space for a certain time is mortal. At the end of time, the frog died.
Author: Mirgorodsky Alexander Illarionovich
Honored school teacher of the RSFSR
PS Material is protected.
Publication date 17.11.2006