# HYPOTHESES OF ABSOLUTE SPACE

(an alternative hypothesis of gravity)

## Cherednichenko V.I.

** The hypothesis of ABSOLUTE SPACE** can be formulated as follows:

The speed of an AP at any point in the universe is equal to the vector sum of the velocities from each of the masses of the universe. On Earth, the speed of AP from all the masses of the universe, except for the solar system, is close to zero, since the rates of AP from each mass compensate each other. That is, on the Earth, it is possible to take into account mainly AP speeds, created by the Sun and planets of the solar system. Calculating the velocity of the center of the Earth relative to the AP, we can assume that, according to the law of inertia, this velocity remains constant until the Earth collides with an object. On the surface of the Earth, the AP velocity is 11.2 km / sec.

All the masses (bodies) of the Universe have a constant velocity relative to AP. Bodies are not attracted to each other, in the hypothesis of AP there is generally no need to introduce gravitational forces. The movement of all the masses of the universe occurs as a result of inertia. Since in AP all moves by inertia and there are no accelerations, AP is an absolute inertial frame of reference. But this is not a fixed Newton space: each AP point moves relative to distant stars in accordance with the gravitational potential at a given point. Because the potential has no absolute value, then we can operate only with a potential difference. Accordingly, the speed of the AP can be given any value, but by determining the value of the velocity of the AP at a given point, we thereby fix the velocities of all the points of AP with respect to a given point.

Since in the AP hypothesis the values of the constants from the Newtonian hypothesis are used, then all the experimental results are the same as those of Newton, the picture of the motion of the bodies of the universe corresponds to the picture drawn by Newton, ie, it is impossible to experimentally disprove the AP hypothesis (with the help of experiments already conducted), but it is simpler and concise in nature: to explain the observed phenomena, it is not necessary to introduce such concepts as long-range action, force field, heavy mass. In fact, the AP hypothesis offers simply another interpretation of the observed facts, allowing, according to the principle of "Occam's razor", to cut off "essences invented beyond what is necessary". But at the same time, the AP hypothesis is not speculative, it satisfies the criteria for verification and falsification of K.Pooper: to test the hypothesis of AP, it is necessary to compare the speeds of light in the horizontal and vertical directions on the Michelson interferometer, the difference should be 11.2 km / sec. If this fact is not confirmed, the hypothesis of AP is incorrect.

** With the help of the ABSOLUTE SPACE hypothesis,** one can explain:

- Equality of gravitational and inertial masses,
- redshift and "runaway of galaxies"
- the paradox of the "dark sky"
- relic radiation,
- the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment,

In addition, the AP hypothesis makes it possible to calculate the values of the following constants:

- acceleration of gravity,
- radius of the visible part of the universe / Hubble constant

## EQUALITY OF A GRAVITATIONAL AND INERTIAL MASS

It is well known that the gravitational and inertial masses (on a certain scale) are equal to within the 16th sign. This means that by no experiments it is impossible to distinguish a homogeneous gravitational field from a uniformly accelerated frame of reference. Those. the observer in a closed laboratory can not unequivocally determine by any experiments whether the force acting on the mass is gravitational or inertial.

Using this fact, Einstein showed the geometric character of a homogeneous gravitational field. But for an inhomogeneous, for example - centrally symmetric gravitational field created by a mass, it was not possible to construct an adequate reference system to Einstein and it was necessary to construct a curved space.

The AP hypothesis confirms the geometric nature of gravity and argues that the gravitational mass does not exist at all, there is only an inertial mass. As the reference frame, the absolute space formed by the radial vector velocity field is used, as shown above. The velocity vector (flow, outflow) of absolute space at any point of the AP is equal to the vector sum of the velocities of the AP from each mass of the universe.

Thus, the equality of the gravitational and inertial masses is not equality, but the identity: physically, physically, there is only an inertial mass, and gravitational is an appearance, "appearance" like, for example, "heat" or "phlogiston." This is another myth of physicists, which was created approximately like this. All bodies (masses) either lie or hang on supports. The reactions of the supports cause the bodies to move accelerated (with an acceleration of 9.8 m / sec2) relative to the "Absolute Space". If you remove the support, then the body will not act as a support reaction and the body will move by inertia, i.e. the velocity of the body will be constant relative to the AP. In AP all bodies (masses) move by inertia: there are no accelerations, there are no forces of attraction (nothing to anything is not attracted). Thus, Newton accepted the reaction of support for the force of attraction, and then it was called gravity: hence the gravitational (otherwise called "heavy") mass appeared.

## RED OFFSET AND CALCULATION OF KHABBL CONSTANT, "GALAXY REMOVAL"

We take a sphere with a radius of 1 megaparsec. In the center of the sphere is the observer, on the surface of the sphere there is a light source. At the center of the sphere, the velocity of the AP (VAP) is assumed to be zero (0 = 0). On the surface of the sphere, the velocity of the AP is:

Where R is the distance from the observer to the light source (the radius of the sphere), M is the mass inside the sphere that creates the AP.

Substituting instead of the mass the volume of the sphere multiplied by the density (4/3 * 3.14 * R3), cutting R and removing from the root, we get:

Thus, we have obtained that the AP velocity is proportional to R, which corresponds to the Hubble law.

If we take R = 1 megaparsec, the VAP will be equal to 70.4 km / sec on the surface of a sphere with a radius of 1 megaparsec. If the photon is emitted from the surface toward the center, then its velocity relative to the AP is C-V (C-70.4 km / sec), and this velocity with respect to AP is always and everywhere. At this speed, the photon will fly to the center of the sphere to the observer. In the center of the sphere VAP is zero, i.e. the observer is immobile relative to the AP and the photon velocity relative to the observer C-V (C-70.4 km / sec).

Thus. the observer will see a photon that has flown from a distance of 1 megaparsec, reddened and decides that the light source is moving away from it at a speed of 70.4 km / s. He will calculate the distance and he will happily note that the Hubble constant is within the permissible limits (at a density of 10-25 kg / m ^{3} ).

This is the Hubble constant. We have a choice: from the accepted value of the density, we calculate the value of the Hubble constant, or from the measured Hubble constant we calculate the average density of matter in the universe.

As can be seen, the redshift and the value of the Hubble constant are explained by the properties of the AP without the involvement of the "Big Bang" and the "dispersal of galaxies". According to the hypothesis of AP, there was no big bang, the universe is relatively stationary; Accordingly, there is no need to come up with an explanation for the fact that the Earth is older than the Hubble age assigned to it (14 billion years). The earth can be over 100 billion years old.

## PARADOX "THE DARK SKY"

The paradox of the dark sky and easy to explain within the hypothesis of AP. As in the previous section, we take a sphere of radius R, of a size such that on the surface of the sphere VAP is equal to C (speed of light). From the same formula under the indicated condition, we find R, this will be the maximum distance from which light reaches the observer, although very reddened. (Because the speed of light relative to AP is

C-VAP = C-C = 0, i.e. the observer will get light at a speed equal to zero - "super reddened.")

This sphere - the part of the Universe that we see, everything else we will never see under any circumstances. There are not so many stars in this visible part and they can not create a solid bright background - because the sky and the dark. The radius of this sphere is about 4200 megaparsec (at the above average density of matter in the Universe), and beyond this distance we will not see in any telescope.

## RELICATIONAL RADIATION

Relic radiation (1mm to 10cm) comes to us from the boundary of the visible part of the universe. These are highly reddened quanta of the entire range of emissions: visible light has traveled a shorter distance, and X-rays and gamma quanta are larger. Thus, there is nothing surprising in that they go from everywhere and densely populate this frequency range.

## THE RESULT OF MICHAELSON-MORLEY EXPERIENCE

It is explained by the fact that in the horizontal plane the velocity of the AP (and hence the speed of light) is the same in all directions, respectively, no matter how much the interferometer is turned, the difference in the speed of light is zero. However, if the speed of light were measured in horizontal and vertical directions, then according to the AP hypothesis, a difference in the speed of light equal to 11.2 km / sec should be detected. (If this proves to be true, then the AP hypothesis can be considered for a while true until the results that refute it are found).

## CALCULATION OF ACCELERATION OF EARTHQUAKE

Calculate this constant can be differentiated in time the velocity of AP on the surface of the Earth.

It should be noted that the concept of ** ABSOLUTE SPACE** in one form or another has already been put forward by some scientists, although in the presented form it has been developed and formulated by the author of the article.

Tiguntsev has a similar hypothesis, only 11.2 km / sec refers to the ether flowing into the Earth, but the introduction of such a thing as ether with its hardness, elasticity, etc. leads to a number of problems. In the AP hypothesis, it is assumed that there is an empty space that has neither mass, nor energy, nor elasticity, nor hardness, and no material attributes are needed to create it, so there is no problem where to take it and where to hide it later.

Much closer to the proposed hypothesis AP "absolute space" Niels Björn, invented by Burlankov. The rates of AP in both hypotheses are the same, only the directions are opposite. Gribanovsky E.K. also claims that there is only an inert mass: "... in a falling space (I call it" absolute space ") there is no such thing as a gravitational mass. There is only an inert mass ... ".

*print version*
*Author: Cherednichenko V.I.*
*PS The material is protected.*
*Date of publication on February 21, 2007*

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