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HYPOTHESIS OF ABSOLUTE SPACE
(alternative hypothesis of gravity)
The ABSOLUTE SPACE hypothesis can be formulated as follows:
The speed of the AP at any point of the Universe is equal to the vector sum of the speeds from each of the masses of the Universe. On Earth, the AP speed from all the masses of the Universe, except for the Solar System, is close to zero, since the AP speeds from each mass compensate each other. That is, on the Earth, it is possible to take into account mainly the AP speeds created by the Sun and the planets of the solar system. Having calculated the speed of the center of the Earth relative to the AP, we can assume that, according to the law of inertia, this speed remains constant until the Earth collides with any object. On the Earth's surface, the AP speed is 11.2 km / sec.
All masses (bodies) of the Universe have a constant speed relative to the AP. The bodies are not attracted to each other, in the AP hypothesis there is no need to introduce the forces of gravity at all. The movement of all the masses of the universe occurs as a result of inertia. Since in AP, everything moves by inertia and there are no accelerations, the AP is an absolute inertial reference system. But this is not the motionless space of Newton: each point of the AP moves relative to distant stars in accordance with the gravitational potential at this point. Since Because the potential is not absolute, then we can only operate with a potential difference. Accordingly, the AP speed can be given any value, but by determining the value of the AP speed at a given point, we thereby fix the speeds of all AP points relative to this point.
Since in the AP hypothesis the values of the constants from the Newtonian hypothesis are used, all the experimental results are the same as in Newton, the picture of the motion of the bodies of the Universe corresponds to the picture painted by Newton, i.e. It is impossible to experimentally disprove the hypothesis of AP (with the help of already conducted experiments), but it is simpler and laconic in its essence: to explain the observed phenomena, there is no need to introduce such concepts as long-range interaction, force field, heavy mass. In fact, the AP hypothesis offers just a different interpretation of the observed facts, allowing, according to the principle of "Occam's razor", to cut off "essences invented beyond what is necessary." But at the same time, the AP hypothesis is not speculative; it satisfies K. Opera's verification and falsification criteria: to test the AP hypothesis, you must compare the speed of light in the horizontal and vertical directions on the Michelson interferometer, the difference should be 11.2 km per second. If this fact is not confirmed, then the AP hypothesis is incorrect.
Using the ABSOLUTE SPACE hypothesis can be explained:
- equality of gravitational and inertial masses,
- redshift and “scattering of galaxies”,
- the paradox of the "dark sky"
- relic radiation
- the result of the Michelson – Morley experiment,
In addition, the AP hypothesis allows us to calculate the values of the following constants:
- acceleration of gravity
- the radius of the visible part of the universe / Hubble constant
EQUALITY OF GRAVITATIONAL AND INERTIAL MASSES
It is well known that the gravitational and inertial masses (on a certain scale) are equal to the 16th digit. This means that it is impossible to distinguish a homogeneous gravitational field from a uniformly moving reference frame by any experiments. Those. An observer in a closed laboratory cannot unambiguously determine by any experiment whether the force acting on the mass is gravitational or inertial.
Using this fact, Einstein showed the geometric character of a uniform gravitational field. But for a non-uniform, for example - centrally symmetric gravitational field created by the mass, Einstein failed to construct an adequate reference system and had to construct a curved space.
The AP hypothesis confirms the geometric nature of gravity and asserts that a gravitational mass does not exist at all, there is only an inertial mass. The absolute space formed by the radial velocity vector field is used as a reference system, as shown above. The velocity vector of motion (flow, outflow) of absolute space at any AP point is equal to the vector sum of AP speeds from each mass of the Universe.
Thus, the equality of gravitational and inertial masses is not equality, but identity: in reality, physically, only inertial mass exists, and gravitational is visibility, “appearance” as, for example, “caloric” or “phlogiston”. This is another myth of physicists, which was created something like this. All bodies (masses) either lie or hang on supports. The reactions of the supports force the bodies to move rapidly (with an acceleration of 9.8 m / s2) relative to the "Absolute Space". If the support is removed, then the support reaction will not act on the body and the body will move by inertia, i.e. body velocity will be constant relative to AP. In the AP, all bodies (masses) move by inertia: there are no accelerations, there are no attractive forces (nothing is attracted to anything). Thus, Newton took the reaction of the support for the force of attraction, and then it was called gravity: hence the gravitational (otherwise called "heavy") mass.
RED SHIFT AND CALCULATION OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT, “RELEASE OF GALAXIES”
Take a sphere with a radius of 1 megaparsec. In the center of the sphere is the observer, on the surface of the sphere - the source of light. In the center of the sphere, the velocity of the AP (VАP) is assumed to be zero (Ф = 0). On the surface of the sphere, the AP speed is:
Where R is the distance from the observer to the light source (radius of the sphere), M is the mass inside the sphere that creates the AP.
Substituting, instead of mass, the volume of the sphere multiplied by the density (4/3 * 3.14 * R3), reducing R and taking it out from under the root, we get:
Thus, we have obtained that the AP rate is proportional to R, which corresponds to the Hubble law.
If we take R = 1 megaparsec, then VАП will be equal to 70.4 km / s on the surface of a sphere with a radius of 1 megaparsec. If a photon is emitted from the surface towards the center, then its speed relative to the AP is C – V (C-70.4 km / s) and this speed relative to the AP remains always and everywhere. With this speed, the photon will fly to the center of the sphere to the observer. In the center of the sphere VAP is zero, i.e. the observer is stationary relative to the AP and the speed of the photon relative to the observer C-V (C-70.4 km / s).
So the observer will see a photon that has flown in from a distance of 1 megaparse, reddened and will decide that the light source is moving away from it at a speed of 70.4 km / s. He will calculate the distance and note with satisfaction that the Hubble constant is within acceptable limits (at a density of 10–25 kg / m 3 ).
This is the Hubble constant. We have a choice: using the accepted density value, we calculate the value of the Hubble constant, or by the measured Hubble constant, we calculate the average density of matter in the Universe.
As can be seen, the redshift and the value of the Hubble constant are explained by the properties of the AP without the involvement of the Big Bang and the scattering of galaxies. According to the big bang AP hypothesis, the Universe is relatively stationary; accordingly, there is no need to come up with an explanation for the fact that the Earth is older than the Hubble’s allotted time (14 billion years). Earth may be over 100 billion years old.
PARADOX "dark sky"
The paradox of the dark sky and easy to explain in the framework of the hypothesis of the AP. Just as in the previous paragraph, we take a sphere of radius R, of such a size that on the surface of the sphere VАП would be equal to С (the speed of light). From the same formula under the specified condition we find R, this will be the maximum distance from which the light reaches the observer, although it is very red. (Because the speed of light relative to AP is equal to
С – VАП = C – C = 0, i.e. before the observer comes the light with a speed equal to zero - "super reddened".)
This sphere is a visible part of the universe, we will never see the rest under any circumstances. There are not so many stars in this visible part and they cannot create a continuous bright background - because the sky is dark. The radius of this sphere is about 4200 megaparsecs (with the average matter density in the Universe indicated above), and we will not see any telescope beyond this distance.
Relic radiation (1mm to 10cm) comes to us from the border of the visible part of the Universe. These are strongly reddened quanta of the whole range of radiation: visible light has traveled a shorter distance, X-rays and gamma-quanta - more. Thus, it is not surprising that they come from everywhere and densely populate this frequency range.
RESULTS OF MIKELSON-MORLEY EXPERIENCE
It is explained by the fact that in the horizontal plane the speed of the AP (and therefore the speed of light) is the same in all directions, respectively, no matter how much the interferometer is turned, the difference in the speed of light is zero. However, if the speed of light were measured in horizontal and vertical directions, then according to the hypothesis of the AP, the difference in the speed of light equal to 11.2 km per second should be detected. (If this is confirmed, then the AP hypothesis for some time can be considered true, until the results that refute it are found).
CALCULATION OF GROUND-ATTRACT ACCELERATION
This constant can be calculated by differentiating the time of the AP on the surface of the Earth.
It should be noted that the concept of ABSOLUTE SPACE in one form or another has already been put forward by some scientists, although in its present form it was developed and formulated by the author of the article.
Tiguntsev has a similar hypothesis, only the speed of 11.2 km / s refers to the ether entering the Earth, but the introduction of such a thing as ether with its hardness, elasticity, etc. leads to a number of problems. The AP hypothesis assumes that empty space flows, which has neither mass, nor energy, nor elasticity, nor hardness, and to create it does not need any material attributes, respectively, there is no problem where to take it and where to hide it later.
Much closer to the proposed hypothesis of AP "absolute space" Niels Björn, invented by Burlankov. AP speeds in both hypotheses are the same, only the directions are opposite. Gribanovsky E.K. It also claims that there is only an inertial mass: “... in a falling space (I call it“ absolute space ”) there is no such thing as a gravitational mass. There is only an inert mass ... ".
Author: Cherednichenko V.I.
PS Material is protected.
Publication date 21.02.2007