How to minimize occupational disease
Occupational diseases - diseases triggered or exacerbated by the specific conditions of a particular professional activity. The best known include silicosis and silicate (cementosis, asbestosis) (lung damage by stone dust), anthracosis ("miners' disease", caused by coal dust) and many other types of pneumoconiosis, foundry fever (lung damage by metal vapors), vibration disease (defeat support - motor apparatus with long-term exposure to vibration), carpal tunnel syndrome (a type of tunnel syndrome), hearing loss caused by industrial noise. Many occupational diseases are cured by improving working conditions or changing professions. Occupational diseases do not include occupational injuries.
A little work, which briefly describes the main specific problems that our body encounters during sedentary work. The problems that a person most often faces when spending 40+ hours a week in front of a monitor screen (or two) are primarily related to vision and the locomotor system. Today we will talk about the prevention of such diseases in your office.
Human vision is absolutely not adapted to the computer screen. The eye is evolutionarily shaped in such a way that it perceives only colors and objects in reflected light, and the image of a monitor is a direct source of light. It has a much smaller contrast, consists of discrete points (pixels). Screens with the technology of "electronic ink" just designed to solve this problem. Negative impact on the eyes has both the method of image formation, and violations of the rules of working with the monitor, the wrong organization of the workplace.
A person who spends most of his work day behind the monitor complains of burning or pain in the eye area, feeling of sand under the eyelids, blurring of vision, doubling. Redness and burning may be signs of conjunctivitis - inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. The reasons for this condition are quite extensive. It should be understood that human eyes are not designed for a long contemplation of a single object. The low mobility of the eyeball does not contribute to the proper blood supply to this organ. In addition, a large role in eye health is played by the parameters of the microclimate in the workroom, first of all the humidity and gas composition (about the correct microclimate - below).
Due to the fact that the lens of the lens of the eye is constantly tense (the whole day a person looks at the object - the monitor - close and does not look into the distance), many have decreased visual acuity. A fairly frequent diagnosis is myopia (myopia) with accommodation spasm.
Let's see what this disease is and how to avoid it. To understand the process of occurrence of the disease need a little immersed in anatomy. The eye is an organ that contains a lens system. In short, the whole optical system is responsible for imaging on the retina. But we are interested in only one natural lens - the lens. It is a flexible lens whose curvature (and refractive power) is modified by a muscle system. It is necessary to consider the subject close - the muscles tense, the curvature of the lens changes, and with it the focal length. We get a clear image of the object on the retina. It is necessary to consider the subject from afar - the situation is reversed. The muscles relax, the curvature changes, the image on the retina is formed. This process is called accommodation. What happens if the lens muscle is constantly tense? And nothing good. Muscle spasms. Relax to the desired state over time, it is more difficult. She "gets used" to be in a constantly stressed state. Muscle spasm. This is the spasm of accommodation.
You have figured out the reasons (if details are needed here or further, please ask questions in the comments). Now, what about the consequences?
Recommendations can be divided into two large groups. The first is the organization of the workplace. The second is the organization of work and rest schedules.
Here we will proceed from the fact that monitors on a CRT are no longer used.
When choosing an LCD monitor, pay attention to:
- Diagonal. Comfortable distance “eyes - the center of the display surface” to work with the monitor should be 2-3 diagonal. 21`` optimal;
- Contrast. Here the principle is - the more the better;
- Brightness. The margin of brightness should allow adjustment in a wide range;
- Resolution. Here, too, everything is simple. More is better. It's no secret that FullHD is already a de facto industry standard.
There are both domestic and international standards in the organization of jobs (DBN, SanPiN, etc.). Hereinafter, I cite the requirements that our company adheres to.
Illumination in the workplace must meet the following requirements:
- Artificial lighting is a system of general uniform lighting. We mainly use modern LED ceiling lamps as light sources. To align the spectrum, we also installed ceiling lamps with incandescent lamps. General lighting is zoned, i.e. a team located in a certain zone can change the type and intensity of the light.
- Workplaces in relation to the light apertures are arranged so that natural light falls from the side, mostly on the left.
- Illumination on the surface of the table in the area where the working paper is placed is 300-500 lux. If necessary (the wishes of the employee are taken into account), table lamps are installed to illuminate the documents. Local lighting does not create glare on the surface of the screen and does not increase the illumination of the screen by more than 300 lux.
- The distance between the desktops with video monitors (in the direction of the rear of the surface of one video monitor and the screen of another video monitor) is at least 2 m, and the distance between the side surfaces of the video monitors is at least 1.2 m.
Requirements for work and rest
Based on many years of personal experience, we stopped at the following rules:
- The working day of each employee is 8 hours. Sometimes it is necessary to extend the working day for 1-4 hours. Such situations are negotiated with PM th separately in each case and are exceptional. Overtime is absolutely not welcome.
- After the first two hours of work and 2 hours after the lunch break, we recommend taking breaks of 15 minutes each. Here the initiative also comes from the PM, and the Timlide. As a rule, at this time the team holds a rally. You can just drink tea, discuss the situation on the project.
- During the 12-hour work shift, the regulated breaks are set at the first 8 hours of operation, similar to the breaks at the 8-hour work shift, and during the last 4 hours of work, every hour lasting 15 minutes.
- Table tennis is one of the best exercises for the prevention of eye diseases. Eyes, tracking the position of a tennis ball, constantly refocus. The entire ligament-muscular apparatus of the eye is actively loaded. Very motivated to engage in table tennis corporate tournaments.
- Ad hoc breaks (micro pauses) lasting 1-3 minutes are effective.
Another important point. Myopia, hyperopia and other refractive disorders must be completely corrected with glasses. Points must be used for work, taking into account the working distance from the eyes to the display screen. Any sensible ophthalmologist can help you with this.
Example of workplace organization
As a rule, the greatest number of health complaints is associated with diseases of the muscles and joints.
The motionless posture of the operator, which is chained to the monitor screen for a long time, leads to fatigue and pain in the spine, neck and shoulder joints. Often we are confronted with spastic contraction of individual muscle groups (shoulders, neck, back). It happens (more often than it may seem) a change in the shape of the spine. Intensive work with the keyboard causes pain in the elbow joints, forearms, wrists, hands and fingers.
Often there are complaints of numbness in the neck, pain in the shoulders and lower back, or tingling in the legs. But there are, unfortunately, more serious diseases. The most common is carpal (carpal) tunnel syndrome, in which the nerves of the hand are damaged due to frequent and prolonged work on the computer. This syndrome manifests itself in the form of carpal pains that occur even with a slight tension of the hand.
The desktop can be of any design that meets the modern requirements of ergonomics and allows you to conveniently place equipment on the working surface, taking into account its quantity, size and nature of the work performed. Everything is simple here. If you are comfortable at the table during a standard working day, then everything is ok. As a rule, the height of the table should be between 680 and 800 mm. Too high or low desktop will not bring joy to anyone. It is obvious.
The depth of the working surface of the table should be 800 mm, width - 1600 mm. It is possible more. The working surface of the table is better to choose with a matte texture, non-contrast colors. Better dark (but not black!) Color. The desktop must have sufficient legroom.
The keyboard should be located on the table surface at a distance of 100-300 mm from the edge.
The chair should be comfortable. We use those that allow you to change the working posture during the working day. This is a classic office chair lift-swivel type with a seat and back, adjustable in height and angle of inclination, as well as the distance of the backrest from the front edge of the seat. Recently, we began to use chairs with ventilated backs. Very handy thing. And no office chairs in the workplace! They can be left for a conference room or reception. Sitting on them for more than two hours can be comfortable, but without working at the same time at the keyboard.
For completeness, I will give the optimal parameters of the microclimate in accordance with SanPin 220.127.116.118-96. According to this document, for the category of severity of work 1a, the air temperature should be in the cold period of the year within 22-24 ° С, in the warm period of the year - 20-25 ° С. Relative humidity should be 40-60%, air velocity is 0.1 m / s. To maintain optimal microclimate values, the heating and air conditioning system is used. To increase the humidity in the room, use humidifiers with distilled or boiled drinking water.
It's simple. Get a psycho-hygrometer in any pharmacy (yes, the name is funny), it is inexpensive. And watch out for temperature and humidity. The output of the microclimate beyond the optimal parameters overloads our autonomic nervous system. Many of you will be surprised if they learn that only by stabilizing the microclimate in the optimal zone can not only be prevented, but also helped to cure many diseases. Remember how a weakened body was treated even 100–200 years ago — by a change of climate. And since (for various reasons), many people cannot afford to live and work in the south near the sea or mountainous Switzerland, I recommend simulating the optimum temperature and humidity in my workplace.
Requirements for work and rest
Requirements for the regime of work and rest are similar to the previous ones. It would be great if the company where you work organized a massage room. Therapeutic massage is my hobby, so in my leisure time I am doing a wellness massage for my colleagues “on the job”.
I also strongly recommend practicing the exercises in the gym to combine (or completely replace) a visit to the pool. Swimming well relieves the spine, alters the group muscle tension. If there is a choice - a simulator or a swimming pool, the choice is obvious.
The format of the article does not allow me to pay much attention to the details, so if you have questions - write in the comments.
In the future, if the topic is interesting, I plan to describe the following points:
- Chronic computer stress syndrome;
- Effects on the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems.
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