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Basic rules of the grammar of the Russian language

Basic rules of the grammar of the Russian language

Content


Source: Orthographic dictionary for school children with a grammatical application. - Moscow: Liszt, 1998.

O-A in unstressed roots -lag- - -loe-

O (before g) -lood- put
offer
spell out
A (before d) -lag- believe
adjective
An exception: canopy

O-A in unstressed roots-rast- -push- - -ros-

A (before CT, Щ) -rest--pure- age
raise
grow
increment
O (before the others) -ros- bush
increased
Exceptions: sprout, usurer, Rostov, branch, Rostislav

O - A in unstressed roots - cos - - -cas-

And before the suffix -a- touch
touch
tangent
About before -sn- touch
touch

Spelling of the roots -gar- - -gor-, -p- - -zor-, -clan- - -klon-, -tvar- - -two-

Under stress Without stress
-gar- a tan
cinder
-gor- tanned
burnt
- p - - - glow
dawn
-p- lightning
illumination
-clan-α-cyclone- bow
bow
-clone- cant
decline
-twar- - -wow- creature
creation
-was- create

I - E in roots with alternation

And before the suffix -a- E in other cases
-bir (a) - collect -Ber- collect
-di (a) - abrade -der- scoops
- the world (a) - freeze -mer- to fade
- (a) - wipe -ter- wipe off
-pyr (a) - lock -per- lock up
-fire (a) - burn out -zhe- burned out
-styles (a) - spread -style- spread out
-block (a) - shine -blast- shine
means (a) - subtract -According to the deduction
But: combine, combination

O - A in the unstressed roots -moc- (-moch-) - -mac-, -equal- - -row-

-mom- (-mOH-) in words with the meaning of "skip the fluid, lose their qualities, being in the water for a long time" waterproof
to get wet
-poppy- "immerse in liquid" dunk biscuit in tea
-equally- "equal, equal, equal" equalize
the equation
-row- "straight, smooth, smooth" equalize
Exceptions: plain, coeval, equal, level, equals

O - E (E) in the roots after sizzling

Ё (under stress) silk - silk
offset - deduction
dandy
whisper
About (without stress) in borrowed words jockey, jollyer, juggler, chauvinism, chocolate, highway, driver, Scotland
Exceptions: gooseberries, heartburn, rustle, zazhor, pulp, slums, ratchet, seam, ramrod

And - Y after C

Y
  1. end words:
      swimmers, birds, swarthy
  2. suffix -in-:
      sisters
  3. gypsies, chickens, chickens, tiptoes and their derivatives
AND
  1. in the root of nouns:
      cylinder, scurvy, figure
  2. in words on-tion:
      culmination

O - E after sizzling and C in the suffixes and endings of nouns and adjectives

About (under stress) E (without stress)
suffix rechka
bank
reed
bumper
cladding
river
a piece
key
plush
calico
ending shoulder
Kuzmich
a large
sapling
a spectacle
Natasha
greater
saplings

Prefixes on ... з - ... with

... з- (before vowels and voiced consonants) ... c- (in front of deaf consonants)
homeless
lead
expel
endless
glorify
spend
  1. In consoles -ra- (-ras-) - -roz- (-ros-) under stress, O is written, without stress - A:
      hand out
  2. The prefix C- is written both before the deaf and before voiced consonants:
      erase - do

Prefixes and prefixes

pre-
in meaning
"very," "very," "through," "in a different way"
(close to re-)
at
in meaning
proximity, joining, approximation,
incomplete action, bringing action to completion,
concomitant action
large (very)
exaggerate
transgress
transform
transform
seaside
attach
bend down
open
come up with
sing along

Remember:

joke primitive abide deceive
arrive a princess surpass prelude
ghost a priority block bicker
privilege to enthuse tradition present
vocation pretender successor let
diligence brothel the president overstay
to die off timed despise translate
presence bizarre contradict claim

Vowels Y and I after consoles

Y
AND
  • after consoles ending in a consonant
    • play-
        play
        win back
    • seek-
        to find
        track down
  • after consoles of inter-, super-
      inter-institutional
      overbearing
  • after foreign prefixes and particles of counter, des, trans, pan-
      countertrig
      disinformation
      pan-Islamism

Remember:

look confiscate
take away to raise
lift up recover
take off

Case and case endings of nouns

Case
Declination
I
II
III
Nominative Who? what? -and I [], -o, -e []
Genitive whom? What? -ы, -и -and I -and
Dative To whom? What? -e -y, -yu -and
Accusative whom? what? -y, -yu -o, -e []
Instrumental by whom? than? th,
(s)
-oh, -em -Yu
Prepositional (o) com? (about what? -e -e -and

The peculiarities of declension of nouns on -ия, -ий, -ие

-and I th -ie
Rn. -and -I -I lectures
planetarium
contests
D.p. -and -Yu -Yu lectures
planetarium
match
Gt; -her -eat -eat lecture
planetarium
competition
Pn -and -and -and (o) lectures
(o) planetariums
(o) the match

Distinguishable nouns for

burden, time, udder, banner,
name, flame, tribe, seed,
stirrup, crown,
as well as
Rn. -and tribe
pathways
D.p. -and tribe
pathways
Gt; -em (-em) tribe
by
Par. -and (o) of the tribe
(o) ways

Suffixes of nouns

The suffixes -ik-, -ek-

If the declension of the noun

  • the vowel falls out, then the suffix -ec- is written:
      druzhochka - druzhochek
      nutlet
  • the vowel is preserved, then the -ik- is written:
      shalashik
      boy boy
The suffixes -etc-, -ic-
n. husband. R.
-ec-
n. wives. R.
-ic-
n. cf. R.
the stress falls on the ending
-ec-
the stress precedes the suffix
-ic-
frost - frost book-book
letter
armchair

Suffixes-ichk-, -echch-

-icach-
-echk-
n. wives. p., arr. from the basics in -Its- other cases + noun. on
staircase - staircase
clever - umnichka
morning - morning
time is a time

The suffixes -char-, -schik-

-chin- -caster-
after d, t, s, c, f other cases
investor
barman
carrier
subscriber
defector
trainer
mason
lamplighter

NOT with nouns

concurrently
apart
  1. Do not use without NOT:
      ignoramus
      fables
  2. When a word of the opposite meaning is formed:
      foe
      affliction
      enemy
  1. If there is or is meant an opposition:
      Not true, but a lie.
      Not a friend, but an enemy.
      Not happiness, but grief.

Remember:

negligence ignorant small
disbelief misfortune slave
wretch underweight imperfection
low-price nerdot foe
unknown rage nonsense
bad weather slut turmoil
a lack of

NOT with adjectives

concurrently
apart
  1. Do not use without NOT:
      rainy
      hated
  2. When a word of the opposite meaning is formed:
      small (small)
      good (good)
  3. In the presence of words very, very, extremely, to the highest degree, completely, completely, almost, in part, absolutely, extremely:
      extremely incautious
      very bad
  1. If there is or is meant an opposition:
      Not big, but small.
      Not bad, but good.
      The river is shallow? The river is not shallow.
  2. If opposition is implied and negative is amplified, it is negative. pronouns and adverbs:
      far from right
      not at all joyful

Adjective suffixes

Suffixes -uve, -ev-

-and under stress -ev-without stress
beautiful
playful
rain
lilac
Exceptions: gracious

The suffixes -onk, -enk-

-onk after r, k, x -enk-in other cases
high-necked
light
dry
greenish
cheap
warm

Suffixes -k-, -sk-

-to-
-sk-
  1. If the adjective has a short form:
      narrow narrow
      bold-bold
  2. If the adjective is formed from a noun with a stem on k, h, q (k and h are transformed into q):
      German to German
      fisherman-fisherman
      weaver - weaving
  1. In all other cases:
      sailor
      French - French
      bogatyr - heroic

-H-, -HN- in the suffixes of adjectives

-H-
rule example
Appendices not formed from other parts of speech young
blue
zealous
Ad. with the suffixes -an-, -yann-, -in- leather
silver
clay
chicken
Exceptions: glass, pewter, wooden
Ad., Arr. from the unprimed verbs of the Nes. at. with suff. -n-, -en- and not having. freezes. words loaded wagons
knitted sweater
fried crucian carp
Exceptions: coveted, sacred, unsaved, given, unheard of
-NH-
Adj., Formed from noun. with the basis of -n with the suffix -n- lemon (lemon + n)
machine (machine + n)
Ad. with the suffixes -non-, -on- cranberry
revolutionary
Exception: windy
If there are consoles windless
lee

In the short adjectives -H-, -HN- are written in accordance with the full form

    Herbs are green (green).
    The road is long (long).
Connecting vowels O, E in compound words
O (after solid bases) E (after the bases on a soft consonant, on hissing and c)
hunt
centipede
circulation
biography
vegetable store
sheep breeding

Spelling of complex nouns

  • Merge Writing
    1. Complex words with elements:
      auto- radio- bio-
      air- a photo- zoo-
      aero- weather- agro-
      bicycle- strereo- neo-
      mono- electro- micro-
      cinema- hydro- macro-
    2. Complex words with the first verb part on -I:
      goricvet, daredevil.
      Exception: rolled-field.
  • Dash spelling
    1. Complex names, terms:
      dynamo car, prime minister.
    2. Compound names of political parties:
      anarcho-syndicalism
    3. Complex units of measure:
      gram-calorie, ton-kilometer.
      Exceptions: workday, work hour.
    Endings of adjectives
    • The impudent endings of the names of adjectives are checked by the question:
        About the book (which? -th, -yy) interesting.
        To a tree (which? -th, -th) high.
        Shrub (what? -th, -y, -y) prickly.
    • In adjectives, in -y, -yah, -ye, -ye (fox, fox, fox, fox) in all forms except Him. and Vin. cases of units. h, before the end is written b:
      fox, fox, fox, fox, fox.
    • In adjectives formed from the names of the months, b is preserved:
      April to April
      July to July
      September to September
      Exception: January - January
    Spelling of complex adjectives
    concurrently
    1. from complex entities:
      pedestrian
      locomotive
    2. from combinations of words:
      railway (railway)
      Old Russian (ancient Russian)
    3. in combination with an adverb:
      highly educated
      fleeting
    apart
    1. quality with add. shade:
      sweet and sour
      bitter-salty
    2. shades of color:
      blue-black
      milky white
      pale pink
    3. homogeneous adj. (= and, but, not only):
      English-Russian
      electronic computing
    4. the first part ends in -iko:
      physico-mathematical

    Numeral

  • By value and grammatical features
    • quantitative
        how?
          five
          ten
    • ordinal
        which one?
          fifth
          tenth
  • By composition
    • simple
        three
        nine
        second
    • complex
        fifty
        seventy
        two-hundredth
    • compound
        twenty five
        thirty-seventh
        fifty first
    Declination of quantitative numbers
    5-20, 30 40, 90, 100 50-80, 200-900 (both parts)
    I.p. five forty, one hundred three hundred sixty
    Rn. five magpie, hundred three hundred and sixty
    D.p. five magpie, hundred three hundred and sixty
    V.p. five forty, one hundred three hundred sixty
    Gt; five magpie, hundred three hundred and sixty
    Par. (o) five (o) forty, one hundred (o) three hundred and sixty

    Declination of compound quantitative numbers

    Compound numerals, denoting integers, incline all words from which they consist.

    I.p. Nine hundred sixty five
    Rn. Nine hundred and sixty five
    D.p. Nine sixty-five
    V.p. Nine hundred sixty five
    Gt; Niney sixty-five
    Par. (o) Nine of sixty-five

    Declination of fractional numbers

    3 - numerator: numerical numerals
    -
    5 - denominator: ordinal number

    When the fractional numerals are declined, both parts change: the numerator is inclined as an integer, and the denominator is an adjective in the plural.

    I.p. three sevenths
    Rn. three sevenths
    D.p. three seventh
    V.p. three sevenths
    Gt; three sevenths
    Par. (o) three-sevenths

    Declination of collective numbers both

    husband., Wed. R. wives. R.
    I.p. both both
    Rd both both
    D.p. both both
    V.p. both both
    Gt; both both
    Par. (both) both (both) of both
    the basis of both (both players) the basis of both (to both teams)

    The declination of the numerals and a half, a hundred and fifty

    I.p. Rn. D.p. V.p. Gt; Par.
    one and a half husband., Wed. R. one and a half one and a half one and a half one and a half one and a half one and a half
    wives. R. one and a half one and a half
    a hundred and fifty a hundred and fifty a hundred and fifty a hundred and fifty a hundred and fifty a hundred and fifty a hundred and fifty

    B at the end and in the middle of the numerals

    B - indicator of softness at the end of the word B - index of softness in the middle of a word
    5-20, 30
    five, fourteen, twenty, thirty
    50-80, 500-900 in the name. and blames. cases
    seventy, six hundred, nine hundred

    Remember:

    • In the middle of L is not written
      fifteen
      sixteen
      seventeen
      eighteen
      nineteen
    Pronouns
    • Personal
        I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they.
    • Returnable
        yourself
    • Interrogative
        Who? what? which one? whose? which the? how?
    • Relative
        who, what, what, whose, which, how much, what.
    • Negative
        nobody, nothing, nobody, nothing, nothing, nobody, a few.
    • Possessive
        my, your, your, our, your, its, her, them.
    • Indicative
        That, this, such, such, is, so much, this (obsolete).
    • Certain
        all, everyone, everyone, himself, any, other.
    • Undefined
        someone, something, some, some, some ...
    Spelling of Undefined Pronouns
    merged: not + pronoun through a hyphen: прист. something, suff. is it something
    one, some, some, several someone, something, someone, someone, somebody, somebody, somebody

    NE-, NE- in negative pronouns

    • NOT stressed
        somebody
        there is nothing
        nowhere
        there is nobody
        there is no need
    • Without stress
        no one
        nothing
        nowhere
        no one
        no way
    • merged in the absence of a preposition
        no one
        no one
        there is nothing
        nothing
    • separately if there is a preposition
        no one with whom
        no one
        about nothing
        never
    Conjugation of verbs

    Conjugation of verbs is determined in an indefinite form.

    II ref. I ref.
    all verbs to-be (except for 3 exceptions) verbs to shave, to lay, to be built
    7 verbs on -et: to look, see, hate, tolerate, offend, twirl, depend on all verbs to -et (except for 7 exceptions)
    4 verbs on -at: drive, hold, hear, breathe all verbs to -at (except for 4 exceptions)
    all the other verbs are -at, -tum, -t, etc.

    Conjugation of modern verbs

    Face I ref. II ref.
    Unit. h. Mn. h. Unit. h. Mn. h.
    1 st -y (-y) -eat -y (-y) -them
    2 nd you -e is it -it
    3rd -et -out (-yut) -it -at (-yat)

    Features of conjugation of some verbs:

    1. From the verb to defeat the 1st person unit. a number is not formed.
    2. 1st and 2nd person units and many others. hours nast. Wed. from the verb is not used.
    3. Flexible verbs to want, to escape, to shine:
      wants, wants - according to I spr. ..;
      want, want, want - on the IInd;
      run, run, run, run - on the IInd;
      run - on the I cont.;
      shaves - according to the first;
      brezzhut - II ref.
    The use of b in verbal forms

    The letter b is written:

    • in an indefinite form:
        wash-wash
        cherish
    • in the end of the 2nd person units. h .:
        please - rejoice
    • in the imperative mood after consonants:
        suspension - weigh
    • in the return particle (suffix), which is after the vowel:
        learn
        come back
        disappeared
    Vowels in unstressed suffixes of verbs-ovah (-eva-), -yva (-iva)
    -owa (-eva-),
    if in the 1st l. singular nast. or bud. Wed. th
    -yva- (-Iiva),
    if in the 1st l. singular nast. or bud. Wed. -I know
    (1) I talk (1 liter h.p.), - talk - talked;
    (i) I will serve (1 liter unit of the present NV) - regale - regale;
    (I) fight (1 hp unit of NV) - fight - fought;
    I insist (1 liter PS) to insist - insisted:
    I look at it (1 liter h.p.
    I'm running late (1 year ago) - to be late - was late.

    Communion as a special form of the verb

    which one? which one? What? what kind?

    Signs of the adjective Signs of the verb
    • indicates the feature of the object
    • varies according to gender, number, case, in accordance with the noun
    • transitivity and intransitivity of action
    • perfect and imperfect look
    • present and past tense

    Declination of the Sacraments

    the end of adjectives the end of the sacraments
    I.p. good boy the reading boy
    Rn. good boy reading boy
    D.p. good boy reading a boy
    V.p. good boy reading boy
    Gt; good boy reading boy
    Par. (oh) good boy (o) reading boy

    True and Passive Communions

    • the actual participles denote the sign of the thing that produces the action:
        The sun that warms the earth.
    • passive participles signify the sign of the thing that is not experiencing the action of another object:
        Earth, heated by the sun.
    Real participle present tense
    the basis of the verb. Ness. type + -power (-yush-) I спр.
    -asch- (-isch-) II cp.
    to weep (I ref.) -> crying + -supply- -> crying
    neop. f. gl. n. Wed. Ness. species
    to love (I cont.) -> love + -say- -> loving
    neop. f. gl. n. Wed. Ness. species

    Actual past participles

    the basis of the verb neop. f. + (from verbs with a stem to a vowel)
    (from verbs with a stem to a consonant, on-one and on-off, alternating with r, k)
    withstand + -out-> withstood
    see who saw
    bear + -w- -> carried
    carry away fascinated

    Present-day suffering sacraments

    the basis of the verb. Ness. type + -em - I ref.
    IIR.
    read (1st ref.) -> reads + -em- -> loving
    neop. f. gl.
    be in love -> loves + -im- -> favorite
    neop. f. gl.
    Exception: movable (from the old verb movable)

    Passionate past participles

    the basis of the verb neopr. f. + -ann-, -yann- (from verbs to -at-, -yat-)
    -en- (he has verbs on -et, -it, -ty, ch)
    -t-
    indicate + -ann- -> specified
    start + -yann- -> conceived
    see + -en- -> seen
    corrupt + -en- -> wounded
    take out + -en- -> taken out
    to appease + -t- -> distracted

    Participial

    full communion + dependent word

    The book, written by a famous writer , came out of print.
    The book written by the famous writer came out of print.

    NOT with Sacraments

    concurrently apart
    1. Without NOT is not used:
        hated
        indignant
    2. With full participles without dependent words and oppositions:
        unread book
    3. With words absolutely, very, very, extremely, very (= very):
        quite ill-conceived decision
    1. With brief participles:
        work is not finished
    2. With full participles in the presence of dependent words or oppositions:
        I have not read a book
        not read, but only a scanned book
    3. With reinforcing negation of places., Adverb:
        unjustified act

    -H-, -NH- in the suffixes of participles and verbal adjectives

    -H- -NH-
    1. If there are no prefixes (except for non-), the suffix -ova- (-eva-) and will explain. words ::
        painted floor
        wounded soldier
      Exceptions:
        slow
        desired,
        sacred,
        unheard of,
        unexpected, etc.
    2. In short, the suffering. participles:
        the soldier is wounded
        the dictation is written
    1. In the presence of consoles (except for non-):
        colored
        wounded
        broken
      Exceptions:
        clever
        planted,
        named
    2. In the presence of explanatory words:
        floor tinted
        bullet-fighter
    3. In words: -with (-ed):
        marinated
        arrested
      Exceptions:
        chewed,
        forged
    4. Educated from verbs committed. type:
        bought
        decided

    Vowels in front of -H-, -NH- in participles and verbal adjectives

    and I -an- (-yann-) in verbs to -at, -en detain
    e -en-in verbs to -it, -et view - viewed
    buy - bought

    The vertebrate as a special form of the verb

    What are you doing? What did you do?
    Signs of the verb Signs of an Adverb
    1. Perfect and imperfect look.
    2. Transitivity and intransitivity of action.
    3. Manages dependent words.
    1. Does not change (does not bow, does not conjugate).
    2. Does not agree, is not managed.
    3. In the sentence there is circumstance.
    NOT with gerundive
    Merge Apart
    Without NOT is not used:
    hating
    indignant
    In other cases:
    leisurely

    Participial turnover

    Deerpriests + Dependent word

    After singing to the end of the song , the wounded began to sing it at first.
    The dove, seeing the children , flew up.
    He was writing something, bending his head .

    Adverbial participles of imperfect type

    What are you doing?
    The basis of the verb. Ness. species + -and I)
    sparkle-sparkling
    clattering
    knock - knock
    The gerund participles. species are not formed from verbs:
    1. with a basis consisting of some consonants:
        sew, pour, press, weave;
    2. with a base on r, k:
        run, flow;
    3. with the basis of the present time on the hissing and with the base of the neopr. forms on s, c, st, x:
        smear - smear.
    Verbal participles of the perfect species
    What did you do?
    base neopr. f. of the perfective verb + in (-s),
    -shi,
    -and I)
    skulk + -at -> skipping
    get -at having received
    return -our returning
    expire -she expired
    get wet -at having got wet
    -she wet
    will see -I seeing

    Adverb

    Questions that adverbs meet Meaning of Adverbs Examples
    How? How? mode of action Quickly, slowly, firmly, well, in an amicable way, aloud, by heart, on foot, in any way, ...
    When? Since when? How long? How long? time Today, tomorrow, in the morning, soon, now, a long time ago, in the winter, ...
    Where? Where? Where from? places Above, below, right, left, everywhere, from afar, near, behind, ...
    Why? From what? causes Raging, blind, from evil, sponta, involuntarily, because, therefore.
    What for? For what purpose? For what? objectives Pretty, spitefully, there is no need, then, why.
    How many? In what time? How much? In what degree? To what extent? measures and degrees Very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, almost, twice ...

    Degrees of comparison of adverbs

    comparative
    simple composite
    her (s), -е, -ше adverb + more / less than
    interesting -> more interesting
    clean -> cleaner
    good -> better
    more interesting
    less interesting
    Superlative degree
    comparative + the pronoun "all"

    Spelling of vowels at the end of adverbs

    OE after adulterated suticases
    About under stress E without stress
    hot, fresh awkwardly, defiantly
    Exception: more
    -o- - -e- at the end of adverbs
    -o- after hard. acc. -е- after softly. acc.
    long sincerely
    o - a (-y) at the end of adverbs
    a - I'm with prefixes from-, to-, -c o with prefixes in-, on, for-
    from time to time, on the left left, right, new

    B at the end of adverbs
    After the sibilants at the end, adverbs are written:
    away, jump, be unmerciful, backhand.
    Exceptions: so, in marriage, unbearable.

    -H-, -HH- in dialects on -O (-E)

    H from adj. with H NN from adj. with LV
    wonderful -> wonderful
    carefree -> carelessly
    scattered -> absent-mindedly
    frightened -> afraid

    NOT and NO in adverbs

    NOT stressed NO without stress
    once
    nowhere
    nowhere
    from nowhere
    there is no need
    never
    nowhere
    nowhere
    out of nowhere
    no way
    not at all
    not at all

    Spelling of adverbs through a hyphen

    • Adverbs with a prefix on-you, -th, -ski, -ki, -year
        differently
        to my mind
        in English
        wolf-like
      Exceptions:
        therefore, why, why, therefore.
    • Adverbs with a prefix of the (c-), formed from ordinal numbers
        At first
        Secondly
        third
    • Adverbs with suffixes are either something or other,
        something
        somewhere
        somehow
        somebody
    • Adverbs formed by the repetition of words (single-root or synonymous)
        barely
        exactly the same
        a little bit
        after all
        in keeping with
    Adult spelling
    • Prefix + adverb
        without ceremony
        forever
        day after tomorrow
        from outside
    • Prefixes on, в- + collective numeral
        in two
        doubly
        threesome
      BUT:
        in two, in three
    • Prefix + pronoun, full. Attached. (not starting with a vowel)
        in a draw
        however
        often
    • Prefix + short adjective
        dry
        accented
    • Prefix + noun, where between the prefix and the noun, you can not insert a definition
        ford
        sneakily
    Separate spelling of adverbs
    • The noun has preserved some case forms
        squat
        abroad (abroad)
      BUT:
        inside out
        singly (alone)
        hastily (not to haste)
    • Between beings. and a preposition can be inserted in the definition
        in moderation (in full measure)
        on a gallop (at full gallop)
        to death (until death)
    • Preposition B + beings., Adj., Starting. with a vowel
        hugging
        point blank
        in shock
    • Prepositions B, HA + noun in the sentence. the case.
        but days
        on joys
        in the dark
    • The noun is used in figurative meaning
        to the nines
    Service parts of speech
    • Pretext
      • Non-derivative prepositions
          without, in, before, for, for, from, to, on, over, about, about, from, to, under, before, when, about, from,
          from behind, from ...
      • Derived Prepositions
        • adverbial prepositions
            near, inside, around, around, ...
        • odious excuses
            through, through, through, in, ...
        • pretexts
            thanks, including, except, after, starting (with), ...
    • Union
    • Particle
    1. Do not change.
    2. Do not have an independent lexical meaning.
    3. They are not members of the sentence.
    Spelling of prepositions
    hyphenated due to
    from under
    over
    under
    concurrently in view of (= for the reason)
    due to (= because of)
    like, like (= like)
    about (= o)
    instead
    within
    after
    towards
    above
    despite)
    apart
    in business by virtue of
    in area in terms of
    in a relationship as
    moderately about
    during because of
    in continuation as
    Unlike with the exception of
    Finally at the expense of
    due in order to
    remember in the course of, in conclusion, as a result of

    Unions

    • Writing
      • Connecting
          and, yes (= and), not only ... but also, too, and ... and, neither ... nor, as ... and so
      • Advocative
          but, yes (= but), but, but, nevertheless, however, still
      • Separating
          or, or ... or, either, or ... either, then ... then, whether ... either, not that ... not that
    • Subordinate
      • Explanatory
          that, to, how, ...
      • Temporary
          when, only, hardly, ...
      • Targeted
          so that, in order that, ...
      • Conditional
          if, if, if, ...
      • Intentional
          although, albeit, let it ...
      • Comparative
          as if, as if, like
      • Causal
          since, so, ...
      • Consequences
          so that


    Spelling of conjunctions

    concurrently apart
    that (= in order)
    too, also (= and)
    therefore
    because
    why
    so (= hence)
    but (= but)
    and
    moreover
    so
    what for
    then
    BUT: so and so, and so on.
    for now
    almost
    wherein
    as if
    whereas
    so that
    not that - not that
    i.e
    because of
    because
    though

    Particle discharges

    • Modal particles
      • interrogative:
          Is it really so?
      • exclamation:
          how, what for;
      • restrictive:
          only;
      • indicative:
          Behold, there;
      • amplifying:
          nor, in fact, all the same, even;
      • clarifying
          namely, just.
    • Form-forming particles
        would (for the formation of a conditional mood):
        let him, let him, yes, come on, -a (for the education will command the inclination):
        happened, was (for the formation of special forms of the past tense).
    • Negative particles
        not
        nor
    Spelling of particles
    • Through a hyphen:
        That,
        -or,
        something,
        -a,
        -talk,
        -from,
        -de,
        some- (coy-),
        -taki (after adverbs, verbs and with words all the same, so-so)
    • Apart:
        the same (g)
        would (b)
        whether (l)
        as if
        say
        as if
        for sure
        after something follows an excuse (with someone)
        after all
        pier
    • Remember:
        in the same way, the same, the same, immediately, all the same, besides, that-that-f.
    Phrase
    the main word
    +
    dependent words
    - the question ->

    Relationship of words in the phrase

    reconciliation
    dependent + main thing


    gender, number, case
    which one?

    the main street
    zh.r., singular, I.p. = ж.р., unit, чп
    control
    dependent + main thing

    case
    what?

    read the letter
    (Bp)
    contiguity
    dependent + main thing
    (adverb,
    infinitive,
    gerund)

    meaning
    as?


    quietly whisper
    what?


    suggest entering
    as?


    talking smiling

    Types of offers

    • By the purpose of the utterance
        narrative
        interrogative
        incentive
    • By the presence of secondary members of the proposal
        common
        unrequited
    • By structure
        simple
        complex
    • By composition
        two-part
        one-part
    • By intonation
        exclamatory
        non-exculpatory
    • By the nature of the relationship to reality
        affirmative
        negative
    Types of the predicate
    • Simple verb
      • A verb in the form of any inclination:
          In the blue sky the stars shine .
      • Phraseological combination:
          lost his temper
          hits the buckets
          resentment
    • Composite verb
      • auxiliary verb + an undefined verb form
          Vladimir began to worry greatly.
    • Compound registered
      • verb-bundle + nominal part
          The weather was good .
          The village where Evgeni was bored was a charming place .
    Dash between subject and predicate
    • Dash is put
      • n. - n.
          The book is the source of knowledge.
      • number. - number.
          Five eight is forty.
      • neopr. f. a verb is a non-verb. f. verb, noun. - unref. f. a verb, neopr. f. verb - noun.
          To live is to serve the motherland.
          An excellent position is to be a man.
      • before the words this, that's what it means
          The main thing is the desire for study.
    • Dash is not put
      • personal pronoun noun
          He's a skeptic.
      • the predicate has a negation of NOT
          Poverty is not a vice.
      • how, exactly, like a predicate
          This garden is like a forest.
      • predicate
          Kostya is now a student.


    Secondary members of the proposal

    • Supplement - answers questions of indirect cases, means an object.
        The children said (about what?) About animals.
    • Definition - answers the questions of what? whose ?, signifies the subject.
        We saw a rare (what?) Bird.
    • Circumstance - answers the questions where? where? as? ..., indicates the sign of an action or other characteristic.
        The guests gathered (when?) The day before.
    Types of circumstances
    Types of circumstances Your questions Examples
    Places Where? where? whence? How much? appeared in the distance
    walked to the station
    Time when? since when? How long? arrived the day before
    stayed until morning
    Causes why? from what? delayed due to bad weather
    Objectives what for? for what? to do to spite
    Mode of action as? how? sailed quickly
    Measures how many times? how much? how long? called twice
    Degrees To what extent? in what degree? very surprised
    Conditions under what condition? if you want, learn
    Assignments Contrary to what? contrary to desire did not have time

    Types of single-sentence sentences

    • The main term is the predicate
      • Definitely personal: the predicate is a verb in the form of the 1st or 2nd person of units. or pl. number.
          I'm waiting for news from you.
      • Indefinite-personal: the predicate is a verb in the form of the 3rd. plural nast. and bud. Wed. and in the form pl. past. Wed.
          They knock on the door.
      • Impersonal: with the predicate there is no subject.
          It's getting dark .
    • The main term is the subject
      • Called: there is only a subject.
          Quiet evening .
          Winter .
    Singularities of homogeneous terms of the sentence

    Pine, birch, larch surrounded the clearing.

    1. Answer one common question for them:
        what?
    2. Same sentence members (like members):
        subordinate
    3. Relate to the same sentence member:
        surrounded
    4. Equal to each other and connected with each other by a cohesive bond:
        pines (and)
        birch (s)
        larch
    Punctuation marks in sentences with homogeneous terms
    Comma
    is put
    1. Two or more homogeneous. gt; without alliances:
        (), (), ()
        Sounds grew, strengthened, expanded.
    2. Homogeneous. members with repetitive unions and-and, no-no, yes-yes, or-or, or-either, then, something. not that-not that:
        and (), and ()
        Both the shore and the sea were silent.
        It's either north or east.
    3. Between homogeneous. gt; with unions a, but, yes (= but):
        (), but ()
        He grumbled, but agreed.
    Comma is not
    is put
    1. Homogeneous terms with one union and, or, or, yes (= u):
        () and ()
        Red and blue flowers.
    2. Within the group is one-time. which are connected in pairs:
        {() and ()}, {() and ()}
        We collected herbs and berries, mushrooms and nuts.
    3. In whole expressions:
        and that and that
        neither that nor that
        no light is on
        and so and so
        and there and here
        neither fish nor fowl
        not dead or alive

    Generalizing words for homogeneous terms of the sentence

    • Colon
      1. After the generalizing word before homogeneous terms (sometimes here words are put somehow, namely, for example):
          {(*): (), (), ()}.
          Snow covered everything: trees, houses, and haystacks.
          {(*), such as: (), (), ()}.
          {(*), namely: (), (), ()}.
          {(*), eg: (), (), ()}.
          I need some tools, for example: a hammer, a file, a hacksaw.
      2. Before listing, one-shot. members in business and scientific speech:
          The plenum decided:
            1)...
            2) ...
    • Dash
      1. After homogenous. before generalizing the word:
          {(), (), () - (*)}.
          A table, an armchair, chairs - everything was in disarray.
          {(), (), () - in a word, (*)}.
          {(), (), () - in a word, (*)}.
          {(), (), () - shortly speaking, (*)}.
          A hammer, a file, a hacksaw - in a word, I need some tools.
      2. After homogeneous members, if there is a general word in front of them, and the sentence is not completed:
          {(*): (), (), () - ...}.
          Everywhere: on the trees, haystacks, houses - lay the snow.


    Main groups of opening words

    • Different feelings of the speaker in connection with the message
        fortunately, unfortunately, to joy, to horror, unfortunately ...
    • Assessment of the degree of reality of communication (confidence, opportunity, ...)
        Of course, there can be, undoubtedly, probably, it seems, ...
    • Message source
        they say, they say, in the words, in my opinion, in the opinion of ...
    • Relationship of thoughts, sequence of presentation
        so, therefore, firstly, finally, by the way, ...
    • Expression of expressed thoughts
        in a word, in general, in other words, so to speak, ...
    • Appeal to draw attention to the message
        you see, you understand, please, say, let's say, ...
    Remember:
    Introductory words are not members of the sentence, they are separated by commas on the letter.

    The main types of complex sentences

    • Allied
      • Complicated
      • Complicated
        • With subordinate qualitative
        • With subordinate circumstantial
        • With subordinate explanatory
          • time, place, mode of action, measure and degree, causes, objectives, comparative, conditions, concessions, effects, interconnections
    • Union
    Punctuation marks in compound sentence
    • The comma is put
      • Between parts of a complex sentence, connected by unions:
        and, yes (= u), neither ... nor;
        but, yes (= but), however, ...;
        or, whether, or ... whether, ...;
        yes, yes, and, too, also;
        that is, namely.
          The lightning flashed, and there was a thunderbolt.
    • The comma is not put
      • If parts of a complex sentence have a common secondary term:
          Now the May rain is splashing and a thunderstorm will begin.
      • If there is a general subordinate clause:
          As soon as it was light, we were awakened and we set off.
    Punctuation marks in compound sentence
    • The comma is put
      • A sentence sentence is separated or separated by commas:
          We started when the sun rose.
      • Between homogeneous clauses of clauses, if they are not joined by writing unions:
          We thought that he would be late, that we could not say goodbye to him.
      • When using compound unions because, because, because instead of, while, after:
          We sat on the corner of the bastion, so that both sides could see everything.
    • The comma is not put
      • negation + union:
          He began to find out what had happened and who had done it.
      • A sentence sentence = one union word:
          He promised to return, but did not say when.
      • Before the subordination union words in particular, that is, namely, specifically:
          He got better, especially when he found out about what had happened.
      • Before the steady turnover, whatever, at all costs, as many as you like, as if nothing had happened, ...
    Complex sentence with several subordinate clauses
    • Consistent submission
      Ch. before. - Prid. I st - prid. II century.
        He reached the last flight of stairs and saw that someone was sitting on the steps below the platform on which his door was facing.
    • Parallel submission
      Ch. before. < Prid. conditional.
      Prid. conditional.
        If you see him tomorrow, ask him to come and see me for a minute.
    • Homogeneous submission
      Ch. before. < Prid. is explained.
      | |
      Prid. is explained.
        Olenin knew that it was dangerous in the forest that the abreks always hide in these places.
    Punctuation marks before the union ASK
    • The comma is put
      • Comparative turnover:
          Her eyes glittered, green as gooseberry.
      • Introductory combination as usual, as always, as a rule:
          On the way, as always, we ran into the cafe.
      • Appendix with reasons. value:
          As the first love, Russia will not forget your heart!
      • In the sentence there is a correlation. words so, such, that, so:
          Lyceum gave Russia such people as Pushkin, Pushchin, Delvig.
      • After it should be and:
          Trees, like people, have their own destiny.
    • The comma is not put
      • Before the comparative turnover is not a word, absolutely, almost, ...:
          The newspaper did not come out as usual.
      • Turnover in the structure of the predicate:
          There was a forest like a dream and snow like a dream.
      • Turnover = "in quality":
          Lensky was everywhere accepted as a bridegroom.
      • With a double alliance, both ... and ...:
          This topic is affected both in poetry and in prose.
      • Turnover from one word answers the questions how? how?
          He flew like a bird.
    Colon in an unconsolidated complex sentence
    • (): reason
        Love the book: it will help to understand the confusion of life.
    • (): explains
        The picture changed: the snow was standing, the damp earth was smoking.
    • (): supplements
        Suddenly I feel: someone pulls me aside.
    • (): direct question
        Tell me, the branch of Palestine, where did you grow up, where did you bloom?
    Dash in an uncountable complex sentence
    • () - ()
      quick change of events, unexpected result
        Cheese fell out - he was a cheat with him.
    • () - ()
      (but, but)
      antithesis
        I have been serving for sixteen years - this has not happened to me.
    • time, condition of action - ()
        The wood is cut down - the chips fly.
    • () is the result, the output
      (so)
        The sun is smoky - it will be a hot day.
    • () - ()
      (as if, as if)
      comparison
        Molvit word - the nightingale sings.
    Direct speech and words of the author
    Direct speech after the words of the author
    A: "P". The boy said: "I will come tonight."
    A: "P?" He asked: "What are you doing?"
    A: "P!" He was indignant: "What are you doing!"
    Direct speech before the words of the author
    "P", -a "I'll come tonight," the boy said.
    "P?" -a "What are you doing?" - he asked.
    "P!" -a "What are you doing!" - He was indignant.
    Direct speech is interrupted by the words of the author
    "П, -а, - п". "Go ahead," he said, "I'll follow you."
    "P, -a. - P". "I'll come tomorrow night," he said, "I'll bring you a book."
    "П! (?) -а. - П". "What a wonderful man, is not it?" Sasha exclaimed, "I did not see him sad."
    Direct speech stands inside the author's words
    A: "P", -a. He said: "I'm very tired," and immediately fell silent.
    A: "P! (?)" -a. There was a voice: "Can I come to you?" - and someone entered the room.
    A: "P ..." -a. Sergei says: "The wind would blow now ..." - and turned away.