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Basic rules of Russian grammar

Basic rules of Russian grammar

Content


Source: Spelling dictionary for schoolchildren with a grammar application. - M .: "Sheet", 1998.

OA in unstressed roots - lag - - - lazy -

O (before g) -lok- put
to offer
to state
A (before g) -lag- believe
adjective
An exception: canopy

OA in unstressed roots —rast - - - rotation - - - grown

A (before ST, U) - age - - growth - age
to grow
grow
increment
About (before others) -ros- thickets
increased
Exceptions: Rostock, usurer, Rostov, branch, Rostislav

About - And in unaccented roots - kos - - - kak-

And before the suffix -a touch
touch
tangent
O before -sn- to touch
touch

The spelling of the roots -gar- - - mountain-, -zar- - -zor-, -clan- - -clone-, -var- - -tvor-

Under the stress Without accent
-har- a tan
candlestick
- mountain tanned
burnt
-zar- - azor- glow
dawn
-zar- blueberry
insight
-clan- - -clone bow
bow
-clone- cant
declension
-war- - -warder creature
creation
-vor- to create

And - E in the roots with alternation

And before the suffix -a E in other cases
-bearer (a) - collect -ber- will gather
-dir (a) - abrade -derder- rip off
- the world (a) - freeze -mer- stand still
-tyr (a) - wipe -ter- to wipe off
feast (a) - lock -per- lock up
- burning (a) - burn out - burned burned out
-style (a) - spread out -steel- spread out
- list (a) - shine -black- shine
-read (a) - subtract - account deduction
But: combine, combination

O - A in unaccented roots -mok- (-doch-) - -mak-, -equal- - -rovn-

-mok- (-mill-) in words with the meaning “to let the liquid through; to lose one’s quality, being in water for a long time” waterproof
get wet
-poppy- immerse dip the rusk in tea
-equality- "equal, on a par, the same" trim - make equal
the equation
- level - "straight, smooth, smooth" to level
Exceptions: plain, peer, equal, level, equal

O - E (E) in the roots after sizzling

Yo (under stress) silk - silk
credit - deduction
Shyogol - to flaunt
whisper - whisper
O (without accent) in borrowed words jockey, zholner, juggler, chauvinism, chocolate, highway, chauffeur, scotland
Exceptions: gooseberry, heartburn, rustle, zazhor, beet pulp, slum, clapper, seam, ramrod

And - s after C

S
  1. endings of words:
      swimmers, birds, dark-skinned
  2. suffix -in-:
      sistery
  3. gypsy, chicken, tsyts, tiptoe and derivatives from them
AND
  1. at the root of nouns:
      cylinder, scurvy, figure
  2. in the words of the nation:
      climax

A - E after sizzling and C in suffixes and endings of nouns and adjectives

O (under the stress) E (without stress)
suffix little river
stalk
reed
camouflage
facing
river
slice
key
plush
calico
ending shoulder
Kuzmich
big
tree
spectacle
Natasha
more
tree

Prefixes on ... з - ... с

... h- (before vowels and voiced consonants) ... with- (before the deaf consonants)
homeless
to lead
drive out
endless
to sing
spend
  1. In the prefixes -raz- (-ras-) - -roz- (-ros-) under the spelling is written O, without the stress - A:
      hand out
  2. The prefix St is written both before the deaf and the voiced consonants:
      erase - do

Prefixes and prefixes

pre
in meaning
"very", "very", "through", "differently"
(close to re-)
when-
in meaning
proximity, connection, approximation,
incomplete actions, bring the action to the end,
concomitant action
very big
exaggerate
transgress (re ...)
to transform
transform
seaside
to attach
bend down
open up
come up with
hum

Remember:

jokes primitive to stay to seduce
arrive Princess to surpass prelude
ghost a priority block bicker
privilege cheer up tradition present
vocation pretender successor let
diligence den the president to pass away
die down to time despise translate
presence freaky to stand up to claim

Vowels Y and And after prefixes

S
AND
  • after prefixes ending in a consonant
    • play-
        to play
        to play
    • search-
        to find
        to find
  • after prefixes inter-, super-
      inter-institutional
      super-refined
  • after foreign prefixes and particles of counter-, de-, trans-, pan-
      counterplay
      disinformation
      pan-Islamism

Remember:

look to withdraw
take away raise
lift up to fuck
take off

Cases and case endings of nouns

Death case
Declination
I
II
III
Nominative Who? what? -and I [], -o, -e []
Genitive who? what s, s -and I -and
Dative to whom? what -e -y, -y -and
Accusative who? what? -y, -y -o, -e []
Instrumental by whom? than? th
to s
th th
Prepositional (o) com? (about what? -e -e -and

Features of the declension of nouns on the s, s, s

-and I th th
Rp -and -I -I lectures
planetarium
contests
DP -and -Yu -Yu lectures
planetarium
contest
Tp -her -eat -eat lecture
planetarium
contest
Pp -and -and -and (o) lectures
(o) planetarium
(o) contention

Divergent nouns on -me

burden, time, udder, banner,
name, flame, tribe, seed,
stirrup, crown,
as well as the way
Rp -and tribe
ways
DP -and tribe
ways
Tp - it tribe
by
Pp -and (o) tribe
(o) ways

Nouns suffixes

Suffixes -ik-, -ek-

If the declension of the noun

  • the vowel falls out, the suffix -ek- is written:
      darling - darling
      nutlet - nutlet
  • the vowel is preserved, it is written -ik-:
      shalashik - shalashik
      boy - boy
Suffixes -ts-, -its-
noun husband. R.
-f-
noun female R.
-its-
noun Wed R.
emphasis falls on the ending
-th-
emphasis preceded by suffix
-its-
frost frost booklet - booklets
letter
armchair

Suffixes -buy-, -check-

-book-
-jack
noun female R., arr. from the basics to -ic- other cases + n. on-me
ladder - ladder
clever - clever
morning - morning
time is time

Suffixes -chik-, -shchik-

-chick- -shchik-
after d, t, s, s, w other cases
investor
bartender
carter
subscriber
defector
trainer
mason
lamplighter

NOT with nouns

together
apart
  1. Do not use without:
      an ignoramus
      tales
  2. In the formation of the word of the opposite meaning:
      foe
      misfortune
      adversary
  1. If there is or implies opposition:
      Not true, but a lie.
      Not a friend, but an enemy.
      Not happiness, but grief.

Remember:

negligence ignorant small
disbelief adversity slave
wretch underweight imperfection
undex stupid foe
don't know fury nonsense
bad weather slut disorder
a lack of

NOT with adjectives

together
apart
  1. Do not use without:
      inclement
      hated
  2. In the formation of the word of the opposite meaning:
      small
      good
  3. In the presence of words, it is very, very, extremely, extremely, utterly, completely, almost, partly, completely, extremely:
      extremely careless
      very bad
  1. If there is or implies opposition:
      Not big, but small.
      Not bad, but good.
      The river is shallow? The river is not small.
  2. If opposition is implied and negation is amplified, negate. pronouns and adverbs:
      far from true
      not at all joyful

Adjective suffixes

Suffixes -iv-, -ev-

-iv- under the stress -event without stress
nice
playful
rain
purple
Exceptions: gracious, holy fool

Suffixes -onk-, -enk-

-only after g, k, x - little - in other cases
highly thin
lightly
thin
little green
cheap
lukewarm

Suffixes -k-, -sk-

-to-
-sk-
  1. If the adjective has a short form:
      narrow - narrow
      cheeky - cheeky
  2. If an adjective is formed from a noun with a base on k, h, c (c and h turn into c):
      german german
      fisherman - fishing
      weaver
  1. In all other cases:
      sailor - sailor
      French - French
      hero - heroic

-Н-, -НН- in adjective suffixes

-N-
the rule example
Adj. Not derived from other parts of speech young
blue
zealous
Adj. with suffixes -an-, -yan-, -in- leather
silver
clay
chicken
Exceptions: glass, tin, wood
Adj., Arr. from non-invocative verbs at. with suff. -n- ,-- and not having hung of words loaded wagons
knitted sweater
fried carp
Exceptions: welcome, sacred, unforeseen, given, unheard of
-NN-
ADV., Formed from noun. with a base on -n using the suffix -n- lemon (lemon + n)
machine (machine + n)
Adj. with suffixes-enn, -on- cranberry
revolutionary
Exception: Windy
In the presence of consoles windless
lee

In the short adjectives -H-, -NH- are written in accordance with the full form

    Herbs are green (green).
    The road is long (long).
Connecting vowels O, E in complex words
O (after solid foundations) E (after the basics on the soft consonant, on the hissing and c)
hunting
centipede
circulation
biography
vegetable store
sheep breeding

Spelling complex nouns

  • Fused writing
    1. Difficult words with elements:
      auto- radio- bio
      air- a photo- zoo
      aero meteorological agro
      cycling strereo- neo-
      mono- electric micro-
      movie- hydro- macro-
    2. Compound words with the first verb part in -I:
      Adonis, daredevil.
      Exception: tumbleweed.
  • Hyphenated writing
    1. Difficult names, terms:
      dynamo, the prime minister.
    2. Composite names of political parties:
      anarcho-syndicalism
    3. Complicated units:
      gram calorie ton-kilometer.
      Exceptions: workday, labor time.
    Endings of adjectives
    • The unaccented endings of adjectives are checked by the question:
        About the book (what? Th, s) interesting.
        To a tree (what? Th, th) high.
        Shrub (what? Th, th, th) prickly.
    • In adjectives for s, s, s, s (fox, fox, fox, fox) in all forms except Him. and Win. cases of units h. m., before the end is written b:
      Fox, Fox, Fox, Fox, Fox.
    • In adjectives derived from the names of the months, b is preserved:
      April - April
      July - July
      September - September
      Exception: January - January
    Spelling complex adjectives
    together
    1. from complex essences:
      pedestrian
      locomotive
    2. from combinations of words:
      railway (railway)
      Old Russian (ancient Russian)
    3. in combination with the adverb:
      highly educated
      fleeting
    apart
    1. quality with add. shade:
      sweet and sour
      bitter salty
    2. shades of color:
      blue black
      milky white
      pale pink
    3. homogeneous adj (= and, but, not only):
      English-Russian
      electronic computing
    4. The first part ends in Iko:
      physical and mathematical

    Numeral

  • By meaning and grammatical
    • quantitative
        how much?
          five
          ten
    • ordinal
        which one?
          fifth
          tenth
  • By composition
    • simple
        three
        nine
        second
    • complicated
        fifty
        seventy
        two hundredth
    • compound
        twenty five
        thirty seventh
        fifty first
    Declination of numbers
    5-20, 30 40, 90, 100 50-80, 200-900 (skl. Both parts)
    I.p. five forty one hundred three hundred sixty
    Rp five forty hundred three hundred and sixty
    DP five forty hundred three hundred and sixty
    Vp five forty one hundred three hundred sixty
    Tp five forty hundred three hundred and sixty
    Pp (o) five (o) forty, one hundred (o) three hundred and sixty

    Declination of composite numbers

    For compound numerals denoting integers, all words of which they are composed lean.

    I.p. Nine hundred sixty five
    Rp Nine hundred and sixty five
    DP Nine hundred and sixty five
    Vp Nine hundred sixty five
    Tp Nine hundred and sixty five
    Pp (o) Nine hundred and sixty five

    Declination of fractional numerals

    3 - numerator: cardinal number
    -
    5 - denominator: ordinal number

    When declining fractional numerals, both parts change: the numerator is declined as an integer, and the denominator as an adjective in the plural.

    I.p. three sevenths
    Rp three seventh
    DP three seventh
    Vp three sevenths
    Tp three seventh
    Pp (o) three seventh

    Declination of collective numbers both-both

    husband cf. R. female R.
    I.p. both both
    Rd both both
    DP to both to both
    Vp both both
    Tp to both by both
    Pp (about) both (about) both
    base of both (both players) base of both- (both teams)

    Declination of numbers, one and a half and a half hundred

    I.p. Rp DP Vp Tp Pp
    one and a half husband cf. R. one and a half one and a half one and a half one and a half one and a half one and a half
    female R. one and a half one and a half
    a hundred and fifty a hundred and fifty one and a half hundred one and a half hundred a hundred and fifty one and a half hundred fifty and a half

    B at the end and in the middle of numbers

    B - the indicator of softness at the end of the word B - an indicator of softness in the middle of the word
    5-20, 30
    five fourteen twenty thirty
    50-80, 500-900 in the namet. and blames. cases
    seventy six hundred nine hundred

    Remember:

    • In the middle of L is not written
      fifteen
      sixteen
      seventeen
      eighteen
      nineteen
    Pronouns
    • Personal
        I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they.
    • Returnable
        myself
    • Interrogative
        Who? what? which one? whose? which the? how much?
    • Relative
        who, what, what, whose, which, how much, what.
    • Negative
        no one, nothing, no one, nothing, no, no one, few.
    • Possessive
        my, your, your, our, your, his, hers, theirs.
    • Indicative
        that, this, such, such, so much, this (obsolete.).
    • Certain
        all, everyone, everyone, himself, any, other.
    • Indefinite
        someone, something, some, some, some ...
    Spelling indefinite pronouns
    together: not + pronoun hyphenated: priest. some, suff. anybody anybody
    someone, something, some someone, something, somebody, somebody, somebody, some

    NOT-, NO- in negative pronouns

    • Un- stressed
        one
        there is nothing
        nowhere
        there is nobody
        no need
    • NOR without stress
        no one
        nothing
        nowhere
        to no one
        no way
    • without preposition
        there is nobody
        no one
        nothing
        nothing
    • separately with a preposition
        no one
        no one
        about nothing
        never
    Conjugation of verbs

    Verb conjugation is determined by the indefinite form.

    II Ref. I Ref.
    all verbs are na (except 3 exceptions) verbs to shave, lay
    7 verbs na: watch, see, hate, tolerate, offend, turn, depend all verbs are na (except 7 exceptions)
    4 verbs na -at: drive, hold, hear, breathe all verbs are na-tat (except 4 exceptions)
    all other verbs in -ot, -to, etc.

    Present verb conjugation

    Face I Ref. II Ref.
    Unit h Mn h Unit h Mn h
    1st s -eat s -them
    2nd -you eat are you you -ite
    3rd no -out -it - at

    Features of conjugation of some verbs:

    1. From the verb to defeat the 1st person numbers are not formed.
    2. 1st and 2nd person units and many others part vr. from the verb to be not used.
    3. Separate verbs to want, run, dodge:
      wants, wants - by I right ..;
      want, want, want - by II sp .;
      run, run, run, run - II right;
      run - on I spr .;
      drear — I spr .;
      are dawning - II Ref.
    The use of b in verb forms

    The letter b is written:

    • unspecified:
        wash - wash
        take care - be careful
    • at the end of the 2nd person unit including:
        you rejoice - you rejoice
    • in the imperative after consonants:
        suspension - weigh
    • in the return particle (suffix) after the vowel:
        learn
        come back
        disappeared
    Vowels in unstressed suffixes of the verbs -ow- (-ev-), -vyva- (-iva-)
    -ow- (-ev-),
    if in the 1st l. units present or bud. vr. th
    - Say - (- vy-),
    if in the 1st l. units present or bud. vr. I say
    (i) talk (1 l. ed. n.v.) - talk - talked;
    (i) to regrind (1 l. ed. n.v.) - to regale - to regale;
    (i) at war (1 l. unit n. n.) - to fight - fought;
    I insist (1 l. ed. n.v.) - insist - insisted:
    I examine (1 l. ed. n.v.) - examine - examined;
    I am late (1 l. of unit n. n.) - late - was late.

    Communion as a special form of the verb

    which one? which one which one? what kind?

    Signs of the adjective Verb Signs
    • denotes a feature item
    • varies by gender, number, case, consistent with the designated noun
    • transitivity and intransigence of action
    • perfect and imperfect view
    • present and past tense

    Declension of participles

    adjectives end of participles
    I.p. good boy boy reading
    Rp good boy reading boy
    DP good boy reading boy
    Vp good boy reading boy
    Tp good boy reading boy
    Pp (o) good boy (o) reading boy

    Effective and Passive Sacraments

    • valid participles indicate the sign of the object that itself produces the action:
        The sun is heating the earth.
    • passive participles signify a sign of a subject that does not experience the effect of another object:
        Earth, heated by the sun.
    Actual present participles
    stem verb n.vr. uncom. view + -usch- (-ch-) I Ref.
    -Arrying- (-having-) II Ref.
    cry (I Ref.) -> cry + -usch- -> crying
    neop f. verb n vr. uncom. kind of
    to love (I) -> love + -yach- -> loving
    neop f. verb n vr. uncom. kind of

    Valid past participles

    stem verb neop. f. + -vsh- (from verbs with a vowel stem)
    -sh- (from verbs with stem to consonant, to -ti and -h, alternating with g, k)
    to withstand + -shsh- -> endured
    see who saw
    carry + -sh- -> carried
    to captivate fascinated

    Suffering present participles

    stem verb n.vr. uncom. view + -I- I Ref.
    -im- II spr.
    read (I Ref.) -> reads + it -> loving
    neop f. verb
    be in love -> likes + -im- -> favourite
    neop f. verb
    Exception: driven (from the old verb move)

    Suffering past participles

    stem verb neop. f. + -ann, -ann- (from verbs to -at-, -at-)
    -enn- (he has verbs on -e, -it, -ty, whose)
    -t-
    specify + -ann- -> specified
    to venture + -yan- -> started
    see + -enn- -> seen
    to hurt + -enn- -> wounded
    take out + -enn- -> exported
    to appease + -t- -> clever

    Participial

    full communion + dependent word

    The book, written by a famous writer , out of print.
    A book written by a famous writer is out of print.

    NOT with participles

    together apart
    1. Without NOT not used:
        hated
        indignant
    2. With full participles without dependent words and oppositions:
        unread book
    3. With words absolutely, very, extremely, extremely, completely (= very):
        completely ill-conceived decision
    1. With brief participles:
        work is not finished
    2. With full participles in the presence of dependent words or opposition:
        book I have not read
        not read, but only viewed book
    3. With reinforcing the denial of places.
        unwarranted deed

    -Н-, -НН- in suffixes of participles and verbal adjectives

    -N- -NN-
    1. If there are no prefixes (except for non-), the suffix -owa- (-eva-) will explain. Words ::
        painted floor
        wounded fighter
      Exceptions:
        slow
        desired,
        sacred,
        unheard of
        unexpected and others
    2. In brief suffering. participles:
        fighter wounded
        dictation written
    1. In the presence of consoles (except non-):
        made up
        hurt
        broken
      Exceptions:
        clever
        planted
        named
    2. If there are explanatory words:
        their painted floor
        bullet wounded fighter
    3. In the words for-hand (-even):
        marinated
        arrested
      Exceptions:
        chewed
        forged
    4. Formed from verbs committed. view:
        bought
        decided

    Vowels before -N-, -НН- in participles and verbal adjectives

    and I -ann- (-yan-) in the verbs na -at hold up
    e -enn- in verbs on -t view - viewed
    buy - bought

    The verbal adverb as a special form of the verb

    What are you doing? What do you do?
    Verb Signs Signs of adverbs
    1. Perfect and imperfect view.
    2. Transitivity and intransigence of action.
    3. Manages dependent words.
    1. Does not change (does not bend, does not conjugate).
    2. Not consistent, not controlled.
    3. In a sentence is a circumstance.
    NOT with participles
    Slitno Apart
    Without NOT not used:
    hating
    indignantly
    In other cases:
    leisurely

    Participial turnover

    Verbal adverb + Dependent word

    Singing the song to the end , the wounded began to sing it first.
    The dove, seeing the children , flew up.
    He wrote something with his head bowed .

    Germs of imperfect form

    What are you doing?
    The basis of the verb n.vr. uncom. kind of + -and I)
    sparkle - sparkling
    rattle - rattling
    knock - knock
    Verbal adverb. species are not derived from verbs:
    1. with the basis consisting of one consonants:
        sew, pour, tight, weave;
    2. with basis on g, to:
        run, flow;
    3. with the basis of the present tense on hissing and with the basis of the neopr. Forms on z, s, st, x:
        smeared - smeared.
    Perfect participle
    What do you do?
    basis neopr. f. perfect verb + -in
    shih
    -and I)
    to walk + -at -> having walked
    receive -at having received
    come back - all returning
    run out -shi expired
    get wet -at getting wet
    -shi blotter
    will see -I seeing

    Adverb

    Questions answered by adverbs Value of adverbs Examples
    How? How? modus operandi Quickly, slowly, firmly, well, in a good way, out loud, by heart, on foot, in any way, ...
    When? Since when? How long? How long? of time Today, tomorrow, morning, soon, now, long ago, in winter, ...
    Where? Where? From where places Above, below, right, left, everywhere, from afar, close, behind, ...
    Why? From what? the reasons In the heat of the moment, blindly, from evil, casual, unwillingly, therefore, therefore.
    What for? For what purpose? For what? goals Deliberately, out of spite, no need, then why.
    How many? In what time? How much? In what degree? To what extent? measures and degrees Very, enough, very, too, full, completely, barely, almost, twice, ...

    Degrees of Adverbs Comparison

    comparative
    simple compound
    -she, -s, -she adverb + more / less
    interesting -> more interesting
    clean -> cleaner
    good -> better
    more interesting
    less interesting
    Superior degree
    comparative + pronoun "all"

    Spelling vowels at the end of adverbs

    OH after sizzling adverbs in suffixes
    Oh under the stress E without stress
    hot, fresh awkwardly
    Exception: else
    -o---- at the end of adverbs
    --- after hard. according - after soft according to
    long sincerely
    about - and (-) at the end of adverbs
    a - i with prefixes iz-, do-, -c about with prefixes in-, on,
    occasionally dry on the left left, right, again

    B at the end of adverbs
    After sizzling at the end of adverbs is written:
    away, gallop, sleepy, backhand.
    Exceptions: too, married, unbearable.

    -N-, -NN- in adverbs on -O (-E)

    H from adj. with H NN from adj. with NN
    wonderful -> wonderful
    careless -> carelessly
    absent -> absently
    scared -> scared

    NOT and NO in adverbs

    Un- stressed Without stress
    once
    nowhere
    nowhere
    nowhere
    no need
    never
    nowhere
    nowhere
    from nowhere
    no way
    not at all
    not at all

    Spelling of Adverbs with a Hyphen

    • Adverbs with prefixed by-by-him, -sk, -ki, -y
        differently
        to my mind
        in English
        like a wolf
      Exceptions:
        therefore, why, therefore.
    • Adverbs with the prefix in- (in-), derived from ordinal numerals
        First of all
        Secondly
        third
    • Adverbs with suffixes - or, somebody, the prefix something
        something
        anywhere
        somehow
        some people
    • Adverbs, formed by the repetition of words (same root or synonymous)
        barely
        exactly the same
        a little bit
        after all
        I'll do my best
    Slip writing adverbs
    • Prefix + adverb
        easily
        forever and ever
        day after tomorrow
        from outside
    • Prefixes on, in - + a combined numeral
        in two
        twice
        three
      BUT:
        two by three
    • Prefix + pronoun, full attachment (not starting with a vowel)
        in a draw
        however
        often
    • Prefix + short adjective
        dry
        all over
    • Prefix + noun, where the definition cannot be inserted between the prefix and the noun
        wade
        surreptitiously
    Separate writing of adverbs
    • The noun preserves some case forms.
        squatting
        abroad (abroad)
      BUT:
        inside out
        one by one
        hastily (not to haste)
    • Between exists. and the preposition can be inserted definition
        moderately (fully)
        galloping
        to death (to death)
    • Preposition B + creatures., Adj., Beginner. with a vowel
        hugging
        point blank
        in shock
    • Prepositions В, НА + noun in a sentence. case.
        but days
        to celebrate
        in the dark
    • Noun used in a figurative sense
        to pieces
    Service parts of speech
    • Pretext
      • Non-derivative prepositions
          without, in, before, for, for, from, to, on, above, about, about, from, on, under, before, at, about, with, at, through:
          from behind, from under, ...
      • Derivative prepositions
        • adverbial prepositions
            near, inside, around, around, ...
        • callous prepositions
            in consequence of, during, by, in continuation, ...
        • verbal prepositions
            thanks, including, ex, later, starting from (c), ...
    • Union
    • Particle
    1. Do not change.
    2. Do not have independent lexical meaning.
    3. Not members of the proposal.
    Spelling of prepositions
    hyphenated due to
    from under
    over
    according to
    together in view of (= by reason)
    due to (= due)
    like, like (= like)
    about (= o)
    instead
    inside
    following
    to meet
    in excess of
    despite)
    apart
    in business by virtue of
    in the area of in terms of
    in a relationship as
    in moderation about
    during because of
    in continuation as
    in contrast with the exception of
    Finally due to
    due in order to
    remember during

    Unions

    • Writing
      • Connecting
          and, yes (= and), not only ... but also, also, and ... and, neither ... nor, both ... and
      • Nasty
          a, yes (= but), but, but, however, however, still
      • Dividing
          or, or ... or, or, or ... or, then ... then, or ... whether, not that ... not that
    • Subordinate
      • Explanatory
          what, so, how, ...
      • Temporary
          when, only, barely, ...
      • Targeted
          so that, so that ...
      • Conditional
          if, if that ...
      • Conciliatory
          although, at least, let ...
      • Comparative
          as if
      • Causal
          so how so ...
      • Consequences
          so that


    Spelling of Unions

    together apart
    to (= to)
    also, also (= and)
    because of
    because
    why
    so (= therefore)
    but (= but)
    where
    besides
    so
    what for
    then
    BUT: so syak and so on
    for now
    almost
    wherein
    as if
    whereas
    so that
    not that - not that
    i.e
    because of
    because
    though

    Particle discharges

    • Modal particles
      • Interrogative:
          do, really, perhaps;
      • exclamation points:
          how, what for;
      • restrictive:
          only;
      • index:
          here, out;
      • amplifying:
          nor, after all, after all, even;
      • clarifying
          precisely, just.
    • Shaping particles
        (for the formation of conditional inclination):
        let, let, yes, come on (for the formation of a command, mood):
        happened, it was (for the formation of special forms of the past tense).
    • Negative particles
        not
        neither
    Spelling particles
    • Hyphenated:
        something
        -or,
        someday
        -ka,
        -ku,
        -with,
        -de,
        some- (coy-)
        - like that (after adverbs, verbs and with words, after all, still)
    • Apart:
        same (g)
        would (b)
        li
        as if
        they say
        as if
        post what
        after some excuse follows (with someone)
        after all
        supposedly
    • Remember:
        in the same way, the same, the same, all the same, all the same, besides, this and that.
    Phrase
    main word
    +
    dependent words
    - question ->

    Link words in the phrase

    matching
    dependent + main


    gender
    which one

    the main street
    W., unit, I.P. = well, unit, I. p
    control
    dependent + main

    case
    what?

    read the letter
    (VP)
    contiguity
    dependent + main
    (adverb,
    infinitive,
    verbal adverb)

    meaning
    as?


    quietly whisper
    what?


    offer to enter
    as?


    speak smiling

    Types of offers

    • According to the purpose of the statement
        narrative
        interrogative
        incentive
    • By the presence of secondary members of the proposal
        common
        undistributed
    • According to the structure
        simple
        complicated
    • By composition
        two-part
        one-piece
    • By intonation
        exclamation points
        non-exclamatory
    • By the nature of the relationship to reality
        affirmative
        negative
    Types of predicate
    • Simple verb
      • Verb in the form of any mood:
          In the blue sky the stars shine t.
      • Phraseological combination:
          lost his temper
          beats baklushi
          became indignant
    • Compound verb
      • auxiliary verb + indefinite form of the verb
          Vladimir was getting very worried .
    • Compound noun
      • verb-bunch + noun
          The weather was good .
          The village, where Eugene missed, was a lovely corner .
    Dash between subject and predicate
    • Dash put
      • noun - noun
          The book is a source of knowledge.
      • numbers - numbers
          Five eight - forty.
      • Undecided f. the verb - neop. f. verb noun - Neopr. f. the verb f. the verb noun
          To live is to serve the motherland.
          Excellent position - to be a man.
      • before the words this, here it means it means
          The main thing is the desire to learn.
    • Dash is not put
      • personal pronoun noun
          He is a skeptic.
      • the predicate has a negation NOT
          Poverty is not a vice.
      • like, exactly like a predicate
          This garden is like a forest.
      • subject predicate predicate
          Kostya is now a student.


    Secondary members of the proposal

    • Addition - answers questions of indirect cases, designates a subject.
        The children talked (about what?) About animals.
    • Definition - answers to the questions what? whose ?, denotes the sign of the subject.
        We saw a rare (what?) Bird.
    • Circumstance - answer questions where? where? as? ..., denotes a sign of an action or other sign.
        Guests gathered (when?) The day before.
    Types of circumstances
    Types of circumstances Questions Examples
    Places Where? where? from where How far? appeared far away
    conducted to the station
    Time when? since when? How long? arrived the day before
    stayed till morning
    The reasons why? from what? delayed due to bad weather
    Goals what for? for what? to spite
    Action Image as? how? sailed fast
    Measures how many times? how much? how long? called twice
    Degrees to what extent? in what degree? quite surprised
    Conditions under what condition? learn if you wish
    Concessions in spite of what? against desire did not have time

    Types of mononuclear sentences

    • Main member - predicate
      • Definitely personal: the predicate is a verb in the form of a 1st or 2nd person unit. or many others numbers
          Waiting to hear from you.
      • Indefinitely personal: the predicate is a verb in the form of the 3rd l. mn present and bud. vr. and in the form of pl. past vr.
          Knock on the door.
      • Impersonal: with the predicate there is no subject.
          It's getting dark .
    • Main member - subject
      • Name: there is only subject.
          Quiet evening .
          Winter
    Features homogeneous sentence members

    Pines, birches, larch surrounded the glade.

    1. Answer one common question for them:
        what?
    2. Identical sentence members (members of the same name):
        subject to
    3. Refers to the same member clause:
        surrounded
    4. Equal to each other and interconnected by a writing link:
        pines (s)
        birch (s)
        larches
    Punctuation marks in sentences with homogeneous members
    Comma
    put
    1. Two or more homogeneous. tsp without alliances:
        (), (), ()
        Sounds grew, got stronger, spread.
    2. Homogeneous Members with recurring unions, and-and, no-no, yes, yes, or-or, or-or, then. not that:
        and (), and ()
        Both the coast and the sea were silent.
        Not the north, not the east.
    3. Between homogeneous. tsp with unions a but yes (= but):
        () but ()
        He grunted, but agreed.
    Comma not
    put
    1. Homogeneous members with one union and, or, or, yes (= and):
        () and ()
        Red and blue flowers.
    2. Inside the group odnordn. tel connected in pairs:
        {() and ()}, {() and ()}
        We collected herbs and berries, mushrooms and nuts.
    3. In whole terms:
        this and that
        neither this nor that
        no light
        this way and that
        both to and fro
        neither fish nor fowl
        neither dead nor alive

    Generic words with homogeneous sentences

    • Colon
      1. After summarizing the word before homogeneous members (sometimes words are put here somehow, namely, for example):
          {(*): (), (), ()}.
          Snow covered everything: trees and houses, and haystacks.
          {(*), somehow: (), (), ()}.
          {(*), namely: (), (), ()}.
          {(*), eg: (), (), ()}.
          I need some tools, for example: a hammer, a file, a hacksaw.
      2. Before listing odnord. members in business and academic speaking:
          Plenum decided:
            one)...
            2) ...
    • Dash
      1. After uniform. members before summarizing the word:
          {(), (), () - (*)}.
          The table, the chair, the chairs — everything was in disarray.
          {(), (), () - a word, (*)}.
          {(), (), () - in a word, (*)}.
          {(), (), () - shortly speaking, (*)}.
          A hammer, a file, a hacksaw — in a word, I need some tools.
      2. After homogeneity, members, if there is a generalizing word ahead of them, and the sentence is not finished:
          {(*): (), (), () - ...}.
          Everywhere: on trees, stacks, houses - there was snow.


    Main groups of introductory words

    • Different feelings of the speaker in connection with the message
        fortunately, unfortunately, fortunately, unfortunately, unfortunately ...
    • Assessment of the degree of reality of the message (confidence, opportunity, ...)
        of course, undoubtedly probably probably, it seems, ...
    • Source of the message
        they say, they say, according to, in my opinion, in the opinion ...
    • The connection of thoughts, the sequence of presentation
        so, therefore, first, finally, by the way ...
    • Design thoughts expressed
        in a word, in general, in other words, so to say, ...
    • Call to draw attention to the message
        see (whether), understand, please, let's say, let's say ...
    Remember:
    The introductory words are not members of the offer, in comma letter.

    Main types of complex sentences

    • Allied
      • Compound
      • Sophisticated
        • With accessory determinative
        • With adjectival adversarial
        • With clauses explanatory
          • time, place, mode of action, measure and degree, cause, purpose, comparative, conditions, assignment, effect, affiliation
    • Unionless
    Punctuation marks in complex sentences
    • Comma put
      • Between parts of a complex sentence connected by unions:
        and, yes (= and), neither ... nor;
        but, yes (= but), however, ...;
        or, either, whether ..., ...;
        yes, yes, and also;
        that is, namely.
          Lightning flashed and there was a thunderclap.
    • The comma is not put
      • Ate parts of a complex sentence have a common minor member:
          May rain is splashing and a thunderstorm will begin.
      • If there is a general clause:
          Barely dawn, we were awakened and we hit the road.
    Punctuation marks in complex sentence
    • Comma put
      • The clause is separated or separated by commas:
          We started when the sun rose.
      • Between homogeneous subordinate clauses, if they are not connected by constitutive unions:
          We thought he would be late, that we would not be able to say goodbye to him.
      • When using compound alliances because, because, due to the fact that, instead of, while, after:
          We sat on the corner of the bastion so that we could see everything in both directions.
    • The comma is not put
      • denial + union:
          He began to find out not what happened, but who did it.
      • The adverbial clause = one union word:
          He promised to return, but did not say when.
      • Before the subordinate union of the word in particular, that is, namely, especially:
          He was kinder, especially when he found out about what had happened.
      • Before a steady turn, as you please, by all means, as much as you like, as if nothing had happened, ...
    Complex sentence with multiple clauses
    • Consistent submission
      Ch. before - Coming. I st - come. II st.
        He reached the last flight of the stairs and saw that someone was sitting on the steps below the platform where his door opened.
    • Parallel submission
      Ch. before < Coming conditions
      Coming conditions
        If you see him tomorrow, ask him to come to me for a minute.
    • Uniform submission
      Ch. before < Coming clarified
      |
      Coming clarified
        Olenin knew that it was dangerous in the forest, that the abreks always lurked in these places.
    Punctuation in front of the union AS
    • Comma put
      • Comparative turnover:
          Her eyes glittered, green as gooseberries.
      • The introductory combination as usual, as always, as a rule:
          On the road, as always, we ran into a cafe.
      • Appendix with reasons. value:
          You, as the first love, will not forget the heart of Russia!
      • There is a correlation in the sentence. words so, such, that, so:
          Lyceum gave Russia such people as Pushkin, Pushchin, Delvig.
      • After both:
          Trees, like people, have their own destiny.
    • The comma is not put
      • Before the comparative turnover is not the words or absolutely, completely, almost, ...:
          The newspaper did not come out as usual.
      • Turnover in the composition of the predicate:
          There was a forest like a dream and snow like a dream.
      • Turnover = "in quality":
          Lensky everywhere was adopted as the bridegroom.
      • With a double union, both ... and ...:
          This topic has been touched both in poetry and prose.
      • A one-word turnaround answers questions like? how?
          He flew like a bird.
    Colon in a colon-less complex sentence
    • (): reason
        Love the book: it will help to understand the confusion of life.
    • (): explains
        The picture changed: the snow was standing, the wet earth was smoking.
    • (): complements
        Suddenly I feel: someone pulls me away.
    • (): direct question
        Tell me, the branch of Palestine, where did you grow, where did you bloom?
    Dash in the union-less complex sentence
    • () - ()
      quick change of events, unexpected result
        Cheese fell - with him was a cheat like that.
    • () - ()
      (a, but)
      opposition
        I have been serving for sixteen years - there was no such thing with me.
    • time, action condition - ()
        Wood chopping - chips fly.
    • () - result, output
      (so)
        Smoky sun rises - it will be a hot day.
    • () - ()
      (as if)
      comparison
        They say the word - the nightingale sings.
    Direct speech and words of the author
    Direct speech after the words of the author
    A: "P". The boy said, "I will come tonight."
    A: "P?" He asked: "What are you doing?"
    A: "P!" He resented: "What are you doing!"
    Direct speech before the words of the author
    "N", -a "I will come tonight," said the boy.
    "P?" -but "What are you doing?" - he asked.
    "P!" -but "What are you doing!" - he was indignant.
    Direct speech is interrupted by the words of the author.
    "F, -a, -p". "Go ahead," he said, "I will follow you."
    "P, -a. - P". "I will come tomorrow night," he said. "I will bring you a book."
    "P! (?) -A. - P". “What a wonderful person, isn't it?” Sasha exclaimed. “I did not see him sad.”
    Direct speech is inside the author's words
    A: "P", -a. He said: "I am very tired," and immediately fell silent.
    A: "P! (?)" -A. There was a voice: "Can I get you?" - and someone entered the room.
    A: "P ..." -a. Sergey says: "The wind would now blow ..." - and turned away.