The most difficult aerobatics
Pilotage (French pilotage) - spatial maneuvering of an aircraft, aimed at defeating the enemy or performing figures in the air.
The figure of aerobatics is the movement of an aircraft along a predetermined trajectory, while positions that are not characteristic of horizontal flight are assigned to it. Complexes are formed from individual figures, which are demonstrated at air shows and competitions.
It is customary to distinguish piloting according to the degree of difficulty into simple, complex and higher, by the number of participating aircraft - into single and group.
The division of aerobatics in complexity varies as aircraft improve. Many of the figures that are now referred to as aerobatics were previously considered aerobatics.
How: A plane lifts its nose up at zero speed, and then tilts it down, simulating the movement of the tongue of a bell. Hence the name of the figure.
When: The figure was first presented at the 1988 Farnborough Air Show in 1988. At the helm of the fourth-generation fighter MiG-29 sat test pilot Anatoly Kvochur.
Why: Initially, the bell was regarded as a maneuver in which the fighter becomes invisible to missiles with radar guidance on the target. Nowadays, this figure can be seen not in battle, but during the performances of the aerobatic teams Swifts, Russian Knights, and Rus.
How: A plane rotates around its horizontal axis 360 degrees. Depending on the number of revolutions, the barrel is single, one and a half and multiple.
When: American Daniel Maloney first performed the maneuver in 1905. During World War II, this figure saved more than one life.
Why: three times Hero of the Soviet Union Alexander Pokryshkin once watched the flight of inexperienced pilots. One of them decided to make a barrel, but at the same time he significantly lost speed and dived down. At this moment, the pilot flying after him jumped forward and the acrobat was on his tail. Pokryshkin and his colleagues dubbed the figure a "tub" and more than once used the technique in the fight against fascist aviation. Now the barrel is part of a set of figures, performed in competitions in aircraft sports.
How: A plane makes a combat turn - a half barrel at the top of a half loop.
When: for the first time, the figure was made on a Fokker E.III monoplane by the 25-year-old German Max Immelman in 1915 during the First World War. This maneuver allowed Immelman to be higher and behind the enemy aircraft, although they had previously been on the opposite courses. During the year of flights, Immelman shot down 15 enemy aircraft, and the British pilots, only seeing that the German took off, went to land.
Why: the figure of Immelman began to be taught in flight schools. And today it is included in the basic figures that all military pilots should be able to do.
How: Aircraft descends in a steep downward spiral of small radius.
When: At the beginning of the 20th century, a corkscrew was the main cause of the death of pilots. It was believed that it was impossible to get out of the corkscrew. But on September 24, 1916, pilot Konstantin Artseulov on a Newpor-XXI aircraft at an altitude of 2000 meters intentionally put the plane into a tailspin and left it. The next day, Artseulov submitted a report to the authorities of the Sevastopol Aviation School, in which he proposed to introduce a corkscrew into the training program.
Why: Nowadays, this once-deadly figure is practiced in all aviation educational institutions by screw machines, it is included in the regulations of aircraft sports competitions. However, in Russia, the execution of a corkscrew on jet fighters is prohibited for security reasons, they only perform a flat corkscrew. Despite the fact that they learned how to deal with a corkscrew, it still kills lives.
How: A figure in which an aircraft at low speed rotates around its tail, forming a dead loop with a very small turning radius.
When: First shown to the public on a Su-37 fighter by Eugene Frolov in 1995 at the Le Bourget air show.
Why: The figure is named after an ancient Indian weapon, which is a ring with a cutting inner edge. The Frolov Chakra can only be performed on airplanes with a variable thrust vector. The figure was not used during the air battle. It is demonstrated during demonstrations at exhibitions and aviation festivals, proving the aerodynamic perfection of Russian fighters of generation 4+.
How: A plane with a candle goes up, hangs in the air and, turning its nose to the ground, goes down.
When: It is believed that the figure was first performed by a German pilot, world champion in aerobatics and aircraft designer Gerhard Fieseler in the late 1920s.
Why: The use of this figure during an air battle is tantamount to signing a death sentence on oneself. A plane hovering in the air becomes an ideal target for the enemy. But during the demonstration flights, the vertical rotation causes a stir among the audience, since it looks very impressive. This figure is part of a set of exercises in air sports, but jet fighters do not perform it.
How: A figure in which the nose of the aircraft rises 110 degrees on the Su-27, (on the Su-37 - up to 180 degrees) in relation to the direction of movement, and then lowers back.
When: It was first performed in a test flight by the honored pilot of the USSR Igor Volk. Victor Pugachev demonstrated the cobra to the general public at the international salon in French Le Bourget in 1989. When the Su-27 fighter of a Russian pilot sharply lifted his nose, the organizers of the air show decided that there was a malfunction in the system and the aircraft would now crash. But the plane did not break into a tailspin, but flew in the same direction. Pugachev received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union for mastering new technology, and the figure, despite being invented by another pilot, received the name of the first demonstrator.
Why: The maneuver is suitable for avoiding not only the enemy fighter, but also missiles with infrared homing heads. However, the cobra has not yet been used in battle.
How: A figure is made in much the same way as a hammerhead, but not with a hover, but with a turn on a hill (aerobatic figure when the plane gains altitude with a constant angle of inclination).
When: Presumably, a rollover (as the name of the figure is translated from French), or a turn on a hill (under this name the figure is known in Russia), appeared in the 1930s. The difference between the ranversman and the hammerhead maneuvers is that the plane leaves the enemy, heading in the opposite direction, not strictly vertically, but at an angle of 50-60 °, to the hill.
Why: Those pilots who could handle this complex figure gained an advantage in battle. After all, it can be used for attacking and counterattacking; it allows you to quickly change the direction of flight without losing altitude.