The most difficult aerobatics figures
Pilotage is the spatial maneuvering of an aircraft with the aim of defeating the enemy or performing figures in the air.
The figure of aerobatics is usually called the movement of an aircraft according to a predetermined trajectory, and positions assigned to it that are not characteristic of a horizontal flight are called. Of the individual figures are formed complexes that are demonstrated at the air show and competitions.
Pilotage is usually distinguished in complexity by simple, complex and superior, in terms of the number of participating aircraft - single and group.
The division of aerobatics in terms of complexity varies as the aircrafts are improved. Many figures, which are now referred to as simple aerobatics, were previously considered aerobatics.
The Kvochur Bell
As: The plane raises its nose up at zero speed, and then tilts it down, simulating the movement of the bell tongue. Hence the name of the figure.
When: The figure was first introduced in 1988 at the air show in Farnborough, England. Anatoly Kvochur, test pilot, was sitting at the helm of the fourth generation MiG-29 fighter.
Why: Initially, the bell was regarded as a maneuver, in which the fighter becomes invisible to missiles with radar guidance on the target. Nowadays this figure can be seen not in battles, but during the performances of aerobatic teams "Swifts", "Russian Knights", "Rus".
As: The plane rotates around its horizontal axis by 360 degrees. Depending on the number of revolutions, the barrel is single, one-and-a-half and multiple.
When: the first time maneuver American Daniel Maloney in 1905. During the Second World War, this figure saved not one life.
Why: three times Hero of the Soviet Union Alexander Pokryshkin once observed the flight of inexperienced pilots. One of them decided to make a barrel, but at the same time he lost much speed and dived down. At this moment, the pilot flying behind him slipped forward and the acrobat was on his tail. Pokryshkin and his colleagues dubbed the figure "kadushkoe" and more than once used the method in the fight against aviation fascists. Now the barrel is included in the complex of figures performed in competitions in air sports.
As: The airplane makes a combat turn-half-roll on the top of the half-loop.
When: for the first time the figure was performed on the monoplane "Fokker E.III" by 25-year-old German Max Immelman in 1915 during the First World War. This maneuver allowed Immelman to be higher and behind the enemy aircraft, although they had previously been on a collision course. During the year of flights, Immelman shot down 15 enemy aircraft, and the English pilots only when they saw that the German had flown into the air, went to land.
Why: the figure of Immelman began to teach in flight schools. And today it is included in the basic figures, which all military pilots should be able to do.
As: The airplane descends along a steep downward spiral of a small radius.
When: At the beginning of the 20th century, the corkscrew was the main cause of the death of the pilots. It was believed that you can not get out of the corkscrew. But on September 24, 1916, pilot Konstantin Artseulov on the plane "Newport-XXI" at an altitude of 2000 meters intentionally entered the plane into a tailspin and left it. The next day, Artseulov submitted a report to the heads of the Sevastopol Aviation School, in which he proposed to introduce a tailspin into the training program.
Why: In our days this once deadly figure is practiced in all aviation schools on screw machines, it is included in the rules of the competition in airplane sport. However, in Russia, the execution of a spin on jet fighters is prohibited for security reasons, they perform only a flat spin. Despite the fact that they learned to fight with a corkscrew, it still takes lives to this day.
As: Figure, in which the aircraft at low speed turns around its tail, forming a dead loop with a very small turning radius.
When: First shown to the public on the Su-37 fighter Yevgeny Frolov in 1995 at the air show in Le Bourget.
Why: The figure is named after the ancient Indian weapon, which is a ring with a cutting inner edge. The Frolov chakra can only be performed on aircraft with a variable thrust vector. The figure was not used during the air battle. It is demonstrated during demonstration performances at exhibitions and aviation festivals, proving the aerodynamic perfection of the F-4 fighters of the generation.
As: The plane flies up with a candle, hangs in the air and, turning its nose to the ground, goes down.
When: There is an opinion that the figure was first performed by a German pilot, world aerobatics champion and aircraft designer Gerhard Fiseler in the late 1920s.
Why: The use of this figure during an air battle is tantamount to signing yourself a death sentence. The airplane hanging in the air becomes an ideal target for the enemy. But during the demonstration flights the turn on the vertical causes an agiotage among the spectators, because it looks very impressive. This figure is part of the complex exercises in air sports, but jet fighters do not comply with it.
The figure of Pugachev
As: Figure, in which the nose of the aircraft rises 110 degrees on the Su-27, (on the Su-37 - up to 180 degrees) in relation to the direction of motion, and then falls back.
When: For the first time it was performed in the test flight by the deserved pilot of the USSR Igor Volk. The cobra was demonstrated to the public by Victor Pugachev at the international salon in Le Bourget in France in 1989. When the Su-27 fighter Russian pilot flared his nose, the organizers of the air show decided that there was a failure in the system and the aircraft will now fall. But the plane did not fall into a tailspin, but flew in the same direction. Pugachev received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union for mastering new technology, and the figure, despite being invented by another pilot, received the name of the first demonstrator.
Why: The maneuver is suitable for leaving not only from the enemy fighter, but also from missiles with infrared homing heads. Nevertheless, the cobra was not used in battle yet.
As: The figure is made approximately the same as the Hammerhead, but not with a hang, but with a turn on the hill (a figure of aerobatics, when the aircraft is gaining altitude with a constant angle of inclination).
When: Presumably, rollover (as the name of the figure is translated from French), or a turn on the hill (this figure is known in Russia), appeared in the 1930s. The difference between the maneuvers ranversman and Hammerhead is that the aircraft departs from the enemy, which is oncoming course, not strictly vertically, but at an angle of 50-60 °, to the hill.
Why: Those pilots who could cope with this complex figure, got the advantage in combat. After all, it can be used for attacking and counter-attacking actions, it allows you to quickly change the direction of flight without losing altitude.