The most complex aerobatics
Pilotage (fr. Pilotage) - spatial maneuvering of the aircraft, with the aim of defeating the enemy or performing figures in the air.
It is accepted to call the flight movement of an aircraft along a predetermined trajectory, while it is given positions that are not inherent to horizontal flight. Of the individual figures are formed complexes, which are shown at airshows and competitions.
It is accepted to distinguish pilotage by degree of complexity on simple, complex and highest, by the number of participating aircraft - on single and group.
The division of aerobatic maneuvers in terms of complexity changes as aircraft are improved. Many of the figures, which are now referred to as simple aerobatics, used to be considered aerobatics.
How: An airplane raises its nose upwards at zero speed, after which it tilts it down, imitating the movement of the bell tongue. Hence the name of the figure.
When: The figure was first introduced in 1988 at the air show in Farnborough, England. At the helm of a fourth-generation fighter, the MiG-29 was test pilot Anatoly Kvochur.
Why: Initially, the bell was regarded as a maneuver, in which the fighter becomes invisible to the missiles with radar targeting. Nowadays, this figure can be seen not in battles, but during the performances of the Strizhi, Russian Knights, and Rus aerobatic teams.
How: The plane rotates around its horizontal axis 360 degrees. Depending on the number of revolutions, the barrel can be single, one-and-a-half and multiple.
When: the first maneuver was performed by American Daniel Maloney in 1905. During World War II, this figure saved not one life.
Why: Three times the Hero of the Soviet Union, Alexander Pokryshkin, once observed the flight of inexperienced pilots. One of them decided to make a barrel, but at the same time he lost speed considerably and dived down. At this moment the pilot flying behind him jumped forward and the acrobat was on his tail. Pokryshkin and his colleagues christened the figure “Kadushka” and more than once used the technique in the fight against the Nazi air force. Now the barrel is part of a complex of figures performed at competitions in aircraft sports.
How: The plane makes a combat reversal - a half-a-half in the upper part of the half-loop.
When: for the first time the figure was made on the Fokker E.III monoplane by a 25-year-old German Max Immelmann in 1915 during the First World War. This maneuver allowed Immelman to be above and behind the enemy plane, although they had been on a collision course before. During the year of the flight, Immelman shot down 15 enemy aircraft, and the British pilots, only seeing that the German took off, went to land.
Why: Immelman figure began to be taught in flight schools. And today it is included in the basic figures that all military pilots should be able to do.
How: The plane descends along a steep downward spiral of a small radius.
When: At the beginning of the 20th century, corkscrew was the main cause of death of pilots. It was believed that you can not get out of the corkscrew. But on September 24, 1916, pilot Konstantin Artseulov aboard the Newport-XXI aircraft at an altitude of 2000 meters deliberately put the plane into a tailspin and left it. The next day, Artseulov filed a report to the head of the Sevastopol aviation school, in which he proposed to introduce a corkscrew into the curriculum.
Why: Nowadays, this once deadly figure is worked out in all aviation educational institutions on screw machines, it is included in the regulations of the competition in aircraft sports. However, in Russia, the execution of a spin on jet fighters is prohibited for security reasons, they perform only a flat spin. Despite the fact that they learned how to fight with a corkscrew, it still takes lives.
How: A figure in which a plane at low speed turns around its tail, forming a dead loop with a very small turning radius.
When: First shown to the public on the Su-37 fighter Yevgeny Frolov in 1995 at the Le Bourget Air Show.
Why: The figure is named after the ancient Indian weapon, which is a ring with a cutting inner edge. Frolov Chakra can only be performed on aircraft with a variable thrust vector. The figure was not used during the air battle. It is demonstrated during demonstration performances at exhibitions and air shows, proving the aerodynamic perfection of Russian fighter jets 4+.
How: The plane of the candle goes up, hangs in the air and, turning its nose to the ground, goes down.
When: It is believed that the figure was first performed by a German pilot, world aerobatics champion and aircraft designer Gerhard Fizeler in the late 1920s.
Why: The use of this figure during an air battle is tantamount to signing a death sentence for himself. The plane, hovering in the air, becomes an ideal target for the enemy. But during the demonstration flights the turn on the vertical causes a stir among the audience, because it looks very impressive. This figure is part of a set of exercises in aircraft sports, but jet fighters do not perform it.
How: A figure in which the nose of the aircraft rises up to 110 degrees on the Su-27, (on the Su-37 - up to 180 degrees) in relation to the direction of motion, and then lowers back.
When: For the first time it was performed in test flight by the honored USSR pilot Igor Volk. Viktor Pugachev demonstrated the cobra at the international show in Le Bourget, France in 1989. When the Su-27 fighter of the Russian pilot sharply lifted his nose, the organizers of the airshow decided that there was a malfunction in the system and the aircraft would now fall. But the plane did not fall into a spin, but flew in the same direction. For the development of new technology, Pugachev received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, and the figure, despite being invented by another pilot, received the name of the first demonstrator.
Why: The maneuver is suitable for leaving not only from the enemy fighter, but also from missiles with infrared homing heads. However, the cobra has not yet been used in combat.
How: The figure is done in much the same way as the Hammerhead, but not with a hang, but with a turn on the hill (an aerobatic display, when the plane gains altitude with a constant angle of inclination).
When: Presumably, rollover (the name of the figure is translated from French), or a turn on a slide (under this name, the figure is known in Russia), appeared in the 1930s. The difference between the ranversman and the Hammerhead maneuvers is that the plane leaves the enemy, heading in a head-on course, not strictly vertical, but at an angle of 50–60 °, on the hill.
Why: Those pilots who could cope with this complex figure, gained an advantage in battle. After all, it can be used for attacking and counterattacking actions, it allows you to quickly change the direction of flight without losing altitude.