Fish diseases and diseases
The organism of fish, like the organisms of all other living creatures, has a certain power of resistance to pathogens, for example, parasites. But if for some reason the fish is weakened or, conversely, the pathogens have become stronger due to some circumstances, then the disease may appear. To prevent fish diseases, as always, is better than adding chemicals to water, even controlling (more or less) this process. In the aquarium should not work on the principle of watering can for watering flowers! You will not swallow the medicine if you have a neighbor or someone in your family is sick? But in aquarism it often turns out that all inhabitants of a domestic pond are constantly under the influence of drugs (most often antibiotics!), And only because any single fish seems unhealthy. Well, the fish do not know how to speak ... Here is one example. If bacterial inflammation is suspected after being bitten, antibacterial agents are often added to the water “for prevention” (after all, they can only be used in a separate tank). Yes, at the same time the bacteria that excite, possibly, the inflammatory process die. But at the same time, all other bacteria are also destroyed — those contained in the soil, or, for example, those that are involved in the so-called nitrification (oxidation of ammonia through nitrites to nitrates). The best and most effective way to avoid illness is to monitor biological purity, the right temperature and water readings. Fill the aquarium with soil, plant the plants, but wait a week or so (!) And do not run fish into it until a sufficient amount of bacteria that convert harmful substances is formed in the soil and in the filter. Without a developed bacterial fauna in the aquarium, the concentration of poisons (ammonia, nitrite) quickly increases; gradually remove them by partial replacement of water. At the same time it is necessary to constantly check the content of nitrite in the water. Fresh water should be mixed (!) In the aquarium to absorb as much oxygen as possible. If, despite careful adherence to these tips, your fish get sick, then you first need to seriously investigate the symptoms. Therapeutic intervention is possible only when diagnosed. Special tables contain information on the most common diseases of fish, their symptoms and methods of treatment.
It is better to prevent the disease than to treat it.
The following are the phenomena and factors that may affect the well-being of fish and possibly contribute to diseases. The best way to combat these diseases is to prevent them.
1. Hunger and emaciation. Both that, and another easily can lead to infectious damages of covers; fish are again affected by the fungus (Saprolegnia).
2. Poor and inappropriate feed. Easily leads to diseases of the stomach and intestines. If the food is too fat, it can lead to intestinal obesity. If the food is too monotonous and poor in vitamins, it can cause a general weakening and degeneration of the liver. Pisces will not harm some temperance. This is the same as with people: it is better to be hungry and vigorous than full and sluggish.
3. Temperature too low. Fish can also catch a cold. The consequence of hypothermia is most often inflammation of the swim bladder, and thus - a decrease in the body’s resistance. Unexpected and abrupt temperature changes and arbitrary fish transport should be avoided.
4. Lack of oxygen. Most often makes fish breathe heavily and thus weakens them.
5. Water too soft or pH too low. Not every fish tolerates an unusually low pH well, although it is recommended for some species (red neon, discus, etc.). Fish (like other viviparous), if they live in the coastal zone, do not tolerate particularly soft water, or too low pH. The latter causes them to "acid disease".
6. Too strong solar radiation. Fortunately, modern lamps mounted in the top cover now help to avoid the common
errors: installation of an aquarium on the windowsill. Due to increased sun exposure, as well as the concomitant increase in pH up to 10 or more, burns on the skin and fins are possible (alkaline disease).
7. Wounds due to contact with devices or biting neighbors. Lead to fungal infection or bacterial infection of wounds. It is necessary to think over the selection of fish in the aquarium beforehand.
8. Bad insulation. If unsuitable products (metals, glue, paint, hoses) were used in the manufacture or repair of the aquarium at home, this can lead to poisoning.
9. Harmful gases. Furnace gas, factory emissions, tobacco smoke, etc., are drawn in by an air pump and enter the aquarium water. They are harmful or even deadly to fish. Therefore, it is recommended between the pump or the flow filter to turn on the air filter (with filter carbon) or to take in air outdoors.
Disease fish. Diagnosis and therapy
In addition to numerous diseases. which can be prevented by the preventive measures mentioned above, there are, unfortunately, others; but an aquarist can successfully treat them too. It is about the defeat of external parasites. It is very difficult to cure internal fish diseases, because they are usually recognized too late. In case of doubt, you should quickly hit the glass of avkarium: if the fish is healthy, then it will rush down. And the sick fish swims slowly, with oscillating movements. If the fish rises up without moving the fins, or hardly rises from the bottom, then this also indicates a disease. The same applies to fish that hold directly below the surface of the water and swim away only if you touch them with your hand. Our table gives a list of the most common diseases and diagnoses.
|Main indications||Individual symptoms|
|Reduction to the bottom||dropsy, cold, swim bladder inflammation|
|Fin necrosis||intestinal inflammation, common cold, fin rot, gas embolism, clouding of the skin, ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease, oodinia, parasitic lesion, swim bladder inflammation, poisoning, constipation|
|Rejection of food||intestinal inflammation, common cold, fish tuberculosis, gas embolism, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, spironulosis, oodinia, parasitic lesions, poisoning, constipation||dropsy, fin rot, ichthyophthiriasis, neon disease|
|Jumps on the bottom||dropsy, intestinal inflammation, common cold, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, swim bladder inflammation||neon disease, constipation|
|Cramps||gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning|
|Spasmodic motion||dropsy, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthiriasis, oodiniosis, parasitic lesions, swim bladder inflammation||clouding of the skin, constipation|
|Shiver||edema, common cold, fish tuberculosis, fin rot, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthiriasis, odinosis, parasitic lesion, swimming bladder inflammation, poisoning|
|Friction about stones, etc.||clouding of the skin, ichthyophthiriasis, carp lice, oodiniosis, parasite damage|
|Greedy swallowing air||gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning||clouding of the skin, parasitic damage|
|Violation of motor coordination||fish tuberculosis, glucose, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, spironucleosis, inflammation of the swim bladder, poisoning|
|Anxiety, apathy||gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning||clouding of the skin|
|Changes in appearance|
|Emaciation||intestinal inflammation, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease, spironulosis||Glugeosis, Oodiniosis|
|Bloating||dropsy, swim bladder inflammation||cold, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease|
|Deformation of body areas||dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease||fin rot|
|Scaling the scales||dropsy, ichthyosporidosis||neon disease|
|Scalls||dropsy||fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis|
|Redness of the anus||dropsy, intestinal inflammation, spironulosis||cold|
|Bluish-white spots||fish tuberculosis, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, parasites||cold|
|Focal hemorrhage||dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, spironulosis, parasites||clouding of the skin, ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease|
|Color changing spots||fish tuberculosis, glucose, neon disease|
|Subcutaneous gas bubbles||gas embolism|
|Ulcers||dropsy, fish tuberculosis, glucose, ichthyosporidosis, spironulosis|
|Sores, rashes on the body||ichthyosporidosis|
|Exfoliation of the skin||alkaline disease, oodinia, parasitic||clouding of the skin|
|Whitish beads or bumps||lymphocystis|
|Dark spots||clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, defeat by parasites|
|Felt patina||clouding of the skin, saprolegniosis|
|Mucous darkening||fin rot, ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease, parasites, saprolegnosis||clouding of the skin|
|Pasting fins||clouding of the skin, parasitic damage|
|Whitening the edge of the fins||lymphocystis, parasitic||fin rot|
|Fracture destruction||fish tuberculosis, fin rot, clouding of the skin, ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease, odinosis, parasitic injury|
|Diving gills||defeat by parasites|
|Swelling, inflammation||alkaline disease, parasitic poisoning, poisoning||clouding of the skin|
|Bluish white tarnish||clouding of the skin, parasitic damage|
|Whitening||ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease, parasitic injury|
|Nodules||ichthyophthiriasis||defeat by parasites|
|Worm spots||defeat by parasites|
|Tweezers||dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, constipation|
|Points and specks||ichthyophthiriasis|
|Tarnish||ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthiriasis, oodiniosis||defeat by parasites|
|Surface destruction||ichthyophthiriasis, oodiniosis, parasitic injury|
Even very weak symptoms should be taken seriously. It is necessary to try to begin treatment by increasing the body's resistance to the fish: it must be isolated and provide favorable water and temperature conditions, as well as food, which means: do not overfeed or overheat. Both the individual tank and the aquarium from which the fish was removed must be carefully monitored. To strengthen the body's resistance to fish, vitamin preparations can be added to food. But if her condition worsens, then you need to take the next step, to begin treatment. The first step is to make a short or long bath. Further, according to the directions on the package, fish should be treated in its quarantine vessel. And please, never exceed the specified dose of “best intentions” - this can lead to the early death of the fish.
Fish pests and methods to combat them
Along with live food, dangerous pests often get into the aquarium, which causes great trouble to its owner and forces him to take radical measures, so the aquarist should know the enemies of the fish and how to deal with them.
Argulus (scientific name) - the most unpleasant "guests" of the aquarium. These include the branch beetles, commonly referred to as fish louse, or carp. Crustaceans feed on the blood of fish, parasitizing on their skin. They are quite large, reach 4-8 mm in length and, most importantly, have a broad, sheet-like (oblate) translucent body, painted in greenish-yellow or grayish-green color, which is why they are hardly visible on the body of the fish. The head of the parasite is equipped with attachment organs with curved hooks, sucking proboscis, suction-visible organs, four pairs of swimming legs, two faceted eyes. They are very mobile, easily separated from the fish and freely swim in the water with the help of swimming legs. Possessing a positive reaction to light, the crustaceans and their larvae tend to the bright layers of water, where their development occurs faster. From eggs laid by the female to the ground, plants, stones, larvae appear. If the larvae, swimming freely in water for 2–3 days, do not meet fish, they die. Once on the fish, they grow so fast that in 15-18 days they reach sexual maturity and can lay eggs themselves.
Argulus are thermophilic and light-loving, therefore most often they get into an aquarium in a hot season with water, soil, vegetation, and live food from natural water bodies. Bringing them into the aquarium is a real disaster. Attached to the fish, the parasites pierce the skin with the proboscis and not only suck blood, but also inject into the wound the toxic secret of the poisonous gland. The wound site becomes inflamed, swollen, hemorrhage occurs, and in more severe cases, deep wounds form on the body of the fish. Destroying the skin, contribute to the penetration of microorganisms through wounds and the development of infectious diseases.
The fight against arguments is rather difficult and basically consists in their mechanical separation. Affected fish are placed in a wet swab and parasites are removed with thin tweezers. After that, the wound can be treated with a therapeutic solution (1 g of crystalline potassium permanganate per 1 l of water), for which a cotton swab wound around a match (without a sulfur head) and moistened in the indicated treatment solution is applied to the affected area. After that, the fish is immediately released into the non-contaminated aquarium.
The main methods of control are based on the knowledge of the nature of the development of the parasite. We recommend that you leave the aquarium without fish and raise the temperature to 26 ° C, it is good to light and keep it for a week. It is not necessary to catch food in hot time in reservoirs where fish live. It is very important to carefully review, sort the fodder caught and bought on the market.
Hydra. For the inhabitants of the aquarium, the massive development of dangerous representatives of the intestinal-simplest protozoa - hydr - can become quite unpleasant. Attached to the glasses of the aquarium, plants, other objects with a sole, the hydra attacks with stinging tentacles on the larvae and fry. Tentacles are equipped with stinging capsules containing thin threads with poison, which hydra paralyzes the victim, and then captures and absorbs. At the same time, the predator significantly increases in size. The body length of the hydra without tentacles reaches 1 cm. In larger fry, the hydra breaks the skin, opening access to infection. Hydra can multiply very quickly by budding. It is light-requiring, and you can see the accumulation of hydras in the brightly lit part of the glass of the aquarium.
Get rid of hydra is not easy. We can offer the easiest way - luring into the light, considering their positive phototaxis. A thin glass is placed in the water, which is pressed tightly to the glass of the aquarium. The aquarium is shaded and directs a beam of light to this glass. When the hydra accumulate in the illuminated area, the glass with them is removed, cleaning the animals from it. This method can not get rid of the hydra completely.
The use of ammonium sulfate [(NH4) 2SO] or ammonium nitrate (NHNO): ammonium sulfate is dissolved at the rate of 0.05 g of the preparation per liter of water and introduced into the general aquarium, since it is harmless to fish in these doses. Hydras should die within 3-5 days. Using ammonium nitrate, fry and young fish are removed from the aquarium, adult fish and hydras are intensively fed with two weeks daphnia. Hydra at this time actively reproduce. Then ammonium nitrate is added to the aquarium at the rate of 0.6-1 g of the preparation per 10 liters of water, dissolving the substance in 250-500 ml of water beforehand. For better mixing include aeration. The temperature is raised to 27-28 ° C and maintained until the end of the course of treatment. After three days, make the initial dose of the same concentration. Hydras should die on the 5-6th day. The water in the aquarium after the destruction of the hydra do not completely change. Ammonium nitrate is not harmful to fish in such concentrations, and even serves as a fertilizer for plants.
If there are no plants in the aquarium and you can temporarily remove the fish, use hydrogen peroxide at the rate of two teaspoons of a 3% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide per 10 liters of water. The estimated amount is diluted in 100-150 ml of water and introduced into the aquarium without fish and plants. The resulting free oxygen acts on the hydr destructively.
Two balls of copper wire (without insulation) can be placed at different ends of the aquarium. In water, copper begins to oxidize, and the resulting products have a detrimental effect on hydras, in which tentacles are lost (fall to the bottom of the aquarium, from where they are removed with a hose). After clearing the hydra wire is removed.
When using a solution of copper sulphate (0.05 g per 1 l of water), hydr death occurs within an hour, after another 3-4 h a partial cleaning and a complete replacement of water are performed. Fish during these operations are removed from the aquarium. Copper sulfate should be chemically pure or pure for analysis. Complicating this event is the complete replacement of water, that is, in fact, the re-creation of an aquarium. However, for spawning and rearing special aquariums, where there is no soil, plants are usually kept in pots or ditches (they are portable), water taken from large aquariums, diluting it with plumbing, this method is quite acceptable.
The method of dealing with hydra using electric current was tested and suggested by an aquarist E. Dotsenko from Kharkov. It lies in the fact that two beams of copper wire (without insulation), immersed in water at opposite ends of the aquarium, are connected to a 9–12 V direct current source (for which it is possible to use a 9–12 volt transformer with a single or dual-wave rectifier ). The current is turned on after installation, subject to careful isolation of the current-carrying wires from the metal frame of the aquarium. One or two inclusions for 1-2 minutes are enough to destroy all the hydras in a 60-liter aquarium. Fishes and plants feel normal.
Together with aquatic plants in the aquarium, you can bring flatworms. They are called planaria (Planaria gonocephala and P. maculata). These worms with a triangle-shaped head are glued to the panes and are especially dangerous for fry.
Planaria Three types of planarians are known: brown (Planaria torva), black (Policoelis nigra) and less common large milky-white planaria (Dendrocoellum lacteum), reaching a length of 2.5 cm. These flatworms, having “a robbery throat », Getting into the aquarium with live food, destroy the eggs, larvae and fry of fish. Planaria is not harmless at all in relation to adult fish. Her predatory attack on adult Malawian cichlids was observed, for example, by scientists in the Dnepropetrovsk aquarium complex. Planaria was found in large numbers on the gills of dead fish. The death of cichlids occurred as a result of severe anemia. It was possible to save the remaining fish by adding sodium chloride (2.5 g per 1 l of water).
Unlike the hydrological planarians, they lead a twilight way of life, hiding during the day in plants, under stones. If you look at the planarians caught under a magnifying glass, you can see two eyes on the front of the body. The body of the planarium is covered with cilia and movements look smooth. Worms are covered with specific mucus, so fish, with the exception of some, do not take them. Planarium unusually tenacious. Getting into adverse conditions, they lose mobility, turning into a shapeless mass, but the throat, which can live independently, breaks away from the body and goes into the environment, continuing to move. Worms are capable of amazing regeneration: divided into more than two hundred parts, they retain the ability to fully recover from each part.
Methods of dealing with this tenacious predator are based on its highly developed sense of smell. In a gauze bag is placed a bit of scraped beef and put it on the fishing line in the aquarium, near the plants or from the ground. Aquarium obscure.
Planaria quickly gather to bait. The bag is taken out with a net and dipped in boiling water. The procedure is repeated at intervals of several days.
It is detrimental to planaria and an increase in water temperature to 30–32 ° C, which many tropical fish can withstand (provided sufficient aeration).
Acceptable and chemical methods of dealing with planarians. Copper sulfate is used (1.5 mg per 1 l of water) and ammonium nitrate (25–50 mg per 1 l of water with two treatments).
Experienced aquarists, to destroy planaria, launch 2–3 days of aging for an aquarium without eating young gouras, macropods, cockerels, black-striped tsilazy, chromis bulti, and plecoste.
In the event of an epidemic, only complete cleaning and disinfection will help not only the aquarium itself, but each item that has recently been in contact with its contents. For this it is best to use formalin, a liquid with a strong odor, which is usually used in diluted form for the manufacture of drugs. This high-grade poison will kill the fish immediately.
Together with the food in the aquarium, you can bring other not less dangerous pests of fish. Some of them, such as the larvae of the beetle beetle, dragonfly naiads, suitable for feeding to adult tsikhlazom and other large predatory fish, are completely unacceptable in an aquarium with small species and, especially, young. One dragonfly larvae, not noticed by an aquarist, can destroy all fry and kill adult fish, such as neons.
Water Beetle The head of the larvae of the swimmer is supplied with crescent jaws. He grabs the prey with them, lets in a paralyzing fluid through the channels, then erupts the enzymes from the stomach into the victim's wound, dissolving the tissue into a liquid state, and sucks this fluid until practically nothing remains from the extraction. Themselves swimming beetles tear prey to pieces and greedily eat. Cases have been described when in natural waters and spawning ponds swimming beetles and their larvae have destroyed almost all the young fish. The larvae of the swimmer at an early stage of development are small, and therefore may not be noticed by an aquarist and entered into an aquarium with bloodworms and crustaceans.
Dangerous pests that destroy fish are aquatic insects, such as gadshes, ranatras, turtles, water mites, shields, water striders, water bug, aphelio-virus, as well as water scorpion larvae, poloskuna beetle. All of them are visible to the naked eye, so with some caution, sorting and carefully viewing live food, you can avoid pests entering the aquarium.
|Edema||Pseudomona punctata-induced liver damage. Due to the penetration of water into the abdominal cavity, the scales are protruding.||No treatment is possible; try you can only make a bath outside the acarium (!): 80 mg / l Chloramphenicol .|
|Inflammation or intestinal infection||May be a side effect of spironucleosis; then treat like this disease.||Depending on the reason.|
|Cold||Caused by a sharp change in temperature or too cold water.||Content in a separate tank: slowly raise the temperature by 4-5 ° С; after eight days, gradually reduce it over eight days to the temperature of the aquarium.|
|Fish tuberculosis||Microbacteria caused by Myobacterium piscium nodosity. The disease is slow; not contagious.||To catch the diseased fish and destroy. Treatment is impossible. Stronger fish may pass infection without being noticed.|
|Fin rot||The defeat and falling away of the fins, caused by the deterioration of the water.||As a first aid: water change! Treatment with Ek t ozon, Exrapid (according to the manufacturer's instructions) or separate long baths: a) tripaflavin (10 mg / l) or b) Chloramphenicol (6-8 mg / l); a) for many days, b) after eight hours|
|Gas embolism||Formation of air bubbles under the skin and in the blood vessels due to supersaturation with oxygen (rarely) or pressure of the water filling the aquarium (when changing water).||Preventing this disease is easier than curing! Fill the aquarium only with settled water. In case of illness, aerate the aquarium water strongly to relieve excess pressure.|
|Glugeoz||The causative agent is microsporidia Glugea pseudotu m efaciens; primarily affects the ovaries (especially in Brachydanio rerio), but also other internal organs.||Cure is impossible! If it is determined that the fish are sick with this disease, they must be caught and destroyed.|
|Ichthyobiasis (bone disease)||Defeat with debilitating parasites (Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina Cyclochaeta); may spread as an infection.||Separate (!) Baths with tripoflavin (see fin rot) or short baths with table salt (10-15 g / l) after 20 minutes with a temperature rise of 2-3 ° C.|
|Ichthyosporidiosis (ichthyophonosis)||Caused by phycomycete Ichthyosporidiurn hofe ri and easily spreading infection. It affects mainly internal organs.||If this disease is established, treatment is impossible.|
|Ichthyophthiriasis||The most famous of fish diseases is caused by the equatorial infusorium Ichthyophthirius multifilius, which lives under the skin of fish.||Treatment with long baths in the aquarium! In specialized stores there are medicines. They most often contain coloring matter. Be careful: the plants in the aquarium do not tolerate some drugs,|
|Karpoed||A parasite that resembles lentils; visible to the naked eye. Yellow-green color with dark dots.||If you catch a fish from an aquarium, the mouthpiece lice disappears; it can be removed by brushing.|
|Alkaline disease||The disease is caused by a high pH, as well as by strong solar radiation or a low content of lime in water, which is not capable of binding carbonic acid.||Constantly carry out a partial change of water or move the fish to another aquarium. Subsequently monitor the pH. When CO2 is added, if this is done correctly, the disease cannot occur.|
|Lymphocystis||A viral disease that dwarf cichlids and macropods are particularly susceptible to; easily transmitted.||If the fins are affected, they can be (shallowly) cut. If the disease passes to the trunk, further treatment is impossible. Fish must be caught and destroyed.|
|Neon disease||The causative agent is called Plistophora hyphessobryconis; parasitic in the muscles of fish, forming spores.||The disease can spread like an epidemic (importers are well aware of this). The treatment is impossible: the fish must be carefully monitored, immediately catch the infected individuals and destroy them.|
|Oodiniosis; velvet disease||The disease causes Oodinium pillularis, flagellated infusoria; symptoms are the same as with ichthyophthiriasis.||The drug is “Exrapid”; separate short baths in a solution of salt (10-15 g / l) for 20 minutes or immersion in a net (25 g / l) for 10-20 seconds.|
|Defeat by parasites||Pathogens: Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina, (Cyclochaeta), gill worms, Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Monocoelium Neodactylogyrus, etc.||See also “Ichthyobiasis (bone)”. With the defeat of gill parasites - means “Gyrotox” (in the pet store), according to the instructions. Possible short baths in a solution of salt (repeat after a few days).|
|Saprolegniosis||Organic pollution (corpses of fish, food remains, etc.). Most often, the affected areas (open wounds) appear mold caused by a fungal disease.||Lubricate against the fungus or mold; possible short baths in potassium permanganate (1 g / 100 l), 20-30 minutes.|
|Inflammation of the swim bladder||It may be a concomitant phenomenon with dropsy or a consequence of hypothermia.||Depending on the cause; see “dropsy” and “cold”.|
|Spironulosis||Most often, this flagellate is imported along with fish from East Asia. It usually affects the discus (whitish filamentous excrement). It occurs in other cichlids. Final stage: holes in the head.||Special preparations with metronizadol (for example, “Clont”) are sold by prescription. In the pet store you can buy “Nehaeh”. The tablet of the first of these drugs should be dissolved in about 60 liters of water; 4-day treatment in the aquarium. Use the second drug according to the instructions. Recommended preventive courses (2 times a year). Pharmacies also sell metronizadol BP 80, packaged in vials of 10 g. In contrast to the drug, “Clont” is a pure substance without fillers, because its price is higher. (Dosage: 4 mg per liter of aquarium water.)|
|Poisoning||The reason should be established. Have you recently worked on the aquarium and its design? Have chemicals been used? Is insecticide spray sprayed indoors? Is ammonia or nitrite poisoning possible?||If the cause is found, it is necessary to eliminate it and thereby poisoning. In case of doubt, it is recommended to gradually change the water in small portions.|
|Constipation||The reason most often in the monotony of power; It is a consequence of a cold.||Optimal care and care with a variety of food: live and fresh frozen food (animal protein).|
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Observed in aquarium fish in most cases when feeding with monotonous and substandard food, can cause the simultaneous death of a significant number of fish, especially juveniles. Except from feeding the fish to spoiled and polluted tubers, rotten bloodworms, coretry, overexposed feed, the disease quite often occurs when feeding hungry fish with dry daphnia. A sick fish has an abdominal swelling, redness appears in the anus area, there is constipation or excrement with indigestible food, breathing is difficult, the fish stop feeding, lie on the bottom. Sick fish need first of all to ensure normal conditions of maintenance - cleanliness, heat, aeration, water change. After a 2–3-day fast, begin feeding small portions of benign, easily digestible food — live daphnia, cyclops, fresh core. Karpovs and others like them should be fed with cooked semolina. In the water of the aquarium, in therapeutic doses, one of the disinfectants is added - table salt, trypaflavin, and rivanol.
Poisoning aquarium fish
Occurs as a result of ingestion of fish with toxic substances in the use of poor-quality food or ingestion of poisoned water of the aquarium. Poisoning can be a consequence of feeding the fish with spoiled food when it is not properly stored or with food caught from unsuccessful water bodies; poisonous substances from the putty used in the manufacture of the aquarium; hit in the aquarium or vessel for storing live food of domestic insects poisoned with toxic chemicals; use for storing food utensils for non-food purposes; use of increased doses of drugs, etc. Clinical signs of poisoning: the appearance of convulsive movements in fish, weakening of orientation - fish, moving, stumble upon counter objects, loss of bright coloration. With timely detection of signs of poisoning of diseased fish should be immediately transplanted into clean water, arrange aeration and create other optimal conditions. The aquarium should be recharged by thoroughly rinsing the plants in clean water and rinsing the ground.
Plystophoresis (neon disease)
In aquarium fish comes with a strong and prolonged cooling, which most often happens when transporting fish in the cold season without proper insulation, installing an aquarium near a window, keeping fish without heating, in time unnoticed failure of an electric heater and for other reasons. Caught by cold fish become inactive, lose their color, become covered with gray mucus, their gills inflame. Fish that are weakened by a cold often cause infectious diseases. Sick fish need to create normal conditions - heat, aeration of water, easily digestible food. To prevent the occurrence of an infectious disease, it is necessary to apply one of the therapeutic agents - table salt, trypaflavin, rivanol.
Pseudomonosis (fin rot)
It is important to prevent diseases of aquarium fish, resulting from violations of the rules of keeping and the introduction of infection through different channels. In order to preserve the health of the inhabitants of the aquarium and create a normal environmental situation, it is recommended to observe the following rules:
- systematically carry out a weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with the replacement of an average of 1/10 of the volume of water; prevent overpopulation of the aquarium;
- avoid unreasonable and partial transfer of fish;
- do not put items in the aquarium that may cause poisoning or injury to fish;
- strictly monitor the quality of feed for fish and ensure its proper storage;
- observe the feeding regime (twice a day), do not leave the fish hungry for a long time and do not allow overfeeding;
- to maintain in the aquarium the optimum temperature recommended for specific fish species, to exclude the possibility of sudden temperature changes in the aquarium and overcooling;
- to ensure reliable transportation of fish, using soft enough carrying amount, excluding injury to fish;
- in the winter, to use thermo containers, and for large fish and a large number of fry - special portable insulated boxes;
- to re-quarantine newly acquired fish by placing them in a designated brewhouse filled with water from an active aquarium;
- in order not to make a separate heating, small fish can be placed in a glass jar and allowed to float in the aquarium;
- equipment (nets, siphons, etc.) that served sick or quarantined fish should be thoroughly disinfected (with potassium permanganate, rivanol, table salt, boiled) before using it for healthy fish;
- in order to avoid jumping of fish from an aquarium, it is necessary to cover it with glass or a grid, ensuring free access of air;
- when treating fish with medicines and chemicals, strictly follow the dosage to prevent poisoning.