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Diseases and diseases of fish

The fish organism, like the organisms of all other living things, possesses a certain resistance to pathogens, for example, to parasites. But if, for some reason, the fish is weakened, or, on the contrary, the pathogens of illness have become stronger due to some circumstances, then the disease may manifest itself. Preventing fish diseases, as always, is better than adding chemicals to the water, even controlling (more or less) this process. In aquariums do not work on the principle of watering can for watering flowers! You will not swallow medicines if you have a sick neighbor or someone in the family? But in aquarium, it often turns out that all the inhabitants of a home pond are constantly under the influence of drugs (most often - antibiotics!), And only because any one fish seems unhealthy. Well, the fish do not know how to speak ... Here is one example. If bacterial inflammation is suspected after being bitten into the water, antibacterial agents are often added to the water for prophylaxis (and they can only be used in a separate reservoir). Yes, at the same time, bacteria are killed, which, possibly, may provoke an inflammatory process. But at the same time, all other bacteria that are contained in the soil are destroyed, or, for example, those that participate in the so-called nitrification (the oxidation of ammonia through nitrites to nitrates). The best and most effective way to avoid illness is to monitor biological purity, correct temperature and water performance. Fill the aquarium with soil, plant the plants, but wait a week or two (!) And do not run fish into it until enough bacteria are formed in the soil and in the filter to convert the harmful substances. Without a developed bacterial fauna in the aquarium, the concentration of poisons (ammonia, nitrites) is rapidly increasing; Little by little they can be removed by partial replacement of water. At the same time, the content of nitrites in the water must be constantly checked. Fresh water should be mixed (!) In the aquarium to absorb as much oxygen as possible. If, in spite of carefully following these tips, your fish become ill, then first you need to seriously examine the symptoms. Therapeutic intervention is possible only when the diagnosis is made. Special tables contain information on the most common diseases of fish, their symptoms and methods of treatment.

It is better to prevent the disease than to treat it

Below are listed those phenomena and factors that may affect the health of fish and possibly contribute to disease. The best way to combat these diseases is to prevent them.

1. Hunger and emaciation. Both can easily lead to infectious damage to the integument; Fish are secondarily affected by a fungus (Saprolegnia).

2. Poor and unsuitable food. Easily leads to diseases of the stomach and intestines. If the food is too greasy, it can lead to obesity in the intestines. If the food is too monotonous and poor in vitamins, it can cause general weakening and degeneration of the liver. Pisces does not hurt some abstinence. This is the same as with people: it's better to be hungry and cheerful than fed and sluggish.

3. The temperature is too low. Fish can also catch cold. The consequence of hypothermia is most often inflammation of the swim bladder, and thereby - a decrease in the resistance force of the body. Unexpected and sudden changes in temperature and arbitrary transfer of fish should be avoided.

4. Lack of oxygen. Most often it makes the fish breathe heavily and thereby weakens them.

5. Too soft water or too low pH. Not all fish tolerate an unusually low pH, although this is recommended for some species (red neon, discus, etc.). Fish (like other viviparous), if they live in the coastal zone, can tolerate neither particularly soft water, nor too low pH. The latter causes them to "acid disease".

6. Too much solar radiation. Fortunately, modern luminaires built into the top cover help now to avoid the widespread

Errors: installation of the aquarium on the windowsill. Because of increased sun exposure, and also because of the concomitant increase in the pH value to 10 or more, burns on the skin and fins (alkaline disease) are possible.

7. Wounds due to contact with instruments or biting neighbors. Lead to a fungal infection or bacterial infection of wounds. It is necessary to think in advance of the selection of fish in the aquarium.

8. Poor insulation. If inadequate means (metals, glue, paint, hoses) were used in the manufacture or repair of the aquarium at home, this can lead to poisoning.

9. Harmful gases. Oven gas, factory emissions, tobacco smoke, etc., are drawn in by an air pump and enter the aquarium water. They are harmful or even fatal for fish. Therefore, it is recommended to use an air filter (with filter coal) between the pump or the flow filter or to suck the air out of the room.

Diseases of fish. Diagnosis and therapy

In addition to numerous diseases. Which can be prevented by the above-mentioned preventive measures, there are, unfortunately, others; But the aquarist can successfully treat them. It is here about the defeat of external parasites. Internal fish diseases can be cured very difficult, because usually they are recognized too late. In case of doubt it is necessary to quickly knock on the glass of the avcarium: if the fish is healthy, then it will rush headlong down. And the sick fish swims slowly, with fluctuating movements. If the fish goes up, not moving fins, or hardly rises from the bottom, then this also indicates a disease. The same applies to fish that stay right under the surface of the water and swim only if you touch them with your hand. Our table gives a list of the most common diseases and diagnoses.

Symptoms Diagnosis
Basic indications Individual Symptoms
Fish behavior
Lowering to the bottom Edema, cold, inflammation of the swim bladder
Necrosis of the fins Inflammation of the intestines, colds, fin rot, gas embolism, skin turbidity, ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease, oiodinosis, parasite damage, swollen bladder inflammation, poisoning, constipation
Aversion of food Inflammation of the intestines, colds, tuberculosis of fish, gas embolism, skin turbidity, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, spironucleosis, oiodinosis, parasite damage, poisoning, constipation Edema, fin rot, ichthyophthyroidism, neon disease
Jumping on the bottom Edema, inflammation of the intestines, colds, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, inflammation of the swim bladder Neon disease, constipation
Convulsions Gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning
Hopping motion Dropsy, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyroidism, odyniosis, parasite damage, inflammation of the swim bladder Blurred skin, constipation
Shiver Dropsy, cold, tuberculosis of fish, fin rot, skin turbidity, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyroidism, oiodinosis, parasite infestation, swelling bladder inflammation, poisoning
Friction about stones, etc. Skin turbidity, ichthyophthyroidism, carp louse, oiodinosis, parasite damage
Greedy swallowing of air Gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning Opacity of the skin
Violation of coordination of movements Tuberculosis of fish, glueosis, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, spironucleosis, inflammation of the swim bladder, poisoning
Anxiety, apathy Gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning Opacity of the skin
Changes in appearance
Emaciation Inflammation of the intestine, tuberculosis of fish, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease, spironucleosis Glueosis, oedinosis
Bloating Swelling, swelling of the swim bladder Cold, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease
Deformation of body parts Edema, tuberculosis of fish, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease Fin rot
Scaling of scales Edema, ichthyosporidosis Neon disease
Accumulation dropsy Fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis
Skin Symptoms
Redness of the anal opening Edema, inflammation of the intestine, spironucleosis cold
Bluish white spots Tuberculosis of fish, opacification of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, parasite damage cold
Focal hemorrhages Edema, tuberculosis of fish, ichthyosporidosis, spironucleosis, parasite damage Skin turbidity, ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease
Color change stains Tuberculosis of fish, glueosis, neon disease
Subcutaneous gas bubbles Gas embolism
Ulcers Edema, tuberculosis of fish, glueosis, ichthyosporidosis, spironucleosis
Sores, rash on the body Ichthyosporidosis
Exfoliation of skin Alkaline disease, oiodinosis, parasite damage Opacity of the skin
Whitish beads or tubercles Lymphocystis
Nodules yellowish Oiodinosis
Dark spots Opacity of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, parasite damage
Felt coating Opacity of the skin, saprollegyosis
Changes in the fins
Pineal Nodules Lymphocystis
Mucous darkening Fin rot, ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease, parasite damage, saprollegiosis Opacity of the skin
Gluing the fins Opacity of the skin
Whitening edge fins Lymphocystis, parasitism Fin rot
Destruction of the fins Tuberculosis of fish, fin rot, skin turbidity, ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease, oiodinosis, parasite damage
Gill changes
Bulging of the gills Parasite damage
Swelling, inflammation Alkaline disease, parasite damage, poisoning Opacity of the skin
Slate-white tarnish Opacity of the skin
Whitening Ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease, parasite damage
Bead nodules Ichthyophthyroidism Parasite damage
Wormlike stains Parasite damage
Eye Changes
The Euphorbia Edema, tuberculosis of fish, ichthyosporidosis, constipation
Dots and specks Ichthyophthyroidism, oiodinosis
Tarnishing Ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyroidism, oiodinosis Parasite damage
Surface destruction Ichthyophthyroidism, oiodinosis, parasite infestation

Even very weak symptoms should be taken seriously. We must try to begin treatment by increasing the body's resistance to fish: it must be isolated and provided with favorable water and temperature conditions, as well as food, which means: do not overfeed and do not overheat. As for a separate reservoir, and behind the aquarium, where the fish was removed, it is necessary to closely monitor. To strengthen the body's resistance to fish, vitamin preparations can be added to food. But if its condition worsens, then it is necessary to take the next step, to begin treatment. First of all, you need to make a short or long bath. Further, according to the instructions on the package, it is necessary to treat the fish in its quarantine vessel. And, please, never exceed this dose "from the best of motives" - this can lead to the rapid death of fish.

Fish pests and methods of fighting them

Along with live food, dangerous pests often enter the aquarium, which causes serious trouble to its owner and causes radical measures, therefore the aquarist must know the enemies of the fish and the methods of fighting them.

Argulus (scientific name) - the most unpleasant "guests" of the aquarium. These include zhabrohvostye crustaceans, which are usually called fish louse, or carpoeids. The crustaceans feed on the blood of fish, parasitizing on their skin. They are quite large, reaching 4-8 mm in length and, most importantly, they have a wide, sheet-shaped (flattened) translucent body, painted in a greenish-yellow or grayish-green color, which makes them poorly visible on the body of the fish. The cephalothorax of the parasite is provided with attachment organs with curved hooks, sucking proboscis, suction-prominent organs, four pairs of swimming legs, two faceted eyes. Very mobile, easily separated from the fish and freely floating in the water with the help of swimming legs. Possessing a positive reaction to light, the crustaceans and their larvae tend to the light layers of the water, where their development occurs more quickly. Of eggs laid by the female on the ground, plants, stones, larvae appear. If the larvae, floating freely in the water for 2-3 days, will not meet the fish, they perish. Once on the fish, they grow so quickly that after 15-18 days they reach sexual maturity and can lay eggs themselves.

Arguluses are heat-loving and light-loving, therefore, in an aquarium, they usually fall, as a rule, in the hot season with water, soil, vegetation, live food from natural reservoirs. Drifting them into the aquarium is a real disaster. Attached to the fish, parasites pierce the skin with a proboscis and not only suck blood, but also inject into the wound the toxic secret of the poisonous gland. The wound site becomes inflamed, swollen, a hemorrhage occurs, and in more severe cases, deep wounds form on the body of fish. Destroying the skin, contribute to penetration through the wounds of microorganisms and the development of infectious diseases.

The struggle with the arguments is rather difficult and basically lies in their mechanical separation. The affected fish are placed in a moist tampon and parasites are removed with a thin tweezers. You can then treat the wound with a treatment solution (1 g of crystalline potassium permanganate per 1 liter of water), for which a cotton swab wound around the match (without the sulfur head) and moistened in the indicated treatment solution is applied to the affected area. After this, the fish is immediately released into an uninfected aquarium.

The main methods of struggle are based on the knowledge of the nature of the development of the parasite. We recommend leaving the aquarium without fish and raising the temperature to 26 ° C, it is good to light and keep it so for a week. Do not catch food in hot weather in the reservoirs where fish live. It is very important to carefully review, sort the caught and bought food on the market.

Hydra. Very untidy for the inhabitants of the aquarium can be the massive development of dangerous representatives of intestinal lobed protozoa - hydra. Attached to the glass of the aquarium, plants, other objects soles, the hydra attacks with the help of stinging tentacles on the larvae and fry. Tentacles are provided with stinging capsules containing fine filaments with poison, with which the hydra paralyzes the victim, and then captures and absorbs. In this case, the predator significantly increases in size. The body length of the hydra without tentacles reaches 1 cm. In larger fry, the hydra breaks the skin, opening the infection. Hydra can reproduce very quickly by budding. It is photophilous, and you can see the accumulation of hydra in a brightly lit area of ​​the aquarium glass.

Get rid of hydra is not easy. We can offer the easiest way - luring to the light, given their positive phototaxis. A thin glass is lowered into the water, which is pressed tightly against the glass of the aquarium. The aquarium shadows and direct a beam of light onto this glass. When hydras accumulate in a lighted area, the glass is removed with them, scraping the animals from it. This method can not rid the hydra completely.

The use of ammonium sulfate [(NH4) 2SO] or ammonium nitrate (NHNO): ammonium sulfate is dissolved at a rate of 0.05 g of the preparation per 1 liter of water and added to a common aquarium, since it is harmless in these doses for fish. Hydra should die within 3-5 days. Applying ammonium nitrate, fry and juvenile fish from the aquarium are removed, adult fish and hydra intensively fed for two weeks by daphnia. Hydras at this time actively multiply. Then, ammonium nitrate is added to the aquarium at a rate of 0.6-1 g of the preparation per 10 liters of water, first dissolving the substance in 250-500 ml of water. For better mixing, aeration is included. The temperature is raised to 27-28 ° C and maintained until the end of the course of treatment. After three days, the initial dose of the same concentration is applied. Hydras should die on the 5th-6th day. Water in the aquarium after the destruction of the hydra is not completely changed. Pisces ammonium nitrate in such concentrations is not harmful, and plants even serve as a fertilizer.

If there are no plants in the aquarium and you can temporarily remove the fish, apply hydrogen peroxide at the rate of two teaspoons of a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide to 10 liters of water. The estimated amount is diluted in 100-150 ml of water and introduced into an aquarium without fish and plants. The resulting free oxygen acts on the hydrate is fatal.

You can place in the different ends of the aquarium two coils of copper wire (without insulation). In water, copper begins to oxidize, and the resulting products have a disastrous effect on the hydra, in which the tentacles are lost (they fall to the bottom of the aquarium, where they are removed by the hose). After being released from Hydra, the wire is removed.

When using a solution of copper sulfate (0.05 g per 1 liter of water), the death of the hydrate occurs within an hour, after another 3-4 hours, partial purification and complete replacement of water are carried out. Fish for the duration of these operations from the aquarium is removed. Copper vitriol must be chemically pure or pure for analysis. Complicating this event is a complete replacement of water, that is, in fact, the creation of anew aquarium. However, for spawning and growing special aquariums where there is no soil, plants are usually kept in pots or cuvettes (they are portable), water is taken from large aquariums, diluting it with tap water, this method is quite acceptable.

The method of fighting hydra with the help of an electric current was tested and suggested by the aquarist E. Dotsenko from Kharkov. It consists in connecting a 9-12 V direct current source to two bundles of copper wire (without insulation) immersed in water at opposite ends of the aquarium (for which it is possible to use a 9-12-volt transformer with a diode one- or two-half-rectifier rectifier ). Current is included after installation of the wiring, provided that the current wires are thoroughly insulated from the metal frame of the aquarium. It is enough one or two inclusions for 1-2 minutes to destroy all the hydra in a 60-liter aquarium. Fish and plants feel normal at the same time.

Together with water plants in the aquarium you can bring flat worms. They are called planaria (Planaria gonocephala and P. maculata). These worms with a head in the form of a triangle are glued to the windows and are especially dangerous for fry.

Planaria. There are three types of planarians known: Planaria torva, black (Policoelis nigra) and less common large milky-white planaria (Dendrocoellum lacteum), reaching a length of 2.5 cm. These flatworms, having, according to one biologist, "robbery ", Falling into an aquarium with live food, destroy caviar, larvae and fry of fish. Planaria is not at all harmless in relation to adult fish. Her predatory attack on adult Malawian cichlids was observed, for example, by scientists in the Dnepropetrovsk aquarium complex. In the gills of the dead fish, planaria were found in large numbers. The death of cichlids occurred as a result of severe anemia. Saving the rest of the fish was achieved by the introduction of sodium chloride (2.5 g per 1 liter of water).

Unlike hydra planarians, they lead a twilight way of life, hiding in the daytime in plants, under rocks. If you look at the caught planaria under the magnifying glass, you can see two eyes on the front of the body. The body of the planaria is covered with cilia and the movements look smooth. Worms are covered with a specific mucus, so fish, with the exception of some, do not take them. The planetarium is unusually tenacious. Getting into unfavorable conditions, they lose mobility, turning into a formless mass, but a pharynx that can live on its own, breaks away from the body and leaves the environment, continuing to move. Worms are capable of striking regeneration: separated by more than two hundred parts, they retain the ability of full recovery from each part.

The methods of combating this tenacious predator are based on its highly developed sense of smell. In the gauze pouch put a little scraped beef and on the line lowered into the aquarium, near the plants or from the ground. The aquarium is darkened.

Planaria quickly gather for bait. The bag is taken out with a net and lowered into a steep boiling water. The procedure is repeated at intervals of several days.

It is fatal for planaria and an increase in the temperature of water to 30-32 ° C, which many tropical fish can withstand (provided there is sufficient aeration).

Chemical methods of controlling planarians are also acceptable. Apply copper sulfate (1.5 mg per 1 liter of water) and ammonium nitrate (25-50 mg per 1 liter of water with a double treatment).

Experienced aquarists for the destruction of the planaria run into an aquarium aged for 2-3 days without eating young gourami, macropods, males, black cichlases, chrome boules, plekostom.

In case of an epidemic, only complete cleaning and disinfection of not only the aquarium itself, but each object that has recently come into contact with its contents, will help. To do this, it is best to use formalin, a liquid with a strong odor, which is usually used in a diluted form for the preparation. This high-grade poison immediately kills the fish.

Together with the food in the aquarium you can bring other no less dangerous pests of fish. Some of them, for example larvae of the beetle-beetle, naiads of dragonflies, suitable for feed to adult cichlazomas and other large predatory fish, are absolutely unacceptable in an aquarium with small species and, especially, young. One dragonfly larva, not noticed by an aquarist, can destroy all the fry and kill adult fish, such as, for example, neon.

The beetle is a beetle. The head of the larva is provided with sickle-shaped jaws. They have enough prey, let the paralyzing liquid through the channels, then regurgitates the enzymes from the stomach into the wound of the victim, dissolving the tissues to the liquid state, and this liquid sucks up until there is practically nothing left from the extraction. The beetles themselves are tearing the prey to pieces and eagerly eat. Cases are described when in natural reservoirs and spawning ponds the beetles and their larvae destroyed almost all the young fish. The larvae of the Flounder at an early stage of development are small, and therefore may not be seen by the aquarist and entered into an aquarium with a bloodworm and crustaceans.

Dangerous pests that destroy fish are such water insects as gladyses, ranatry, plavty, water mites, scutes, water cannels, water bug apheliohirus, as well as larvae of water scorpion, water beetle, beetle-beetle. All of them are visible to the naked eye, therefore, with some caution, sorting and carefully viewing live food, you can avoid getting pests into the aquarium.

Name of the disease Cause Therapy
Dropsy, scaling of the scales The pseudomona punctata caused by liver damage. Because of the penetration of water into the abdominal cavity - scaling of the scales. Treatment is impossible; You can only try to make a bath outside the acarum (!): 80 mg / l Chloramphenicol .
Inflammation or intestinal infection It can be a side effect of spironucleosis; Then treat like this disease. Depending on the reason.
Cold Due to a sudden change of temperature or too cold water. Contents in a separate tank: slowly increase the temperature by 4-5 ° C; After eight days, gradually reduce it for eight days to the temperature of the aquarium.
Tuberculosis of fish Caused by microbacteria (Myobacterium piscium) nodularity. The disease proceeds slowly; Not contagious. Catch the diseased fish and destroy it. Treatment is impossible. Stronger fish can imperceptibly transfer the infection.
Fin fungus Defeat and fall of fins, caused by deterioration of water. As a first aid: a change of water! Treatment with Ek t ozon, Exrapid (as directed by the manufacturer) or individual long-term baths: a) trypaflavin (10 mg / l) or b) Chloramphenicol (6 - 8 mg / l); A) for many days, b) after eight hours
Gas embolism The formation of air bubbles under the skin and in blood vessels due to oxygen saturation (rarely) or water pressure filling the aquarium (with water change). To warn this disease is easier than to treat! Fill the aquarium with only standing water. In case of illness, strongly aerate the aquarium water to relieve the excess pressure.
Glugoseosis Pathogen - microsporidia Glugea pseudotu m efaciens; Affects primarily the ovaries (especially in Brachydanio rerio), but also other internal organs. Treatment is impossible! If it is determined that the fish are sick with this disease, they must be caught and destroyed.
Ichthyoblodosis (dicease) Defeat of weakening parasites (Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina Cyclochaeta); Can spread like an infection. Separate (!) Trays with trypoflavin (see fin rot) or short baths with table salt (10-15 g / l) after 20 minutes with a temperature increase of 2-3 ° C.
Ichthyosporidiasis (ichthyophonosis) Caused by fungiococcus ficomycete Ichthyosporidiurn hofe ri and easily spreading infection. It affects mostly the internal organs. If this disease is established, treatment is impossible.
Ichthyophthyroidism The most famous of the fish diseases, is caused by the equinox infusoria Ichthyophthirius multifilius, which lives under the skin of the fish. Treatment of long baths in the aquarium! In specialized stores there are medicines. They most often contain coloring matter. Be careful: the plants in the aquarium do not tolerate some drugs,
Karpoeed A parasite shaped like lentils; Visible to the naked eye. Yellow-green color with dark dots. If you catch fish from the aquarium, the mouthpiece of the louse disappears; It can be removed by washing with a brush.
Alkaline Disease The disease is due to a high pH, ​​as well as strong solar radiation or a low lime content in water, which is incapable of binding carbon dioxide. Constantly carry out a partial change of water or move fish to another aquarium. Subsequently, monitor the pH value. When adding CO2, if done correctly, the disease can not occur.
Lymphocystis Viral disease, which is particularly susceptible to dwarf cichlids and macro-pods; Easily transmitted. If the fins are affected, they can be (shallowly) cut off. If the disease passes to the body, further treatment is impossible. Fish must be caught and destroyed.
Neon disease The causative agent of the disease is called Plistophora hyphessobryconis; Parasitizes in the muscles of the fish, forming spores. The disease can spread like an epidemic (well known to importers). Treatment is impossible: the fish should be closely monitored, the infected individuals immediately caught and destroyed.
Oiodinosis; Velvet disease The disease causes Oodinium pillularis, flagella infusoria; The symptoms are the same as with ichthyophthyroidism. The medicinal product is "Exrapid"; Separate short baths in a solution of table salt (10-15 g / l) for 20 minutes or immersion in a net (25 g / l) for 10-20 seconds.
The defeat of parasites Pathogens: Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina, (Cyclochaeta), gill worms, Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Monocoelium Neodactylogyrus, and others. See also "Ichthyoblodosis (dicease)". When lesions with gill parasites - "Gyrotox" (in a pet store), according to the instructions. Possible short baths in a solution of table salt (repeat after a few days).
Saprollegyosis Organic contamination (corpses of fish, remains of food, etc.). Most often on the affected areas (open wounds) there is mold caused by a fungal disease. Lubricate the preparation against fungus or mold; Possible short baths in manganese (1 g / 100 l), 20 - 30 minutes.
Inflammation of the swim bladder It can be a concomitant phenomenon in dropsy or a consequence of hypothermia. Depending on the reason; See "Vodianka" and "Cold."
Spironucleosis Most often, this flagellate is imported together with fish from East Asia. Strikes usually discus (whitish filiform excrement). It also occurs in other cichlids. The final stage: holes in the head. Special preparations with metronidazole (for example, "Clont") are sold under the prescription. In the pet store you can buy "Nehaeh". The tablet of the first of these drugs must be dissolved in about 60 liters of water; 4-day course of treatment in the aquarium. The second preparation should be used according to the instructions. Preventive courses are recommended (2 times a year). In pharmacies also sold metronizadol BP 80, packaged in vials of 10 g. Unlike the drug "Clont" - this is a pure substance without fillers, because its price is higher. (Dosage: 4 mg per liter of aquarium water.)
Poisoning The cause should be established. Have you worked recently on the aquarium and its design? Did they use chemicals? Sprayed in the room anti-insect medications? Is it possible to poison with ammonia or nitrites? If the cause is found, it is necessary to eliminate it and thereby poisoning. In case of doubt, it is recommended gradually, in small portions, to change the water.
Constipation The reason is most often in monotony of nutrition; Is a consequence of the common cold. Optimal care and care for a variety of food: live and fresh-frozen food (animal protein).




Argulez

Fish diseases
Parasitic disease of aquarium fish, the cause of which is the attack on the fish bloodsucking crayfish karpoeda (Argulus foliaceus), or, as it is also called, fish lice, entering the aquarium with food from the stocked reservoirs. Karpoeed looks like a flat, round, translucent, serozelina turtle with four pairs of feathery swimming legs. In the initial stage the crayfish is barely noticeable to the naked eye, but in the adult state it can reach 4-6 mm. He is very mobile, free to swim, but prefers to accumulate in the thick of plants. Attacking the fish, the carpoeid digs into the skin, bites it and sucks blood. From his bites on the body of the fish, wounds are formed, which often become the gateway to infection. Destroy carpoeids by mechanical means, taking out the infected fish from the aquarium and removing the parasite with tweezers. This method is not easy, but the use of chemicals in a common aquarium against carpoeids is practically excluded, because He dies at doses dangerous to fish. To exclude the entry of karpoed into the aquarium, it is necessary to carefully check the composition of live food taken from natural reservoirs.


Aeromonoz

Fish diseases
Aeromonosis (rubella) of carp is an infectious abdominal dropsy, presumably caused by the aeromonas punctata bacterium. Contained in an aquarium with a sick fish or live food from the stocked reservoirs, the infection affects the fish. The disease progresses noticeably in heavily polluted aquariums with cold water. Ill fish become inactive, lie down on the ground, stop eating, there is a sprinkling of scales, bloating of the abdomen, blood stains appear on the body and fins. The disease is acute and difficult to cure. Sick fish are usually destroyed, and complete disinfection of the aquarium is performed. However, in some cases in the initial stage of the disease, after careful cleaning of the aquarium, while maintaining the temperature of 26-28 ° C, active aeration and adding to the water a therapeutic dose of trypaflavin or a weak solution of manganese, the disease decays and the fish recover.


Botriocephalus

Fish diseases
Pathogen - ribbon worm Bothriocephalus opsarhchthydis and Botriocephalus acheilognathi from the order pseudophylid (Pseudophyllidea) family. Bolhriocephalidae. In a sexually mature form, it lives in fish in the anterior part of the intestine, attaching to its wall with suckers, causes inflammation of the mucosa and traumatises it. Can cause blockage of the intestines and the death of fish. Sick fish swims near the surface of the water, does not take food, becomes lethargic and exhausted. The disease of botrycephalosis occurs mainly in the summer, when the fish are fed with the cyclops, in which the procercoid is located (an intermediate stage of development). The treatment is carried out with kamala, phenothiazine, phenasal, which is mixed with food.


Branchiomycosis

Fish diseases
The causative agents are the fungi of the branhyomycises sanguinis and branhyomycis demigrans (Branchiomyces demigrans and Branchiomyces sanguinis). They are localized in the blood vessels of the gill lobes, causing a blockage of blood vessels and necrosis of the gills. Sick fish swims near the surface, greedily seizing the air, eating poorly and soon dies. At the opening of such a fish, the mosaic of the gills, formed by the alternation of red and white patches, is clearly visible. The treatment is carried out with solutions of copper sulfate, formalin, violet K, sodium salt of nystatin and sodium salt of levorin.


Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Mark in aquarium fish in most cases when feeding monotonous and poor-quality food, can cause the simultaneous death of a significant number of fish, especially juveniles. In addition to feeding the foul spoiled and polluted pipe man, rotten bloodworm, coretra, overexposed feed, the disease often occurs when overfeeding hungry fish with dry daphnia. In a sick fish, the abdomen swells, redness appears in the anus, there is constipation or excreta discharge with undigested food, breathing is difficult, fish stop feeding, they fall to the bottom. Abnormal fish must first of all provide normal conditions of maintenance - cleanliness, warmth, aeration, water substitution. After a 2-3-day fasting, start feeding small, benign, easily digestible feeds - live daphnia, cyclops, fresh coretra. Karpovs and their like in nutrition to feed the cooked semolina. In the water of the aquarium, one of the disinfectants is added in therapeutic doses - kitchen salt, trypaflavin, rivanol.


Gas embolism

Fish diseases
Blockage of blood vessels by air bubbles appears in fish when using inconstant tap water, excessive and prolonged aerating. Often it is necessary to observe, as on the walls of a vessel filled with tap water of white color, like milk, a lot of air bubbles settle. If such water is not allowed to settle and put fish into it, or to add a lot of such water to the aquarium, then excess air through the gills will enter the blood of the fish and, when released into the vesicles, can clog the small blood vessels. The fishes that have fallen ill with gas embolism darken, the bloody puffiness on the body and fins appears. After establishing normal gas exchange in the aquarium, these symptoms may disappear and the fish recover. With a strong blockage of blood vessels ulcerations appear and the fish can die. Prevention is to prevent the use of a large number of non-permanent tap water for the aquarium and excessive aeration. Speed ​​up the air out of the water by heating and cooling it .


Hexamytosis

Fish diseases
"Hole disease" occurs in aquarium fish, mostly in pihlovyh, especially often in discus, for which the aquarists call it also discus. It was established that the pathogen of the disease is the flagellate Hexamita symphysodoni. Clinical signs: one or more barely noticeable whitish tubercles appear on the incessant surface of the head of the fish, which then increase to 1-5 mm and have the appearance of a grayish curdy mass emerging from the hole formed in the body. It seems that this mass, like a wormhole, is pushed out by a parasite that gnaws out the body of the fish. After a week or two, the process fades out, the mass stops standing, and holes remain on the affected areas, sometimes of considerable depth, without any signs of inflammation. Over time, the hole is tightened, and in this place a depression is formed, which, after being somewhat flattened, remains with the fish for life. The sick fish do not show any particular concern, they continue to feed, but in general their morbid condition is markedly expressed. There are facts when they participate in spawning. When treated in a common aquarium, a positive result is observed with trichopole. For treatment in a separate vessel by aquarists, a composition of eryricycline (50 mg / l) is used in combination with griseofulvin (10 mg / l) and trichopole (10 mg / l) for 10-15 days, and at 35-37 ° C - 1-3 days. Hexamitosis can recur, arises both with rarely substituted water, and with the substitution of a significant part of the water with a soft one.


Gyrodactylosis

Fish diseases
Parasitic invasive disease of aquarium fish, caused by a worm-flukus from the genus Gyrodactilus, reaching a length of up to 1 mm. In the head part there is an outlet with a mouth opening surrounded by hook-like projections, through which the parasite attaches to the fish. Gyrodactylus enters the aquarium with acquired diseased fish or with food from contaminated reservoirs. In aquariums contaminated with decomposing organics, the gyrodactylus multiplies rapidly. Parasites, covering a significant part of the body of fish, destroy the skin and suck the blood, which greatly depletes the fish. If no measures are taken to treat the fish, ulcers appear on their bodies, leading to inevitable death. The disease is easily detected visually. Fish behave restlessly, stones, soil, plants are constantly healed. The body of the fish is covered with whitish matt spots, which represent numerous accumulations of parasites, which, with the calm state of the fish, make oscillatory movements that can be observed with the naked eye. The water temperature does not influence the survivability of the gyrodactylus. The most effective control of this parasite is achieved by the use of one of the medicinal solutions - rivanol, copper sulfate, bicillin-5 or trypaflavin with active aeration and multiple water substitution in small parts.


Glugea

Fish diseases
The causative agent is sporovik gluegea (Glugea pseudotumefaciens and Glugea hertwigi of the genus Glugea). It is localized in the cells of connective tissue. Affected fish swim on their sides, on the body appear nodules, observed ocellata. Medicines are not available yet. Sick fish are destroyed, the aquarium is disinfected.


Rotting of fins

Fish diseases
Pathogens are bacteria from the pseudomonas group. The diseased fish begin to rot fins (often tail), which may even fall off. The causes of the disease are: low water temperature, disturbed biological balance, resulting in the multiplication of pathogenic microbes. Treatment is carried out with solutions of tripaflavin (1: 10,000), nitrate silver, morphopyline.


Dactylogyrosis

Fish diseases
Parasitic invasive disease of aquarium fish, caused by a daffygologist (Dactilogyrus) worm-flukus, similar in structure to a gyrodactylus, but different from the latter in that it parasitizes mainly on the gills of fish and is therefore difficult to detect. Once in the aquarium ways, characteristic of many species of parasites, it quickly multiplies and attacks fish. The diseased fishes swell with gills, they hardly breathe and with failure to take measures to treat in the initial stage of the disease, they die from suffocation. Treatment is similar to treatment with gyrodactylosis.


Dermatomycosis (saprollegiosis)

Fish diseases
Infectious disease, the causative agents of which are fungi of the genus saprolegnia (Saprolegnia). On the body and fins of diseased fish, often on the eyes and lips, there are white threads (hyphae) growing into cotton-like formations. Ill fish become inactive, they stop eating. In the absence of treatment, ulcers appear on the body of the fish, the gills are affected and the fish is killed. In most cases, fish that are kept in close containers with dirty and cold water fall below 20 ° C, with dermatomycosis. In the initial stage, the disease of danger is not present and is easily cured, for which it is necessary to create a sick fish normal living conditions. Dermatomycosis is treated with a solution of copper sulfate. In the initial stage, you can apply cooking salt, With a local form of fungal growths, the affected area is treated 2-3 times daily interval with a cotton swab dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or rivanol, excluding the ingestion of the drug in the eyes and gills of fish.


Ichthyophthyroidism

Fish diseases
One of the most common diseases of aquarium fish. Occurs as a result of an attack on them of the equimarial infusoria of ichthyophthirius (Ichthyophthirius multifilis). When enlarged, it has the appearance of a rounded plaque bordered around the cilia, converging to the oral opening, through which the infusoria moves, and also attaches itself to the body of the fish. The disease is detected visually. On the body and fins of the fish there are several grayish tubercles up to 1 mm in size, the number of which rapidly increases, and the fish appears to be sprinkled with semolina, which is why the aquarists call ichthyothyroidism a manga. The parasite penetrates beneath the epithelial cover, drains blood, when the fish is severely affected, the fish is depleted and dies. Ill fish become restless, constantly scratching on surrounding objects, trying to get rid of the parasite, stop eating. The parasite is brought into the aquarium, like other pathogenic infusoria, with diseased fish and fodder from the stocked reservoirs. An outbreak of infection is favored by a sharp drop in the temperature of the water toward the lowering and other changes in the regime of the content. Infuzoria ichthyophthirius has a life cycle consisting of three stages, which is useful in treating: attacks on fish and parasites on its body; Reproduction in the cyst; Free swimming of a young infusoria-"vagabond" before the attack on the fish. After maturing to the adult state under the skin of the fish, the infusoria, having broken through the capsule shell formed around it, falls into the water and sinks to the bottom or is attached to some object, enveloped in mucus and turns into a gelatinous mass. In this state, it can remain for a long time. Under favorable conditions in the cyst, multiplication occurs by division and is formed from several hundred to a thousand or more microscopic new infusorians-"vagabonds", which after a while rupture the cyst and exit into the water. Having strengthened, they "wander" on an aquarium and, having attacked a fish, are introduced under an epithelial layer of a skin then the cycle repeats. Outside fish, "tramps" can survive no more than 2-3 days, which should be taken into account when fighting with ichthyothyroidism. If the measures to treatment are taken in a timely manner, it is not difficult to fight ichthyothyroidism. The parasite does not tolerate high water temperatures. It is enough to raise the temperature in the aquarium to 30-32 ° C with intensive aeration and frequent water substitution in order to save fish from disease in a few days. It is useful in this case to make a therapeutic dose of trypaflavine. When strong lesions with ichthyophthirius, bicillin-5 is used.


Ichthyofonosis

Fish diseases
The causative agent is the ichthyophonus fungus (Ichthyophonus hoferi). It affects internal organs, musculature, nervous tissue. Sick fish has deep ulcers on the body, dead fins, which eventually disappear. When the nervous system is affected, the fish loses coordination of movements. There are no effective therapeutic agents in this disease. The sick fish should be destroyed and the aquarium disinfected.


Cryophyllosis

Fish diseases
The causative agent of cariophylosis is the ribbon worm caryophyllius fimbriceps (Caryophyllacus fimbriceps and Caryophyllacus laticeps). The worm parasitizes in the middle section of the intestine of the fish, which swallows it with the affected tube. Fish dies at the same time from blockage of the intestinal tract. The treatment is carried out with kamala or powder from the dried rhizome and rudimentary leaves of the fern, thorny skin that are mixed with dry food or make an aqueous suspension.


Kostiotoz

Fish diseases
Disease of fish of all ages, the causative agent of which is the flagellate infusoria Costia necatrix. Affected surface of the body of fish, fins and gills. Especially dangerous is the disease for the young. Intruding into the epithelial covering of the skin, the parasite, sucking blood, causes severe skin irritation. The body and fins are covered with a layer of gray-matted mucus. Ill fish are restless, constantly rub against objects, stop eating. With severe exhaustion and defeat of bones, gills, they die. Treat fish with bicillin-5, rivanol, tripaflavin, potassium permanganate, potassium salt.


Lepidortosis

Fish diseases
The causative agent of this disease is a group of microorganisms, of which the leading role is played by the aeromonas of punctate and pseudomonas fluorescence (Aeromonas punctata and Pseudomonas fluorescens). The sick fish swam uneasily, its scales rising as a result of filling the scaly pockets with liquid. Treatment is carried out with potassium permanganate, a solution of common salt. You can also use nitrate silver and morphocycline (in 1 liter of 100,000 units) with an exposure of 5 minutes.


Octometis

Fish diseases
Pathogen - flagellate octomitis Hexamita (Octomitus) truttae. The parasite is localized in the gallbladder and intestines of the fish. Affected fish gradually lose weight and poorly take food. Often the outcome of the disease ends in the death of the fish. Treatment is done by calomel, mixing it with food .


Oodiniumosis

Fish diseases
Pathogen - from the class of bichenes dinoflagellate oodinium (Oodinium limneticum). The parasite affects the skin of the fish and its fins. Sick fish, as it were, is covered with fine grayish-yellow sand. She often swims near the surface of the water, rubs against stones and plants and gradually grows thin. Treatment is carried out with solutions of table salt (1: 1000), copper sulfate, silver nitrate, formalin.


Poisoning aquarium fish
Occurs as a result of ingress of toxic agents into the body of the body when using a poor-quality feed or ingesting poisoned aquarium water. Poisoning can be the result of feeding fish with spoiled food if stored incorrectly or by fodder caught from dysfunctional water bodies; Entry into the aquarium water of poisonous substances from the putty used in the manufacture of the aquarium; Getting into an aquarium or a vessel for storing live food of domestic insects poisoned with pesticides; Use for storage of food for non-food purposes; The use of increased doses of medicines, etc. Clinical signs of poisoning: the appearance of convulsive movements in fish, the weakening orientation of the fish, moving around, stumble upon counter objects, the loss of a bright color. In case of timely detection of signs of poisoning of diseased fish, it is necessary to immediately transplant into clean water, arrange aeration and create other optimal conditions. The aquarium should be recharged by thoroughly rinsing the plants in clean water and washing the soil.


Plistoforoz (neon disease)

Fish diseases
An infectious disease caused by parasites of Plistophora hyphessobryconis from the class of sporoviks penetrating into the cells of the tissue and the body cavity of the fish. On the body of the fish appear enlightened areas. More often than others, neon fish are affected by plastophorosis. They fade blue and red stripes, the back seems to be permeated through. Small carp also suffer. The disease is poorly understood and, according to many sources, almost incurable. Therefore, it is recommended to destroy diseased fish. However, the facts of damping of the disease are noted when the diseased fish are transferred to the old peated water. It is also recommended to use medicinal products.


Cold
Aquarium fish occurs with strong and prolonged cooling, which often happens during transportation of fish in the cold season without adequate warming, installation of the aquarium near the window, when keeping fish without heating, in a timely manner, unneeded failure of the electric heater and for other reasons. Cold fish become inactive, lose color, are covered with gray mucus, their gills inflame. Weakened by colds, fish are often affected by infectious diseases. Ill fish need to create normal conditions - heat, aeration of water, easy digestible food. To prevent the onset of an infectious disease, it is necessary to use one of the medicinal products - kitchen salt, trypaflavin, rivanol.


Pseudomonas (fin rot)

Fish diseases
Infectious disease, the causative agent of which are bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. In diseased fish, a slight drop in the edges of the fins appears, followed by their destruction and shortening. Then ulcers form at the base of the fins, and if the measures are not taken to treatment, the fish dies. Treatment should be started immediately after the discovery of signs of the disease, using one of such means as bicillin-5, copper sulfate, biomycin. Fins rot should be distinguished from injuries and alkaline disease, when in finely alkaline water fins in fish without shortening damage, as if melting. In this case, it is necessary to restore the water quality in the aquarium.


Saprollegyosis

Fish diseases
The causative agents of the disease are fungi from the family of saproligniasis and ahliya. Usually affect the depleted fish or occur as a secondary disease. Sick fish is covered with patches or sometimes completely white fluff, which consists of the neck of the fungus. Sprouting into the skin, they kill adjacent tissues, resulting in the formation of necrotic areas. The treatment is carried out with solutions of copper sulfate, formalin, nitrate silver, violet K, sodium nystatin (in 1 liter of 100,000 units), sodium salt of levorin.


Chilodonellosis

Fish diseases
Invasive disease, the causative agent of which is the equinox infusoria chylodonella (Chilodonella cyprini). Once in the aquarium, the parasite, especially in the old water, may not manifest itself to the fish for a long period of time. However, a sharp change in the oxygen regime and the chemical composition of water, the substitution of a large part of it, and the decay of the remains of the feed cause the rapid growth of chylodonella, which is noticeable in the significant turbidity of the water (the infusor turbidity). With the increase, you can see in it a lot of oval shape infusoria with cilia on the front side, performing oscillatory movements. In bodies affected by hylodonellosis, the body is covered with a bluish-matte coating, they swing, rub against the ground and plants, their fins stick together. Getting into the gills of fish, infusoria, damaging the epithelial cover, envelop their surface with a continuous film, which leads to the death of fish from suffocation. These parasites do not spare even the largest and strongest aquarium fish, such as astronotus, tilapia, etc. As follows from the above, the main thing that must be done to prevent the outbreak of hilodonellosis in the aquarium is avoiding the substitution of a large part of the water and avoiding fish overfeeding with rapidly decomposing In the water with food. Chilodonellosis is especially dangerous for fish fry and often leads to a massive loss of fish. To combat chilodonellosis, a medicinal solution of one of such drugs as rivanol, tripaflavin, methylene blue, chloramine is used. After the recovery of fish, the water must be changed.


Peptic Ulcer

Fish diseases
Pathogen - pseudomonas fluorescence is entered into the aquarium with live food, water, soil, plants and diseased specimens of fish. Sick fish have small sores on the body surface, which, if not taken, will increase and penetrate deep into the body. Quite often, fungi penetrate the places of ulceration, which exacerbate the disease and lead to the death of fish. Treatment is carried out with solutions of potassium permanganate, trypaflavin.


Prevention of diseases
It is important for the prevention of diseases of aquarium fish that arise as a result of violations of the rules of keeping and infection through different channels. In order to preserve the health of the inhabitants of the aquarium and create a normal ecological situation it is recommended that the following rules be observed:
- systematically conduct weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with a substitution of an average of 1/10 of water; Avoid overpopulation of the aquarium;
- avoid unreasonable and partial transplantation of fish;
- Do not place in the aquarium items that can cause poisoning or injury to fish;
- strictly monitor the quality of food for fish and ensure its proper storage;
- observe the feeding regime (twice a day), do not leave the fish hungry for a long time and do not allow overfeeding;
- maintain in the aquarium the optimum temperature recommended for specific fish species, exclude the possibility of sudden temperature changes in the aquarium and hypothermia;
- to ensure reliable transportation of fish, using soft sufficient in volume, carrying, excluding injury to fish;
- In winter, use thermos containers, and for large fish and a large number of fry, special portable warmed boxes;
- newly acquired fish subject to quarantine, placing them in a designated area, filled with water from the existing aquarium;
- in order not to arrange a separate heating, small fish can be placed in a glass jar and allowed to float in an aquarium;
- The inventory (nets, siphons, etc.) that were served by sick or quarantined fish should be thoroughly disinfected (with potassium permanganate, rivanol, cooking salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish;
- To avoid jumping fish from the aquarium, it must be covered with glass or mesh, ensuring free air access;
- when treating fish with medicines and chemical preparations, strictly observe the dosage in order to prevent poisoning.