Diseases and diseases of fish
The fish organism, like the organisms of all other living beings, possesses a certain resistance to pathogens, for example, to parasites. But if, for some reason, the fish is weakened or, on the contrary, the causative agents of diseases in connection with some circumstances have become stronger, then the disease may manifest itself. Preventing fish diseases, as always, is better than adding chemicals to the water, even controlling (more or less) this process. In aquariums do not work on the principle of watering can for watering flowers! You will not swallow medicines if you have a sick neighbor or someone in the family? But in aquarium, it often turns out that all the inhabitants of a home pond are constantly under the influence of drugs (most often - antibiotics!), And only because any one fish seems unhealthy. Well, the fish do not know how to speak ... Here is one example. If bacterial inflammation is suspected after being bitten into the water, antibacterial agents are often added to the water for prevention, and they can only be used in a separate reservoir. Yes, in this case, bacteria are killed, which, possibly, may cause an inflammatory process. But at the same time, all other bacteria that are contained in the soil are destroyed, or, for example, those that participate in the so-called nitrification (the oxidation of ammonia through nitrites to nitrates). The best and most effective way to avoid disease is to monitor biological purity, correct temperature and water performance. Fill the aquarium with soil, plant the plants, but wait a week or two (!) And do not run fish into it until enough bacteria have been formed in the soil and in the filter to convert the harmful substances. Without a developed bacterial fauna in the aquarium, the concentration of poisons (ammonia, nitrites) is rapidly increasing; little by little they can be removed by partial replacement of water. At the same time, the content of nitrites in the water must be constantly checked. Fresh water should be mixed (!) In the aquarium to absorb as much oxygen as possible. If, in spite of careful adherence to these tips, your fish become ill, then first you need to seriously examine the symptoms. Therapeutic intervention is possible only when the diagnosis is made. Special tables contain information on the most common diseases of fish, their symptoms and methods of treatment.
It is better to prevent the disease than to treat it
Below are listed those phenomena and factors that may affect the health of fish and possibly contribute to disease. The best way to combat these diseases is to prevent them.
1. Hunger and emaciation. Both can easily lead to infectious damage to the integument; fish are secondarily affected by a fungus (Saprolegnia).
2. Poor and unsuitable food. Easily leads to diseases of the stomach and intestines. If the food is too greasy, it can lead to obesity in the bowels. If the food is too monotonous and poor in vitamins, it can cause general weakening and degeneration of the liver. Pisces does not hurt some abstinence. This is the same as with people: it's better to be hungry and cheerful, than fed and sluggish.
3. The temperature is too low. Fish can also catch cold. The consequence of hypothermia is most often an inflammation of the swim bladder, and thus - a decrease in the resistance of the body. Unexpected and sudden changes in temperature and arbitrary transfer of fish should be avoided.
4. Lack of oxygen. Most often it makes the fish breathe heavily and thereby weakens them.
5. Too soft water or too low pH. Not all fish tolerate an unusually low pH, although this is recommended for some species (red neon, discus, etc.). Fish (like other viviparous), if they live in the coastal zone, tolerate neither particularly soft water, nor too low pH. The latter causes them to "acid disease".
6. Too much solar radiation. Fortunately, modern lamps built into the top cover help now to avoid the widespread
errors: installation of the aquarium on the windowsill. Due to increased sun exposure, and also because of the concomitant increase in the pH value to 10 or more, burns on the skin and fins (alkaline disease) are possible.
7. Wounds due to contact with instruments or biting neighbors. Lead to infection by fungus or bacterial infection of wounds. It is necessary to think in advance of the selection of fish in the aquarium.
8. Poor insulation. If improper tools (metals, glue, paint, hoses) were used in the manufacture or repair of the aquarium at home, this can lead to poisoning.
9. Harmful gases. Oven gas, factory emissions, tobacco smoke, etc., are drawn in by an air pump and enter the aquarium water. They are harmful or even fatal for fish. Therefore, it is recommended that an air filter (with filter charcoal) be used between the pump or the flow filter, or that the air be sucked outdoors.
Diseases of fish. Diagnosis and therapy
In addition to numerous diseases. which can be prevented by the above-mentioned preventive measures, there are, unfortunately, others; but the aquarist can successfully treat them. It is here about the defeat of external parasites. Internal fish diseases can be cured very difficult, because they are usually recognized too late. In case of doubt it is necessary to quickly knock on the glass of the avcarium: if the fish is healthy, then it will hurry down quickly. And the sick fish swims slowly, with fluctuating movements. If the fish goes up, not moving fins, or hardly rises from the bottom, then this also indicates a disease. The same applies to fish that stay right under the surface of the water and swim only if you touch them with your hand. Our table gives a list of the most common diseases and diagnoses.
|Main indications||Individual Symptoms|
|Lowering to the bottom||edema, cold, inflammation of the swim bladder|
|Necrosis of the fins||inflammation of the intestines, colds, fin rot, gas embolism, skin turbidity, ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease, oiodinosis, parasite infestation, swelling bladder inflammation, poisoning, constipation|
|Dislike of food||inflammation of the intestines, colds, tuberculosis of fish, gas embolism, skin turbidity, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, spironucleosis, oiodinosis, parasite damage, poisoning, constipation||dropsy, fin rot, ichthyophthyroidism, neon disease|
|Jumping on the bottom||edema, inflammation of the intestines, colds, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, inflammation of the swim bladder||neon disease, constipation|
|Convulsions||gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning|
|Hopping motion||dropsy, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyroidism, oodiniosis, parasite infestation, inflammation of the swim bladder||blurred skin, constipation|
|Shiver||dropsy, cold, tuberculosis of fish, fin rot, skin turbidity, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyroidism, oiodinosis, parasite infestation, swelling bladder inflammation, poisoning|
|Friction about stones, etc.||turbidity of the skin, ichthyophthyroidism, carp louse, oiodinosis, parasite damage|
|Greedy swallowing of air||gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning||opacity of the skin|
|Violation of coordination of movements||tuberculosis of fish, glueosis, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, spironucleosis, inflammation of the swim bladder, poisoning|
|Anxiety, apathy||gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning||opacity of the skin|
|Changes in appearance|
|Emaciation||inflammation of the intestines, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease, spironucleosis||gliosis, oiodinosis|
|Bloating||swelling, swelling of the swim bladder||cold, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease|
|Deformation of body parts||edema, tuberculosis of fish, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease||fin rot|
|Scaling of scales||edema, ichthyosporidosis||neon disease|
|Accumulation||dropsy||fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis|
|Redness of the anal opening||edema, inflammation of the intestine, spironucleosis||cold|
|Bluish white spots||tuberculosis of fish, skin turbidity, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, parasite damage||cold|
|Focal hemorrhages||edema, tuberculosis of fish, ichthyosporidosis, spironucleosis, parasite damage||opacity of the skin, ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease|
|Color changing stains||tuberculosis of fish, glueosis, neon disease|
|Subcutaneous gas bubbles||gas embolism|
|Ulcers||edema, tuberculosis of fish, glueosis, ichthyosporidosis, spironucleosis|
|Sores, rash on the body||ichthyosporidosis|
|Exfoliation of skin||alkaline disease, oiodinosis, parasite damage||opacity of the skin|
|Whitish beads or tubercles||lymphocystis|
|Dark spots||opacity of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, parasite damage|
|Felt coating||opacity of the skin, saprollegyosis|
|Changes in the fins|
|Mucous darkening||fin rot, ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease, parasite damage, saprollegiosis||opacity of the skin|
|Gluing the fins||opacity of the skin|
|Whitening edge fins||lymphocystis, parasitism||fin rot|
|Destruction of the fins||tuberculosis of fish, fin rot, skin turbidity, ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease, oiodinosis, parasite damage|
|Bulging of the gills||parasite damage|
|Swelling, inflammation||alkaline disease, parasite damage, poisoning||opacity of the skin|
|Slate-white tarnish||opacity of the skin|
|Whitening||ichthyophthyroidism, alkaline disease, parasite damage|
|Bead nodules||ichthyophthyroidism||parasite damage|
|Wormlike stains||parasite damage|
|The Euphorbia||edema, tuberculosis of fish, ichthyosporidosis, constipation|
|Dots and specks||ichthyophthyroidism, oiodinosis|
|Tarnishing||ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyroidism, oiodinosis||parasite damage|
|Surface destruction||ichthyophthyroidism, oiodinosis, parasite infestation|
Even very weak symptoms should be taken seriously. We must try to begin treatment by increasing the resistance of the fish organism: it must be isolated and provided with favorable water and temperature conditions, as well as nutrition, which means: do not overfeed and do not overheat. As for a separate reservoir, and behind the aquarium, where the fish was removed, it is necessary to closely monitor. To strengthen the body's resistance to fish, vitamin preparations can be added to food. But if its condition worsens, then it is necessary to take the next step, to begin treatment. First of all, you need to make a short or long bath. Further, according to the instructions on the package, it is necessary to treat the fish in its quarantine vessel. And, please, never exceed this dose "from the best of motives" - this can lead to the rapid death of fish.
Fish pests and methods of fighting them
Along with live food, dangerous pests often enter the aquarium, which causes serious trouble to its owner and causes radical measures, therefore the aquarist must know the enemies of the fish and the methods of combating them.
Argulus (scientific name) - the most unpleasant "guests" of the aquarium. These include zhabrohvostye crustaceans, which are usually called fish louse, or karpoed. The crustaceans feed on the blood of fish, parasitizing on their skin. They are quite large, reach 4-8 mm in length and, what is most important, they have a broad, leaf-like (oblate) translucent body, painted in a greenish-yellow or grayish-green color, which is not clearly visible on the body of fish. The cephalothorax of the parasite is provided with attachment organs with curved hooks, sucking proboscis, suction-prominent organs, four pairs of swimming legs, two facetted eyes. Very mobile, easily separated from the fish and freely floating in the water with the help of swimming legs. Possessing a positive reaction to light, the crustaceans and their larvae tend to the light layers of the water, where their development occurs more quickly. From eggs laid by the female on the ground, plants, stones, larvae appear. If the larvae, floating freely in the water for 2-3 days, will not meet the fish, they perish. Once on the fish, they grow so quickly that after 15-18 days they reach sexual maturity and can lay eggs themselves.
Arguluses are thermophilic and photophilic, therefore, in an aquarium, they usually fall, as a rule, in the hot season with water, soil, vegetation, live food from natural reservoirs. Drifting them into the aquarium is a real disaster. Attached to the fish, parasites pierce the skin with a proboscis and not only suck blood, but also inject into the wound the toxic secret of the poisonous gland. The wound site becomes inflamed, swollen, a hemorrhage occurs, and in more severe cases deep wounds form on the body of fish. Destroying the skin, contribute to penetration through the wounds of microorganisms and the development of infectious diseases.
The struggle with the arguments is rather difficult and basically consists in their mechanical separation. Affected fish are placed in a moist tampon and the parasites are removed with a thin tweezers. You can then treat the wound with a treatment solution (1 g of crystalline potassium permanganate per 1 liter of water), for which a cotton swab wound around the match (without a sulfur head) and moistened in the indicated therapeutic solution is applied to the affected area. After this, the fish is immediately released into an uninfected aquarium.
The main methods of struggle are based on the knowledge of the nature of the development of the parasite. We recommend leaving the fish tank without fish and raising the temperature to 26 ° C, it is good to light and keep it so for a week. Do not catch food in hot weather in the reservoirs where fish live. It is very important to carefully review, sort the caught and bought food on the market.
Hydra. Very untidy for the inhabitants of the aquarium can be the massive development of dangerous representatives of intestinal lobed protozoa - hydra. Attached to the glass of the aquarium, plants, other objects soles, the hydra attacks with the help of stinging tentacles on the larvae and fry. Tentacles are provided with stinging capsules containing fine filaments with poison, with which the hydra paralyzes the victim, and then captures and absorbs. In this case, the predator significantly increases in size. The body length of the hydra without tentacles reaches 1 cm. In larger fry, the hydra breaks the skin, exposing the infection. Hydra can reproduce very quickly by budding. It is photophilous, and you can see the accumulation of hydra in a brightly lit area of the aquarium glass.
Get rid of hydra is not easy. We can offer the easiest way - luring to the light, given their positive phototaxis. A thin glass is lowered into the water, which is pressed tightly against the glass of the aquarium. The aquarium shade and direct a beam of light onto this glass. When hydras accumulate in a lighted area, the glass is removed from them, cleaning the animals from it. This method can not rid the hydra completely.
The use of ammonium sulfate [(NH4) 2SO] or ammonium nitrate (NHNO): ammonium sulfate is dissolved at a rate of 0.05 g of the preparation per 1 liter of water and is added to the common aquarium, since it is harmless in these fish doses. Hydras should die within 3-5 days. Applying ammonium nitrate, fry and juvenile fish from the aquarium are removed, adult fish and hydra are intensively fed for two weeks by daphnia. Hydras at this time are actively multiplying. Then, ammonium nitrate is added to the aquarium at a rate of 0.6-1 g of the preparation per 10 liters of water, first dissolving the substance in 250-500 ml of water. For better mixing, aeration is included. The temperature is raised to 27-28 ° C and maintained until the end of the course of treatment. After three days, the initial dose of the same concentration is applied. Hydras must die on the 5th-6th day. Water in the aquarium after the destruction of the hydra is not completely changed. Pisces ammonium nitrate in such concentrations is not harmful, and plants even serve as a fertilizer.
If there are no plants in the aquarium and you can temporarily remove the fish, apply hydrogen peroxide at the rate of two teaspoons of a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide to 10 liters of water. The calculated amount is diluted in 100-150 ml of water and introduced into an aquarium without fish and plants. The resulting free oxygen acts on the hydrate is fatal.
You can place in the different ends of the aquarium two coils of copper wire (without insulation). In water, copper begins to oxidize, and the resulting products have a disastrous effect on the hydra, in which the tentacles are lost (they fall to the bottom of the aquarium, where they are removed by the hose). After being released from Hydra, the wire is removed.
When using a solution of copper sulfate (0.05 g per 1 liter of water), the death of the hydra occurs within an hour, after another 3-4 hours, partial purification and complete substitution of water are performed. Fish for the duration of these operations from the aquarium is removed. Copper vitriol must be chemically pure or pure for analysis. Complicating this event is a complete replacement of water, that is, in fact, the creation of anew aquarium. However, for spawning and growing special aquariums where there is no soil, plants are usually kept in pots or ditches (they are portable), water is taken from large aquariums, diluting it with tap water, this method is quite acceptable.
The method of fighting hydra with the help of an electric current was tested and suggested by the aquarist E. Dotsenko from Kharkov. It consists in connecting a 9-12 V direct current source to two bundles of copper wire (without insulation) immersed in water at opposite ends of the aquarium (for which it is possible to use a 9-12-volt transformer with a diode one- or two-half-rectifier rectifier ). The current is included after the installation of the wiring, provided that the current wires are thoroughly insulated from the metal frame of the aquarium. Enough of one or two inclusions for 1-2 minutes to destroy all the hydra in a 60-liter aquarium. Fish and plants feel normal at the same time.
Together with water plants in the aquarium you can bring flat worms. They are called planaria (Planaria gonocephala and P. maculata). These worms with a head in the form of a triangle are glued to the windows and are especially dangerous for fry.
Planaria. There are three types of planarians known: Planaria torva, black (Policoelis nigra) and less common large milky-white planaria (Dendrocoellum lacteum), reaching a length of 2.5 cm. These flatworms, having, according to one biologist, "robbery ", Falling into an aquarium with live food, destroy caviar, larvae and fish fry. Planaria is not at all harmless in relation to adult fish. Her predatory attack on adult Malawian cichlids was observed, for example, by scientists in the Dnepropetrovsk aquarium complex. In the gills of the dead fish, planaria were found in large numbers. The death of cichlids occurred as a result of severe anemia. Saving the rest of the fish was possible by adding sodium chloride (2.5 g per 1 liter of water).
Unlike hydra planarians lead a twilight way of life, hiding in the daytime in plants, under rocks. If you look at the caught planaria under the magnifying glass, you can see two eyes on the front of the body. The body of the planaria is covered with cilia and the movements look smooth. Worms are covered with a specific mucus, so fish, with the exception of some, do not take them. The planetarium is unusually tenacious. Getting into unfavorable conditions, they lose mobility, turning into a formless mass, but a pharynx that can live independently, breaks away from the body and leaves the environment, continuing to move. Worms are capable of striking regeneration: separated by more than two hundred parts, they retain the ability of full recovery from each part.
The methods of combating this tenacious predator are based on its highly developed sense of smell. In the gauze pouch place a little scraped beef and on the line lowered into the aquarium, near the plants or from the ground. The aquarium is darkened.
Planaria quickly gather for bait. The bag is taken out with a net and lowered into a steep boiling water. The procedure is repeated at intervals of several days.
It is fatal for planaria and an increase in the temperature of water to 30-32 ° C, which many tropical fish can withstand (provided there is sufficient aeration).
Chemical methods of controlling planarians are also acceptable. Apply copper sulfate (1.5 mg per liter of water) and ammonium nitrate (25-50 mg per 1 liter of water with a double treatment).
Experienced aquarists for the destruction of the planaria run into the aquarium for 2-3 days without food, without the young gouramis, macropods, males, black cichlases, chrome bouillon, and plaque.
In case of an epidemic, only complete cleaning and disinfection of not only the aquarium itself, but each object that has recently come into contact with its contents, will help. To do this, it is best to use formalin, a liquid with a strong odor, which is usually used in diluted form for the preparation. This high-grade poison immediately kills the fish.
Together with the food in the aquarium you can bring other no less dangerous pests of fish. Some of them, for example, larvae of the beetle-beetle, dragonfly nymphs, suitable for feed to adult cichlazomas and other large predatory fish, are absolutely unacceptable in an aquarium with small species and, especially, young. One dragonfly larva, not noticed by an aquarist, can destroy all the fry and kill adult fish, such as, for example, neon.
A beetle is a beetle. The head of the larva is provided with sickle-shaped jaws. They have enough prey, lets in paralyzing liquid through the canals, then belches the enzymes from the stomach into the wound of the victim, dissolving the tissues to the liquid state, and this liquid sucks up until there is practically nothing left from the extraction. The beetles themselves are tearing the prey apart and eagerly eaten. Cases are described when in natural reservoirs and spawning ponds the beetles and their larvae destroyed almost all the young fish. The larvae of the waterfish at an early stage of development are small, and therefore may not be noticed by the aquarist and brought into the aquarium with the bloodworm and crustaceans.
Dangerous pests that destroy fish are such water insects as gladyses, ranatry, plavty, water mites, shields, water meters, water bug apheliohirus, as well as larvae of water scorpion, water beetle, beetle-beetle. All of them are visible to the naked eye, therefore, with some caution, sorting and carefully viewing live food, you can avoid getting pests into the aquarium.
|Name of the disease||Cause||Therapy|
|Dropsy, scaling||The pseudomona punctata caused by liver damage. Because of the penetration of water into the abdominal cavity - scaling of the scales.||Treatment is impossible; you can only try to make a bath outside the acarum (!): 80 mg / l Chloramphenicol .|
|Inflammation or intestinal infection||It can be a side effect of spironucleosis; then treat like this disease.||Depending on the reason.|
|Cold||Due to a sudden change of temperature or too cold water.||Contents in a separate tank: slowly increase the temperature by 4-5 ° C; After eight days, gradually reduce it for eight days to the temperature of the aquarium.|
|Tuberculosis of fish||Caused by microbacteria (Myobacterium piscium) nodularity. The disease proceeds slowly; not contagious.||Catch diseased fish and destroy. Treatment is impossible. Stronger fish can imperceptibly transfer the infection.|
|Fin fungus||Defeat and falling of fins, caused by water deterioration.||As a first aid: a change of water! Treatment with Ek t ozon, Exrapid (as directed by the manufacturer) or individual long-term baths: a) tripaflavin (10 mg / l) or b) Chloramphenicol (6 - 8 mg / l); a) for many days, b) after eight hours|
|Gas embolism||Formation of air bubbles under the skin and in blood vessels due to oxygen saturation (rarely) or water pressure filling the aquarium (with water change).||To warn this disease is easier than to treat! Fill the aquarium with only standing water. In case of illness, strongly aerate the aquarium water to remove excess pressure.|
|Glugoseosis||Pathogen - microsporidia Glugea pseudotu m efaciens; affects primarily the ovaries (especially in Brachydanio rerio), but also other internal organs.||Treatment is impossible! If it is determined that the fish are sick with this disease, they must be caught and destroyed.|
|Ichthyoblodosis (dicease)||Defeat of weakening parasites (Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina Cyclochaeta); can spread like an infection.||Separate (!) Trays with trypoflavin (see fin rot) or short baths with table salt (10-15 g / l) after 20 minutes with a temperature increase of 2-3 ° C.|
|Ichthyosporidiasis (ichthyophonosis)||Caused by fungiococcus ficomycete Ichthyosporidiurn hofe ri and easily spreading infection. It affects mostly internal organs.||If this disease is established, treatment is impossible.|
|Ichthyophthyroidism||The most famous of the fish diseases, is caused by the equinox infusoria Ichthyophthirius multifilius, which lives under the skin of the fish.||Treatment with long baths in the aquarium! In specialized stores there are medicines. They often contain colorants. Be careful: the plants in the aquarium do not tolerate some drugs,|
|Karpoeed||Parasite, shaped like lentils; visible to the naked eye. Yellow-green color with dark dots.||If you catch fish from the aquarium, the mouthpiece of the louse disappears; it can be removed by washing with a brush.|
|Alkaline Disease||The disease is due to a high pH, as well as strong sunlight or low lime in water, which is not capable of binding carbon dioxide.||Continually carry out a partial change of water or move the fish to another aquarium. Subsequently, monitor the pH value. When adding CO2, if done correctly, the disease can not occur.|
|Lymphocystis||Viral disease, which is particularly susceptible to dwarf cichlids and macropods; easily transmitted.||If the fins are affected, they can be (shallowly) cut off. If the disease passes to the body, further treatment is impossible. Fish must be caught and destroyed.|
|Neon disease||The causative agent of the disease is called Plistophora hyphessobryconis; parasitizes in the muscles of the fish, forming spores.||The disease can spread like an epidemic (well known to importers). Treatment is impossible: the fish should be closely monitored, the infected individuals immediately caught and destroyed.|
|Oiodinosis; velvet disease||The disease causes Oodinium pillularis, flagella infusoria; the symptoms are the same as with ichthyophthyroidism.||The medicinal product is "Exrapid"; separate short baths in a solution of table salt (10-15 g / l) for 20 minutes or immersion in a net (25 g / l) for 10-20 seconds.|
|The defeat of parasites||Pathogens: Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina, (Cyclochaeta), gill worms, Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Monocoelium Neodactylogyrus, and others.||See also "Ichthyoblodosis (dicease)". In case of defeat by gill parasites - "Gyrotox" (in a pet store), according to the instructions. Short baths are possible in a solution of table salt (repeat after a few days).|
|Saprollegyosis||Organic contamination (corpses of fish, remains of food, etc.). Most often on the affected areas (open wounds) there is mold caused by a fungal disease.||Lubricate the preparation against fungus or mold; possible short baths in manganese (1 g / 100 l), 20 - 30 minutes.|
|Inflammation of the swim bladder||It can be a concomitant phenomenon in dropsy or a consequence of hypothermia.||Depending on the reason; see "Water Drop" and "Cold."|
|Spironucleosis||Most often this flagellate is imported together with fish from East Asia. Strikes usually discus (whitish filiform excrement). It also occurs in other cichlids. The final stage: holes in the head.||Special preparations with metronidazole (for example, "Clont") are sold under the prescription. In the pet store you can buy "Nekhaeh". The tablet of the first of these drugs should be dissolved in about 60 liters of water; 4-day course of treatment in the aquarium. The second preparation should be used according to the instructions. Preventive courses are recommended (2 times a year). In pharmacies also sold metronizadol BP 80, packaged in vials of 10 g. Unlike the drug "Clont" - this is a pure substance without fillers, because its price is higher. (Dosage: 4 mg per liter of aquarium water.)|
|Poisoning||The cause should be established. Have you worked recently on the aquarium and its design? Did you use chemicals? Sprayed in the room anti-insect medications? Is it possible to poison with ammonia or nitrites?||If the cause is found, it is necessary to eliminate it and thereby poisoning. In case of doubt, it is recommended to gradually change the water in small portions.|
|Constipation||The reason is most often in monotony of nutrition; is a consequence of the common cold.||Optimal care and care for a variety of food: live and fresh-frozen food (animal protein).|
Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Mark in aquarium fish in most cases when feeding monotonous and poor-quality food, can cause simultaneous death of a significant number of fish, especially juveniles. In addition to feeding the fish with spoiled and polluted pipe man, rotten bloodworm, coretra, overexposed fodder, the disease often occurs when overfeeding hungry fish with dry daphnia. In the sick fish, the abdomen swells, redness appears in the anal area, constipation or excrement is observed with uneaten food, breathing is difficult, fish stop feeding, they fall to the bottom. Abnormal fish must first of all ensure normal conditions of maintenance - cleanliness, warmth, aeration, water substitution. After 2-3 days of fasting, start feeding small amounts of benign, easily digestible feeds - live daphnia, cyclops, fresh coretra. Karpovs and their like on nutrition to feed the cooked semolina. In the water of the aquarium, one of the disinfectants is added in therapeutic doses - kitchen salt, trypaflavin, rivanol.
Rotting of fins
Poisoning aquarium fish
It occurs as a result of ingestion of toxic substances into the body of the body when using a poor-quality feed or ingesting poisoned aquarium water. Poisoning can be a consequence of feeding fish with spoiled food if stored incorrectly, or food taken from dysfunctional water bodies; entry into the aquarium water of poisonous substances from the putty used in the manufacture of the aquarium; getting into an aquarium or a vessel for storing live food of domestic insects poisoned with pesticides; use for storage of food for non-food purposes; the use of increased doses of drugs, etc. Clinical signs of poisoning: the appearance of convulsive movements in fish, the weakening orientation of the fish, moving around, stumble upon counter objects, the loss of a bright color. In case of timely detection of signs of poisoning of diseased fish, it is necessary to immediately transplant into clean water, arrange aeration and create other optimal conditions. The aquarium should be recharged by thoroughly rinsing plants in clean water and washing the soil.
Plistophorosis (neon disease)
Aquarium fishes occur with strong and prolonged cooling, which often happens when transporting fish in the cold season without adequate warming, installing the aquarium near the window, keeping fish without heating, the unneeded failure of the electric heater in time and for other reasons. Cold fish become inactive, lose color, are covered with gray mucus, their gills inflame. Weakened by colds, fish are often affected by infectious diseases. Ill fish need to create normal conditions - heat, aeration of water, easy digestible food. To prevent the onset of an infectious disease, it is necessary to use one of the medicinal products - kitchen salt, trypaflavin, rivanol.
Pseudomonas (fin rot)
Prevention of diseases
It is important for the prevention of diseases of aquarium fish that arise as a result of violations of the rules of detention and the introduction of infection through different channels. In order to preserve the health of the inhabitants of the aquarium and create a normal ecological situation it is recommended that the following rules be observed:
- systematically carry out a weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with a substitution of an average of 1/10 of the volume of water; avoid overpopulation of the aquarium;
- avoid unreasonable and partial transplantation of fish;
- Do not place in the aquarium items that can cause poisoning or injury to fish;
- strictly monitor the quality of fish food and ensure its proper storage;
- observe the feeding regime (twice a day), do not leave the fish hungry for a long time and do not allow overfeeding;
- maintain in the aquarium the optimum temperature recommended for specific fish species, exclude the possibility of sudden temperature changes in the aquarium and hypothermia;
- ensure reliable transportation of fish, applying soft sufficient in volume, carrying, excluding injury to fish;
- In winter, use thermos containers, and for large fish and a large number of fry, special portable warmed boxes;
- newly acquired fish subject to quarantine, placing them in a designated area, filled with water from the existing aquarium;
- in order not to arrange a separate heating, small fish can be placed in a glass jar and allowed to float in an aquarium;
- The inventory (nets, siphons, etc.) for sick or quarantined fish should be thoroughly disinfected (with potassium permanganate, rivanol, cooking salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish;
- To avoid jumping fish from the aquarium, it must be covered with glass or mesh, ensuring free air access;
- when treating fish with medicines and chemical preparations, strictly observe the dosage to prevent poisoning.