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Fish diseases and diseases

The organism of fish, like the organisms of all other living creatures, has a certain power of resistance to pathogens, for example, parasites. But if for some reason the fish is weakened or, conversely, the causative agents of diseases have become stronger due to some circumstances, then the disease may appear. Preventing fish diseases, as always, is better than adding chemicals to the water, even controlling (more or less) this process. In the aquarium should not work on the principle of watering can for watering flowers! You will not swallow drugs if you have a neighbor or someone in your family is sick? But in aquarism it often happens that all the inhabitants of a domestic pond are constantly under the influence of drugs (most often antibiotics!), And only because any single fish seems unhealthy. Well, the fish do not know how to speak ... Here is one example. If bacterial inflammation is suspected after being bitten, antibacterial agents are often added to the water “for prevention” (after all, they can only be used in a separate tank). Yes, at the same time the bacteria that excite, possibly, the inflammatory process die. But at the same time, all other bacteria are also destroyed - those contained in the soil, or, for example, those that are involved in the so-called nitrification (oxidation of ammonia through nitrites to nitrates). The best and most effective way to avoid illness is to monitor biological purity, the correct temperature and water readings. Fill the aquarium with soil, plant the plants, but wait a week or so (!) And do not run fish into it until a sufficient amount of bacteria that convert harmful substances is formed in the soil and in the filter. Without a developed bacterial fauna in the aquarium, the concentration of poisons (ammonia, nitrite) quickly increases; little by little they can be removed by a partial replacement of water. At the same time it is necessary to constantly check the content of nitrite in the water. Fresh water should be mixed (!) In the aquarium to absorb as much oxygen as possible. If, despite careful adherence to these tips, your fish get sick, then you first need to seriously investigate the symptoms. Therapeutic intervention is possible only when diagnosed. Special tables contain information on the most common diseases of fish, their symptoms and methods of treatment.

It is better to prevent the disease than to treat it.

The following are the phenomena and factors that may affect the well-being of fish and possibly contribute to diseases. The best way to combat these diseases is to prevent them.

1. Hunger and emaciation. Both can easily lead to contagious damage to the integument; fish are again affected by the fungus (Saprolegnia).

2. Poor and inappropriate feed. Easily leads to diseases of the stomach and intestines. If the food is too fat, it can lead to intestinal obesity. If the food is too monotonous and poor in vitamins, it can cause a general weakening and degeneration of the liver. Pisces will not harm some temperance. This is the same as with people: it is better to be hungry and vigorous than full and sluggish.

3. Temperature too low. Fish can also catch a cold. The result of hypothermia is most often inflammation of the swim bladder, and thus - a decrease in the body’s resistance. Unexpected and abrupt temperature changes and arbitrary fish transport should be avoided.

4. Lack of oxygen. Most often makes fish breathe heavily and thereby weakens them.

5. Water too soft or pH too low. Not every fish tolerates an unusually low pH well, although it is recommended for some species (red neon, discus, etc.). Fish (like other viviparous), if they live in the coastal zone, do not tolerate particularly soft water, or too low pH. The latter causes them to "acid disease".

6. Too strong solar radiation. Fortunately, modern lamps mounted in the top cover now help to avoid the common

errors: installing the aquarium on the windowsill. Due to increased sun exposure, as well as the concomitant increase in pH up to 10 or more, burns on the skin and fins are possible (alkaline disease).

7. Wounds due to contact with devices or biting neighbors. Lead to fungal or bacterial infection of wounds. It is necessary to think over the selection of fish in the aquarium beforehand.

8. Bad insulation. If unsuitable products (metals, glue, paint, hoses) were used in the manufacture or repair of the aquarium at home, this can lead to poisoning.

9. Harmful gases. Furnace gas, factory emissions, tobacco smoke, etc., are drawn in by an air pump and enter the aquarium water. They are harmful or even deadly to fish. Therefore, it is recommended between the pump or the flow filter to turn on the air filter (with filter carbon) or to take in air outdoors.

Disease fish. Diagnosis and therapy

In addition to numerous diseases. which can be prevented by the preventive measures mentioned above, there are, unfortunately, others; but an aquarist can successfully treat them too. It is about the defeat of external parasites. It is very difficult to cure internal fish diseases, because they are usually recognized too late. In case of doubt, you should quickly hit the glass of avkarium: if the fish is healthy, then it will rush down. And the sick fish swims slowly, with oscillating movements. If the fish goes up without moving the fins, or hardly rises from the bottom, then this also indicates a disease. The same applies to fish that hold directly below the surface of the water and swim away only if you touch them with your hand. Our table gives a list of the most common diseases and diagnoses.

Symptoms Diagnosis
Main indications Individual symptoms
Fish behavior
Reduction to the bottom dropsy, cold, swim bladder inflammation
Fin necrosis intestinal inflammation, common cold, fin rot, gas embolism, clouding of the skin, ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease, oodinia, parasitic lesions, swim bladder inflammation, poisoning, constipation
Rejection of food intestinal inflammation, common cold, fish tuberculosis, gas embolism, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, spironulosis, oodinia, parasitic lesions, poisoning, constipation dropsy, fin rot, ichthyofthiriasis, neon disease
Jumps on the bottom dropsy, intestinal inflammation, common cold, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, swim bladder inflammation neon disease, constipation
Cramps gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning
Spasmodic motion dropsy, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthiriasis, oodinia, parasitic lesions, swim bladder inflammation clouding of the skin, constipation
Shiver edema, common cold, fish tuberculosis, fin rot, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthiriasis, odinosis, parasitic lesion, swimming bladder inflammation, poisoning
Friction about stones, etc. clouding of the skin, ichthyophthiriasis, carp lice, oodiniosis, parasitic damage
Greedy swallowing air gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning clouding of the skin, parasitic damage
Movement Coordination fish tuberculosis, glucose, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, spironulosis, swim bladder inflammation, poisoning
Anxiety, apathy gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning clouding of the skin
Changes in appearance
Emaciation intestinal inflammation, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease, spironulosis Glugeosis, Oodiniosis
Bloating dropsy, swim bladder inflammation cold, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease
Deformation of body areas dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease fin rot
Scaling the scales dropsy, ichthyosporidosis neon disease
Scalls dropsy fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis
Skin symptoms
Redness of the anus dropsy, intestinal inflammation, spironulosis cold
Bluish-white spots fish tuberculosis, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, parasites cold
Focal hemorrhage dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, spironulosis, parasites clouding of the skin, ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease
Color changing spots fish tuberculosis, glucose, neon disease
Subcutaneous gas bubbles gas embolism
Ulcers dropsy, fish tuberculosis, glucose, ichthyosporidosis, spironulosis
Sores, rashes on the body ichthyosporidosis
Exfoliation of the skin alkaline disease, oodinia, parasitic clouding of the skin
Whitish beads or bumps lymphocystis
Yellowish nodules oodiniosis
Dark spots clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, parasites
Felt patina clouding of the skin, saprolegniosis
Fin changes
Cone-shaped nodules lymphocystis
Mucous darkening fin rot, ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease, parasites, saprolegnosis clouding of the skin
Gluing fins clouding of the skin, parasitic damage
Whitening the edge of the fins lymphocystis, parasitic fin rot
Fracture destruction fish tuberculosis, fin rot, clouding of the skin, ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease, odinosis, parasites
Gill changes
Diving gills defeat by parasites
Swelling, inflammation alkaline disease, parasitic poisoning, poisoning clouding of the skin
Bluish white tarnish clouding of the skin, parasitic damage
Whitening ichthyophthiriasis, alkaline disease, parasitic injury
Nodules ichthyophthiriasis defeat by parasites
Worm spots defeat by parasites
Eye changes
Tweezers dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, constipation
Points and specks ichthyophthiriasis
Tarnish ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthiriasis, oodiniosis defeat by parasites
Surface destruction ichthyophthiriasis, oodiniosis, parasitic injury

Even very weak symptoms should be taken seriously. It is necessary to try to start treatment by increasing the body's resistance to the fish: it must be isolated and provide favorable water and temperature conditions, as well as food, which means: do not overfeed or overheat. Both the individual tank and the aquarium from which the fish was removed must be carefully monitored. To enhance the body's resistance to fish, vitamin preparations can be added to food. But if her condition worsens, then you need to take the next step, to begin treatment. First you need to make a short or long bath. Further, according to the instructions on the package, it is necessary to treat the fish in its quarantine vessel. And please, never exceed the specified dose of “well-meaning” - this can lead to the early death of the fish.

Fish pests and methods to combat them

Along with live food, dangerous pests often get into the aquarium, which causes great trouble for its owner and forces him to take radical measures, so the aquarist should know the enemies of the fish and how to control them.

Argulus (scientific name) - the most unpleasant "guests" of the aquarium. These include the branch beetle crustaceans, commonly called fish lice, or karpoed. Crustaceans feed on the blood of fish, parasitizing on their skin. They are quite large, reach 4-8 mm long and, most importantly, have a broad, sheet-like (oblate) translucent body, painted in greenish-yellow or grayish-green color, which is why they are hardly visible on the body of the fish. The head of the parasite is equipped with attachment organs with curved hooks, sucking proboscis, suction-visible organs, four pairs of swimming legs, two faceted eyes. They are very mobile, easily separated from the fish and freely swim in the water with the help of swimming legs. Possessing a positive reaction to the light, the crustaceans and their larvae tend to the bright layers of water, where their development occurs faster. From eggs laid by the female on the ground, plants, stones, larvae appear. If the larvae, swimming freely in water for 2–3 days, do not meet fish, they die. Once on the fish, they grow so fast that in 15-18 days they reach sexual maturity and can lay eggs themselves.

Argulus thermophilic and light-loving, so the most often get into an aquarium, in the hot season with water, soil, vegetation, live food from natural reservoirs. Bringing them into the aquarium is a real disaster. Attached to the fish, the parasites pierce the skin with the proboscis and not only suck blood, but also inject into the wound the toxic secret of the poisonous gland. The site of injury is inflamed, swollen, hemorrhage occurs, and in more severe cases, deep wounds form on the body of the fish. Destroying the skin, contribute to the penetration of microorganisms through wounds and the development of infectious diseases.

The fight against arguments is rather difficult and basically consists in their mechanical separation. Affected fish are placed in a wet swab and parasites are removed with thin tweezers. After that, the wound can be treated with a therapeutic solution (1 g of crystalline potassium permanganate per 1 l of water), for which a cotton swab wound around a match (without a sulfuric head) and moistened in the indicated treatment solution is applied to the affected area. After that, the fish are immediately released into an uninfected aquarium.

The main methods of control are based on the knowledge of the nature of the development of the parasite. We recommend that you leave the aquarium without fish and raise the temperature to 26 ° C, it is good to light and keep it for a week. It is not necessary to catch food in hot time in reservoirs where fish lives. It is very important to carefully review, sort the fodder caught and bought on the market.

Hydra. For the inhabitants of the aquarium, the massive development of dangerous representatives of the intestinal-simplest protozoa - hydr - can become quite unpleasant. Attached to the glasses of the aquarium, plants, other objects with a sole, the hydra attacks with stinging tentacles on the larvae and fry. Tentacles are equipped with stinging capsules containing thin threads with poison, with which the hydra paralyzes the victim, and then captures and absorbs. At the same time, the predator significantly increases in size. The length of the body of the hydra without tentacles reaches 1 cm. In larger fry, the hydra breaks the skin, opening access to infection. Hydra can multiply very quickly by budding. It is light-requiring, and you can see the accumulation of hydras in the brightly lit part of the glass of the aquarium.

Get rid of hydra is not easy. We can offer the easiest way - luring into the light, given their positive phototaxis. A thin glass is placed in the water, which is pressed tightly to the glass of the aquarium. The aquarium is shaded and directs a beam of light to this glass. When the hydra accumulate in the illuminated area, the glass with them is removed, cleaning the animals from it. This method can not get rid of the hydra completely.

The use of ammonium sulfate [(NH4) 2SO] or ammonium nitrate (NHNO): ammonium sulfate is dissolved at the rate of 0.05 g of the preparation per 1 liter of water and introduced into the general aquarium, since it is harmless to fish in these doses. Hydras should die within 3-5 days. Using ammonium nitrate, fry and young fish are removed from the aquarium, adult fish and hydras are intensively fed with two weeks daphnia. Hydra at this time actively reproduce. Then ammonium nitrate is added to the aquarium at the rate of 0.6–1 g of the preparation per 10 liters of water, dissolving the substance in 250–500 ml of water beforehand. For better mixing include aeration. The temperature is raised to 27-28 ° C and maintained until the end of the course of treatment. After three days, make the initial dose of the same concentration. Hydras should die on the 5-6th day. The water in the aquarium after the destruction of the hydra does not completely change. Ammonium nitrate is not harmful to fish in such concentrations, and even serves as a fertilizer for plants.

If there are no plants in the aquarium and you can temporarily remove the fish, use hydrogen peroxide at the rate of two teaspoons of a 3% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide per 10 liters of water. The estimated amount is diluted in 100-150 ml of water and introduced into the aquarium without fish and plants. The resulting free oxygen acts on the hydr destructively.

Two balls of copper wire (without insulation) can be placed at different ends of the aquarium. In water, copper begins to oxidize, and the resulting products have a detrimental effect on hydras, in which tentacles are lost (fall to the bottom of the aquarium, from where they are removed with a hose). After clearing the hydra wire is removed.

When using a solution of copper sulphate (0.05 g per 1 l of water), hydr death occurs within an hour, after another 3-4 h a partial cleaning and a complete replacement of water are performed. Fish during these operations are removed from the aquarium. Copper sulfate should be chemically pure or pure for analysis. Complicating this event is the complete replacement of water, that is, in fact, the re-creation of an aquarium. However, for spawning and rearing special aquariums, where there is no soil, plants are usually kept in pots or ditches (they are portable), water taken from large aquariums, diluting it with water, this method is quite acceptable.

A method of dealing with hydra using electric current was tested and suggested by an aquarist E. Dotsenko from Kharkov. It lies in the fact that two beams of copper wire (without insulation), immersed in water at opposite ends of the aquarium, are connected to a 9–12 V direct current source (for which it is possible to use a 9–12-volt transformer with a single or dual-wave rectifier ). The current is turned on after installation of the wiring provided that the current leads are carefully isolated from the metal frame of the aquarium. One or two inclusions for 1-2 minutes are enough to destroy all the hydras in a 60-liter aquarium. Fishes and plants feel normal.

Together with aquatic plants in the aquarium, you can bring flatworms. They are called planaria (Planaria gonocephala and P. maculata). These worms with a triangle-shaped head are glued to the panes and are especially dangerous for fry.

Planaria. There are three types of planarians: brown (Planaria torva), black (Policoelis nigra) and less common large milky-white planarium (Dendrocoellum lacteum), reaching a length of 2.5 cm. These flatworms, having “a robbery throat », Getting into the aquarium with live food, destroy the eggs, larvae and fry of fish. Planaria is not at all harmless in relation to adult fish. Her predatory attack on adult Malawian cichlids was observed, for example, by scientists in the Dnepropetrovsk aquarium complex. Planaria was found in large numbers on the gills of dead fish. The death of cichlids occurred as a result of severe anemia. It was possible to save the remaining fish by introducing sodium chloride (2.5 g per 1 l of water).

Unlike the hydrological planarians, they lead a twilight lifestyle, hiding during the day in plants, under stones. If you look at the planarians caught under a magnifying glass, you can see two eyes on the front of the body. The body of the planarium is covered with cilia and movements look smooth. Worms are covered with specific mucus, so fish, with the exception of some, do not take them. Planarium unusually tenacious. Getting into adverse conditions, they lose mobility, turning into a shapeless mass, but the throat, which can live independently, breaks away from the body and goes into the environment, continuing to move. Worms are capable of amazing regeneration: divided into more than two hundred parts, they retain the ability to fully recover from each part.

Methods of dealing with this tenacious predator are based on its highly developed sense of smell. In a gauze bag is placed a bit of scraped beef and put it on the fishing line in the aquarium, near the plants or from the ground. Aquarium obscure.

Planaria are quickly going to bait. The pouch is taken out with a net and dipped in boiling water. The procedure is repeated at intervals of several days.

It is detrimental to a planarian and an increase in water temperature to 30–32 ° C, which many tropical fish can withstand (provided sufficient aeration).

Acceptable and chemical methods of dealing with planarians. Copper sulfate is used (1.5 mg per 1 l of water) and ammonium nitrate (25–50 mg per 1 l of water with double treatment).

Experienced aquarists, to destroy planaria, launch 2–3 days of aging for an aquarium without eating young gouras, macropods, cockerels, black-striped cychlases, chromis bulti, and plecoste.

In the case of an epidemic, only complete cleaning and disinfection will help not only the aquarium itself, but each item that has recently come into contact with its contents. For this it is best to use formalin, a liquid with a strong odor, which is usually used in diluted form for the manufacture of drugs. This high-grade poison will kill the fish immediately.

Together with the food in the aquarium, you can bring other not less dangerous pests of fish. Some of them, such as the larvae of the beetle beetle, dragonfly naiads, suitable for feeding adult tsikhlazom and other large predatory fish, are completely unacceptable in the aquarium with small species and, especially, young. One dragonfly larvae, not noticed by an aquarist, can destroy all fry and kill adult fish, such as neons.

Water Beetle The head of the larvae of the seaweed is supplied with crescent jaws. With them he grabs the prey, lets in a paralyzing fluid through the channels, then erupts the enzymes from the stomach into the victim's wound, dissolving the tissues to a liquid state, and sucks this fluid until practically nothing remains from the extraction. Themselves swimming beetles tear prey to pieces and greedily eat. Cases have been described when, in natural waters and spawning ponds, swimming beetles and their larvae destroyed almost all of the young fish. The larvae of the swimmer at an early stage of development are small, and therefore may not be noticed by an aquarist and are entered into an aquarium with bloodworms and crustaceans.

Dangerous pests that destroy fish are aquatic insects such as gadshes, ranatras, turtles, water mites, shields, water striders, water bug, apheleichirus, as well as water scorpion larvae, poloskuna beetle. All of them are visible to the naked eye, so with some caution, sorting and carefully viewing live food, you can avoid pests in the aquarium.

Disease name Cause Therapy
Edema Pseudomona punctata-induced liver damage. Due to the penetration of water into the abdominal cavity, the scales are protruding. No cure; try you can only make a bath outside the acarium (!): 80 mg / l Chloramphenicol .
Inflammation or intestinal infection May be a side effect of spironucleosis; then treat like this disease. Depending on the reason.
Cold Caused by a sharp change in temperature or too cold water. Content in a separate tank: slowly raise the temperature by 4-5 ° С; after eight days, gradually reduce it over eight days to the temperature of the aquarium.
Fish tuberculosis Microbacteria caused by Myobacterium piscium nodosity. The disease is slow; not contagious. To catch the diseased fish and destroy. Treatment is impossible. Stronger fish may pass infection without being noticed.
Fin rot The defeat and falling away of the fins, caused by the deterioration of the water. As a first aid: water change! Treatment with Ek t ozon, Exrapid (according to the manufacturer's instructions) or separate long baths: a) tripaflavin (10 mg / l) or b) Chloramphenicol (6-8 mg / l); a) for many days, b) after eight hours
Gas embolism The formation of air bubbles under the skin and in the blood vessels due to supersaturation with oxygen (rarely) or pressure of the water filling the aquarium (when changing water). Preventing this disease is easier than curing! Fill the aquarium only with settled water. In case of illness, aerate the aquarium water strongly to relieve excess pressure.
Glugeosis The causative agent is microsporidia Glugea pseudotu m efaciens; primarily affects the ovaries (especially in Brachydanio rerio), but also other internal organs. Cure is impossible! If it is determined that the fish are sick with this disease, they must be caught and destroyed.
Ichthyobiasis (bone disease) Defeat with debilitating parasites (Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina Cyclochaeta); may spread as an infection. Separate (!) Baths with tripoflavin (see fin rot) or short baths with table salt (10-15 g / l) after 20 minutes with a temperature rise of 2-3 ° C.
Ichthyosporidiosis (ichthyophonosis) Caused by phycomycete Ichthyosporidiurn hofe ri and easily spreading infection. It affects mainly internal organs. If this disease is established, treatment is impossible.
Ichthyophthiriasis The most famous of fish diseases, is caused by the equatorial infusoria Ichthyophthirius multifilius, which lives under the skin of fish. Treatment with long baths in the aquarium! In specialized stores there are medicines. They often contain coloring matter. Be careful: the plants in the aquarium do not tolerate some drugs,
Karpoed A parasite that resembles a lentil; visible to the naked eye. Yellow-green color with dark dots. If you catch fish from an aquarium, the mouthpiece lice disappears; it can be removed by washing with a brush.
Alkaline disease The disease is caused by a high pH, ​​as well as by strong solar radiation or a low content of lime in water, which is not able to bind carbon dioxide. Constantly carry out a partial change of water or move the fish to another aquarium. Subsequently monitor the pH. When CO2 is added, if this is done correctly, the disease cannot occur.
Lymphocystis A viral disease that dwarf cichlids and macropods are particularly susceptible to; easily transmitted. If the fins are affected, they can be (shallowly) cut. If the disease passes to the trunk, further treatment is impossible. Fish need to catch and destroy.
Neon disease The causative agent of the disease is called Plistophora hyphessobryconis; parasitic in the muscles of fish, forming spores. The disease can spread like an epidemic (importers are well aware of this). The treatment is impossible: the fish must be carefully monitored, immediately catch the infected individuals and destroy them.
Oodiniosis; velvet disease The disease causes Oodinium pillularis, flagellated infusoria; symptoms are the same as with ichthyophthiriasis. The drug is “Exrapid”; separate short baths in a solution of salt (10-15 g / l) for 20 minutes or immersion in a net (25 g / l) for 10-20 seconds.
Defeat by parasites Pathogens: Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina, (Cyclochaeta), gill worms, Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Monocoelium Neodactylogyrus, etc. See also “Ichthyobiasis (bone)”. With the defeat of gill parasites - means “Gyrotox” (in the pet store), according to the instructions. Possible short bath in a solution of salt (repeat after a few days).
Saprolegniosis Organic pollution (dead fish, food residues, etc.). Most often, the affected areas (open wounds) appear mold caused by a fungal disease. Lubricate against the fungus or mold; possible short baths in potassium permanganate (1 g / 100 l), 20-30 minutes.
Inflammation of the swim bladder May be a concomitant phenomenon with dropsy or the effects of hypothermia. Depending on the cause; see “dropsy” and “cold”.
Spironulosis Most often, this flagellate is imported along with fish from East Asia. It usually affects the discus (whitish filamentous excrement). It occurs in other cichlids. Final stage: holes in the head. Special preparations with metronizadol (for example, “Clont”) are sold by prescription. In the pet store you can buy “Nehaeh”. The tablet of the first of these drugs should be dissolved in about 60 liters of water; 4-day treatment in the aquarium. Use the second drug according to the instructions. Recommended preventive courses (2 times a year). Pharmacies also sell metronizadol BP 80, packaged in vials of 10 g. In contrast to the drug, “Clont” is a pure substance without fillers, because its price is higher. (Dosage: 4 mg per liter of aquarium water.)
Poisoning It should establish the cause. Have you recently worked on the aquarium and its design? Have chemicals been used? Did insect spray spray indoors? Is ammonia or nitrite poisoning possible? If the cause is found, it is necessary to eliminate it and thereby poisoning. In case of doubt, it is recommended to gradually change the water in small portions.
Constipation The reason most often in the monotony of power; It is a consequence of a cold. Optimal care and care with a variety of food: live and fresh frozen food (animal protein).




Argulosis

fish diseases
Parasitic disease of aquarium fish, caused by an attack on the fish of the blood-sucking crustacean karpoeda (Argulus foliaceus), or, as it is also called, fish lice, falling into the aquarium with food from stocked ponds. Karpoed has the form of a flat rounded translucent gray-green bug with four pairs of feathery swimming legs. In the initial stage, the crustacean is barely visible to the naked eye, but in the adult state it can reach 4-6 mm. It is very mobile, floats freely, but prefers to accumulate in the midst of plants. Attacking the fish, carpoed digs into the skin, bites through it and sucks blood. Bites from it on the body of the fish form wounds, which often become a gateway for infection. Destroy carpoed mechanically by removing from the aquarium the affected fish and removing the parasite with tweezers. This method is not easy, but the use of chemicals against the carpoed in the general aquarium is practically impossible, because he dies at doses dangerous to fish. In order to prevent the carpoed from entering the aquarium, it is necessary to carefully check the composition of live food caught from natural water bodies.


Aeromonosis

fish diseases
Aeromonosis (rubella) carp is an infectious abdominal dropsy, presumably caused by the bacterium Aeromonas punctata. The infection introduced into the aquarium with sick fish or live food from stocked ponds affects the fish. The disease progresses markedly in heavily polluted cold-water aquariums. Sick fish become inactive, lay down on the ground, stop feeding, there is ruffling of scales, bloating of the abdomen, blood leaks appear on the body and fins. The disease is acutely infectious and intractable. Sick fish are usually destroyed and the aquarium is completely disinfected. However, in some cases, at the initial stage of the disease, after thoroughly cleaning the aquarium while maintaining the temperature at 26-28 ° C, active aeration and the addition of a therapeutic dose of trypaflavin or a weak solution of potassium permanganate to the water, the disease is attenuated and the fish recover.


Botriocephalosis

fish diseases
Pathogen - tape helminth Bothriocephalus opsarhchthydis and Botriocephalus acheilognathi from the order pseudophilid (Pseudophyllidea) fam. Bolhriocephalidae. In the sexually mature form, it lives in fish in the anterior section of the intestine, attaching itself to its wall by suckers, causing inflammation of the mucous membrane and injuring it. May cause intestinal blockage and fish death. Sick fish swims near the surface of the water, do not take food, it becomes sluggish and exhausted. Disease botriocephalosis occurs mainly in the summer, when fish are fed Cyclops, in which is the procercoid (intermediate stage of development). The treatment is carried out with kamala, fenoti-azine, fenasalom, which are mixed with food.


Branchomycosis

fish diseases
The causative agents are the fungi Branchiomyces sanguinis and Branchiomyces demigrans (Branchiomyces demigrans and Branchiomyces sanguinis). They are localized in the blood vessels of the gill lobes, causing blockage of blood vessels and necrosis of the gills. The sick fish swims near the surface, eagerly capturing the air, eats poorly and soon dies. When dissecting such a fish, the mosaicity of the gills, formed by the alternation of red and white areas, is clearly visible. The treatment is carried out with solutions of copper sulfate, formalin, violet K, sodium salt of nystatin and sodium salt of levorin.


Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract
Observed in aquarium fish in most cases when feeding with monotonous and substandard food, can cause the simultaneous death of a significant number of fish, especially juveniles. Except from feeding the fish to spoiled and polluted tubers, rotten bloodworms, coretry, overexposed feed, the disease quite often occurs when feeding hungry fish dry daphnia. A sick fish has an abdominal swelling, redness appears in the anus area, constipation or excrement is excreted with indigestible food, breathing is difficult, the fish stop feeding, lie on the bottom. Sick fish need first of all to ensure normal conditions of maintenance - cleanliness, heat, aeration, water change. After a 2–3-day fast, begin feeding in small portions of benign, easily digestible feeds - live daphnia, cyclops, fresh core. Karpovs and others like them should be fed with cooked semolina. In the aquarium water, in therapeutic doses, one of the disinfectants is added - table salt, tripaflavin, and rivanol.


Gas embolism

fish diseases
The blockage of blood vessels by air bubbles appears in fish when using unstable tap water, excessive and prolonged aeration. Often it is necessary to observe how a multitude of air bubbles settle on the walls of a vessel filled with white tap water, similar to milk. If such water is not allowed to settle and put fish into it or pour a lot of such water into the aquarium, the excess air through the gills will get into the blood of the fish and, if it is released into the bubbles, it can clog the small blood vessels. In fish diseased with a gas embolism, the gills darken, and blood swelling appears on the body and fins. After the establishment of normal gas exchange in the aquarium, these symptoms may disappear and the fish recovers. With a strong blockage of blood vessels, ulcerations appear and the fish may die. Prevention consists in preventing large amounts of unstable tap water and excessive aeration from being used in an aquarium. To accelerate the release of air from water by heating and cooling it .


Hexamitosis

fish diseases
"Hole disease" occurs in aquarium fish, mainly in fir fish, especially often in discus, for which aquarists also call it discus. It is established that the causative agent of the disease is Hexamita symphysodoni. Clinical signs: one or several barely noticeable whitish tubercles appear on the fishless surface of the fish's head, which then increase to 1-5 mm and have the appearance of a grayish, curd mass emerging from the hole formed in the body. It seems that this mass, like a mole heap, is pushed out by a parasite that bites into the body of a fish. After a week or two, the process fades out, the mass ceases to stand out, and holes remain in the affected places, sometimes of quite considerable depth, without any signs of inflammation. Over time, the hole is tightened, and in this place a hollow is formed, which, somewhat smoothed out, remains in the fish for life. Sick fish do not show particular anxiety, continue to eat, but in general, their painful condition is noticeably pronounced. There are facts when they are involved in spawning. During treatment in the general aquarium, a positive result is observed when using Trihopol. For treatment in a separate vessel, aquarists use the composition of ericycline (50 mg / l) in combination with griseofulvin (10 mg / l) and trichopol (10 mg / l) for 10-15 days, and at 35-37 ° C - 1-3 days. Hexamitosis can recur, occurs when rarely changed water, and when changing a significant part of the water with soft water.


Gyrodactylosis

fish diseases
Parasitic invasive disease of aquarium fish, caused by a worm-flukes from the genus Gyrodactilus, reaching lengths of up to 1 mm. At the head there is a socket with mouth opening, surrounded by hook-shaped protrusions, with the help of which the parasite is attached to the fish. Gyrodactylus enters the aquarium with acquired sick fish or with food from contaminated reservoirs. In aquariums polluted with decaying organic matter, gyrodactylus multiplies rapidly. Parasites, covering a large part of the body of the fish, destroy the skin and suck blood, which greatly deplete the fish. If no measures are taken to treat fish, ulcers appear on their bodies, leading to inevitable death. The disease is easily detected visually. Fish behave restlessly, constantly itching on stones, soil, plants. The body of fish is covered with whitish dull spots, which are numerous clusters of parasites, which, with the calm state of the fish, make oscillatory movements that can be observed with the naked eye. Water temperature does not affect the survivability of gyrodactylus. The most effective fight against this parasite is achieved by using one of the therapeutic solutions - rivanol, copper sulfate, bicillin-5 or trypaflavin with active aeration and reusable water changes in small parts.


Glügea

fish diseases
The causative agent is the sporovik Glugea (Glugea pseudotumefaciens and Glugea hertwigi of the genus Glugea). Localized in connective tissue cells. The affected fish swims on the side, nodules appear on the body, and there is a bug eye. Remedies yet. Sick fish is destroyed, the aquarium is disinfected.


Fins rot

fish diseases
The causative agents of the disease are bacteria from the pseudomonas group. A sick fish begins to rot fins (often tail), which may even fall off. The causes of the disease are: low water temperature, impaired biological balance, as a result of which pathogenic microbes begin to multiply. The treatment is carried out with solutions of trypaflavin (1: 10,000), silver nitrate, morphopicline.


Dactylogyrosis

fish diseases
Parasitic invasive disease of aquarium fish, caused by a damnilogirus worm (Dactilogyrus) of the genus, similar in structure to gyrodactylus, but differs from the latter in that it parasitizes mainly on the gills of fish and is therefore difficult to detect. Once in the aquarium in ways characteristic of many types of parasites, it quickly multiplies and attacks fish. In diseased fish, the gills swell up, they hardly breathe and, if they do not take measures to be treated, in the initial stage of the disease they die from suffocation. Treatment is similar to treatment with gyrodactylosis.


Ringworm (saprolegniosis)

fish diseases
Infectious disease, the causative agents of which are fungi of the genus saprolegniya (Saprolegnia). On the body and fins of diseased fish, often on the eyes and lips, white threads (hyphae) appear, expanding into vat-like formations. Sick fish become inactive, stop feeding. If there is no treatment, ulcers appear on the body of the fish, the gills are affected and the fish die. In most cases of feline infection, fish that are contained in cramped tanks with dirty and cold water - below 20 ° C. In the initial stage, the disease is not dangerous and easily curable, for which it is necessary to create normal conditions for the sick fish. Ringworm treated with copper sulfate solution. In the initial stage, you can use kitchen salt. When the local form of fungal growths is treated 2-3 times with a daily interval with a cotton swab dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or rivanol, excluding the drug in the eyes and gills of fish.


Ichthyophthiriosis

fish diseases
One of the most common diseases of aquarium fish. Occurs as a result of an attack on them by an equilal infusorian ichthyophthirius (Ichthyophthirius multifilis). When enlarged, it has the form of a rounded plaque, bordered around the circumference by cilia, converging to the oral opening, by which the ciliates move, and also attached to the body of the fish. The disease is detected visually. Several grayish tubercles of up to 1 mm in size appear on the body and fins of the fish, the number of which is rapidly increasing, and the fish turns out to be as if sprinkled with semolina, which is why aquarists call ichthyophyriosis semolina. The parasite penetrates under the epithelial cover, sucks blood, with a strong defeat, the fish is exhausted and dies. Sick fish become restless, constantly scratching about the surrounding objects, trying to get rid of the parasite, stop feeding. The parasite is introduced into the aquarium, like other pathogens, with sick fish and food from stocked reservoirs. The outbreak of infection is favored by a sharp drop in the temperature of the water downward and other changes in the mode of maintenance. The ichthyophthirius infusoria has a life cycle consisting of three stages, which is useful to take into account during treatment: attacks on fish and parasitism on its body; breeding in the cyst; free swimming young ciliates- "vagrants" before attacking the fish. After ripening to the adult state, under the skin of the fish, the infusoria, breaking through the capsule shell formed around it, falls into the water and sinks to the bottom or attaches to an object, enveloped in mucus and turns into a gelatinous mass. In this state, it can remain for a long time. Under favorable conditions in the cyst, reproduction occurs by division and forms from several hundred to a thousand or more microscopic new ciliates, which, after some time, tear up the cyst and exit into the water. Having got stronger, they “wander” around the aquarium and, having attacked the fish, penetrate under the epithelial layer of the skin, after which the cycle repeats. Outside of the fish, "rooks" can survive for no more than 2-3 days, which should be considered when combating ichthyophthyriosis. If treatment measures are taken in a timely manner, it is not difficult to fight ichthyoftiriosis. The parasite does not tolerate high temperature water. It is enough to raise the temperature in the aquarium to 30-32 ° C with intensive aeration and rapid water changes in order to save the fish from the disease within a few days. It is useful in this case to make a therapeutic dose of trypaflavin into water. With strong lesions with ichthyophthirius, bicillin-5 is used.


Ichthyophonosis

fish diseases
The causative agent is the ichthyophonus fungus (Ichthyophonus hoferi). It affects the internal organs, muscles, nervous tissue. Sick fish has deep ulcers on the body, dead fins, which eventually disappear. With the defeat of the nervous system, the fish loses coordination of movements. Effective remedies for this disease yet. Sick fish should be destroyed and the aquarium sanitized.


Cariofillosis

fish diseases
The causative agent of karyophillosis is the tapeworm of the karyophillus fimbriceps (Caryophyllacus fimbriceps and Caryophyllacus laticeps). A parasitic worm in the middle section of the intestines of a fish that swallows it with a diseased tubule. The fish die from the blockage of the intestinal tract. The treatment is carried out with kamala or a powder of dried rhizome and rudimentary leaves of a fern, thyroid spiny, which are mixed with dry food or made into water suspension.


Costiosis

fish diseases
Disease of fish of all ages, the causative agent of which is flagellate-pointed ciliate Costia necatrix. The surface of the body of fish, fins and gills are affected. The disease is especially dangerous for young. Being introduced into the epithelial lining of the skin, the parasite, sucking blood, causes severe irritation of the skin. The body and fins are covered with a layer of gray-matte mucus. Sick fish are restless, continuously rub against objects, stop feeding. With a strong depletion and damage to the bones, gills, they die. Cure fish with bicillin-5, rivanol, tripaplavine, potassium permanganate, kitchen salt.


Lepidortosis

fish diseases
The causative agent of this disease is a group of microorganisms, of which the leading role is played by aeromonas punctate and pseudomonas fluorescence (Aeromonas punctata and Pseudomonas fluorescens). The sick fish swims restlessly, its scales are lifted as a result of filling the scaly pockets with liquid. The treatment is carried out with potassium permanganate, a solution of table salt. You can also use nitrate silver and morfocycline (in 1 liter of 100,000 U) with an exposure time of 5 minutes.


Octomitosis

fish diseases
The pathogen is the flagellate Octomitus Hexamita (Octomitus) truttae. The parasite is localized in the gallbladder and intestines of fish. The affected fish gradually loses weight and takes bad food. Often the outcome of the disease ends with the death of the fish. The treatment is carried out calomel, mixing it with food .


Oodiniumosis

fish diseases
The causative agent is from the class of bichoriologists dinoflagellate Oodinium (Oodinium limneticum). The parasite affects the skin of fish and its fins. Sick fish is as if covered with fine grayish-yellow sand. She often swims near the surface of the water, rubs against stones and plants and gradually loses weight. The treatment is carried out with solutions of salt (1: 1000), copper sulphate, silver nitrate, formalin.


Poisoning aquarium fish
Occurs as a result of ingestion of fish with toxic substances in the use of poor-quality food or ingestion of poisoned water of the aquarium. Poisoning can be a consequence of feeding the fish with spoiled food when it is not properly stored or with food caught from unfavorable reservoirs; poisonous substances from the putty used in the manufacture of the aquarium; hit in the aquarium or vessel for storing live food of domestic insects poisoned with toxic chemicals; use for storing food utensils for non-food purposes; use of increased doses of drugs, etc. Clinical signs of poisoning: the appearance of convulsive movements in fish, weakening of orientation - the fish, moving, stumble upon oncoming objects, loss of bright coloration. With timely detection of signs of poisoning of diseased fish, it is necessary to immediately transplant into clean water, arrange aeration and create other optimal conditions. The aquarium should be recharged by thoroughly rinsing the plants in clean water and rinsing the soil.


Plistofoz (neon disease)

fish diseases
Infectious disease caused by parasites Plistophora hyphessobryconis from the class of disputes, penetrating the cells of the tissue and cavity of the body of fish. Enlightened areas appear on the body of the fish. More often than others, neon fish suffer from plastoforosis. They have faded blue and red stripes, the back appears to be seen through and through. Small carp are also sick. The disease has been little studied and, according to many sources, is practically incurable. Therefore, it is recommended to destroy diseased fish. However, the facts of attenuation of the disease are noted when moving diseased fish to old peeled water. It is also recommended to use therapeutic drugs.


Cold
In aquarium fish comes with a strong and prolonged cooling, which most often happens when transporting fish in the cold season without proper insulation, installing an aquarium near a window, keeping fish without heating, in time unnoticed failure of an electric heater and for other reasons. Caught cold fish become inactive, lose their color, become covered with gray mucus, they have inflamed gills. Fish that have been weakened by a cold often cause infectious diseases. Sick fish need to create normal conditions - heat, aeration of water, easily digestible food. To prevent the occurrence of an infectious disease, it is necessary to apply one of the therapeutic agents - table salt, trypaflavin, rivanol.


Pseudomonosis (fin rot)

fish diseases
Infectious disease, the causative agent of which are bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. A sick fish appears slightly noticeable drooping of the edges of the fins, followed by their destruction and shortening. Then ulcers form at the base of the fins, and if treatment is not taken, the fish die. It is necessary to start treatment immediately after detection of signs of the disease, using one of such means as bicillin-5, copper sulfate, biomitsin. Fin rot must be distinguished from injury and alkaline disease, when in highly alkaline water the fins of fish without visible damage are shortened, as if melting. In this case, it is necessary to normalize the quality of the water in the aquarium.


Saprolegniosis

fish diseases
The causative agents of the disease are fungi from the saprolegniacea and ahlia family. Usually they affect emaciated fish or are found as a secondary disease. Sick fish is covered with areas or sometimes completely white fluff, which consists of the neck of the fungus. Growing into the skin, they kill adjacent tissues, resulting in the formation of dead skin. The treatment is carried out with copper sulfate solutions, formalin, nitrate silver, violet K, nystatin sodium salt (in 1 liter of 100,000 IU), levorine sodium salt.


Hilodonellosis

fish diseases
Invasive disease, the causative agent of which is the equilicular cilium of chilodonella (Chilodonella cyprini). Once in the aquarium, the parasite, especially in old water, for a long period of time may not manifest itself in relation to the fish. However, a sharp change in the oxygen regime and chemical composition of water, the substitution of a significant part of it, the decay of food residues cause rapid reproduction of chylodonella, which is noticeable due to significant turbidity of the water (infusion suspension). With the increase you can see in it a lot of oval-shaped ciliates with cilia on the front side, making oscillatory movements. In fish that are affected by chilodonellosis, the body becomes covered with a bluish-matte coating, they sway, rub against the soil and plants, and their fins stick together. Getting into the gills of the fish, ciliates, damaging the epithelial cover, envelop their surface with a continuous film, which leads to the death of fish from suffocation. These parasites do not spare even the largest and most powerful aquarium fish, such as astronotus, tilapia, etc. As follows from the above, the main thing to do to prevent an outbreak of chylodonellosis in an aquarium is to avoid substitution of a large part of the water and to prevent overfeeding of fish with rapidly decomposing in water feed. Hilodonellosis is especially dangerous for fry of fish and often leads to their mass death. To combat chylodonellosis, a therapeutic solution of one of such drugs as rivanol, trypaflavin, methylene blue, and chloramine is used. After the recovery of fish, it is necessary to make a water change.


Peptic ulcer

fish diseases
The causative agent, pseudomonas fluorescence, is introduced into an aquarium with live food, water, soil, plants and diseased fish specimens. Sick fish have small ulcers on the surface of the body, which, if not take appropriate measures, increase and penetrate deep into. Quite often, fungi penetrate the places of ulceration, which aggravate the disease and lead to the death of the fish. The treatment is carried out with potassium permanganate solutions, trypaflavinom.


Disease prevention
It is important to prevent diseases of aquarium fish, resulting from violations of the rules of keeping and the introduction of infection through different channels. In order to preserve the health of the inhabitants of the aquarium and create a normal ecological situation, it is recommended to observe the following rules:
- systematically carry out a weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with the replacement of an average of 1/10 of the volume of water; avoid overpopulation of the aquarium;
- avoid unreasonable and partial transfer of fish;
- do not place items in the aquarium that may cause poisoning or injury to fish;
- strictly monitor the quality of feed for fish and ensure its proper storage;
- observe the feeding regime (twice a day), do not leave the fish hungry for a long time and do not allow overfeeding;
- to maintain in the aquarium the optimum temperature recommended for specific fish species, to exclude the possibility of sudden temperature drops in the aquarium and hypothermia;
- to ensure reliable transportation of fish, using soft enough carrying amount, excluding injury to fish;
- in winter, to use thermo tanks, and for large fish and a large number of fry - special portable insulated boxes;
- to re-quarantine newly acquired fish by placing them in a setter for this purpose, filled with water from an active aquarium;
- in order not to make a separate heating, small fish can be placed in a glass jar and allowed to float in the aquarium;
- inventory (nets, siphons, etc.) that served sick or quarantined fish should be thoroughly disinfected (with potassium permanganate, rivanol, salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish
- in order to avoid jumping of fish from an aquarium, it is necessary to cover it with glass or a grid, ensuring free access of air;
- when treating fish with medicines and chemicals, strictly follow the dosage to prevent poisoning.