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Diseases and diseases of fish

The fish organism, like the organisms of all other living creatures, has a certain strength of resistance to pathogens, for example, parasites. But if for some reason the fish is weakened, or, conversely, the causative agents of the disease have become stronger due to some circumstances, then the disease may appear. To prevent fish diseases, as always, is better than adding chemicals to the water, even controlling (more or less) this process. In aquarium, you should not work on the principle of a watering can for watering flowers! You will not swallow medicines if you have a sick neighbor or someone in the family? But in the aquarium, it often turns out that all the inhabitants of a home reservoir are constantly under the influence of drugs (most often antibiotics!), And only because any one fish seems unhealthy. Well, fish don’t know how to speak ... Here is one example. If bacterial inflammation is suspected after a bite, antibacterial agents are often added to the water “for prophylaxis” (and they can only be used in a separate tank). Yes, in this case, bacteria that excite, possibly an inflammatory process, die. But at the same time, all other bacteria are destroyed - those contained in the soil, or, for example, those that participate in the so-called nitrification (oxidation of ammonia through nitrites to nitrates). The best and most effective way to avoid the disease is to monitor biological purity, the correct temperature and indicators of water. Fill the aquarium with soil, plant plants, but wait a week or two (!) And do not run fish into it until a sufficient number of bacteria are formed in the soil and in the filter that convert harmful substances. Without a developed bacterial fauna, the concentration of poisons (ammonia, nitrites) rapidly increases in the aquarium; little by little they can be removed by partial replacement of water. At the same time, it is necessary to constantly check the nitrite content in the water. Fresh water must be mixed (!) In the aquarium to absorb as much oxygen as possible. If, despite carefully following these tips, your fish get sick, then first you need to seriously examine the symptoms. Therapeutic intervention is possible only when a diagnosis is made. Special tables contain information about the most common fish diseases, their symptoms and treatment methods.

Better to prevent disease than to treat it

The following are the phenomena and factors that can affect the well-being of fish and possibly contribute to disease. The best way to deal with these diseases is to prevent them.

1. Hunger and emaciation. Both that, and another can easily lead to infectious damage to the integument; fish are secondarily affected by fungus (Saprolegnia).

2. Bad and inappropriate food. It easily leads to diseases of the stomach and intestines. If the food is too oily, it can lead to obesity. If the food is too monotonous and poor in vitamins, it can cause a general weakening and degeneration of the liver. Some abstinence will not hurt the fish. It’s the same as with people: it’s better to be hungry and alert than well-fed and listless.

3. The temperature is too low. Fish can catch a cold too. The result of hypothermia is most often inflammation of the swimming bladder, and thereby a decrease in the body's resistance. Unexpected and abrupt changes in temperature and arbitrary transport of fish should be avoided.

4. Lack of oxygen. Most often makes the fish breathe heavily and thereby weakens them.

5. Too soft water or too low pH. Not every fish tolerates an unusually low pH, although this is recommended for some species (red neon, discus, etc.). Fish (like other viviparous animals), if they live in the coastal zone, cannot tolerate particularly soft water or too low pH. The latter causes them an “acid disease”.

6. Too strong solar radiation. Fortunately, modern luminaires mounted in the top cover now help to avoid the common

mistakes: installing the aquarium on the windowsill. Due to increased solar radiation, as well as due to the concomitant increase in pH to 10 or more, burns on the skin and fins (alkaline disease) are possible.

7. Injuries due to contact with appliances or biting neighbors. They lead to fungal infection or bacterial infection of wounds. You need to think well in advance of the selection of fish in the aquarium.

8. Bad insulation. If unsuitable means (metals, glue, paint, hoses) were used in the manufacture or repair of the aquarium at home, this can lead to poisoning.

9. Harmful gases. Furnace gas, factory emissions, tobacco smoke, etc., are drawn in by an air pump and enter the aquarium water. They are harmful or even deadly to fish. Therefore, it is recommended to include an air filter (with filter carbon) between the pump or the flow filter or to suck in air outdoors.

Fish disease. Diagnosis and therapy

In addition to numerous diseases. which can be prevented by the preventive measures mentioned above, there are, unfortunately, others; but the aquarist can successfully treat them as well. We are talking about defeat by external parasites. Internal diseases of fish are very difficult to cure, because they are usually recognized too late. In case of doubt, you need to quickly tap on the glass of the avarium: if the fish is healthy, then it will rush hastily down. A sick fish swims slowly, oscillating movements. If the fish rises up without moving its fins, or hardly rises from the bottom, then this also indicates a disease. The same applies to fish that stay directly below the surface of the water and swim away only if you touch them with your hand. Our table provides a list of the most common diseases and diagnoses.

Symptoms Diagnosis
Main indications Individual symptoms
Fish behavior
Lowering to the bottom dropsy, colds, inflammation of the swim bladder
Fin necrosis intestinal inflammation, colds, fin rot, gas embolism, clouding of the skin, ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease, oodiniosis, parasite damage, inflammation of the bladder, poisoning, constipation
Food rejection intestinal inflammation, colds, fish tuberculosis, gas embolism, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, spironucleosis, oodiniosis, parasite damage, poisoning, constipation dropsy, fin rot, ichthyophthyriasis, neon disease
Bottom jumping dropsy, intestinal inflammation, colds, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, swimming bladder inflammation neon disease, constipation
Cramps gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning
Spasmodic movement dropsy, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis, parasite damage, inflammation of the swimming bladder skin clouding, constipation
Shiver dropsy, colds, fish tuberculosis, fin rot, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis, parasite damage, inflammation of the swimming bladder, poisoning
Friction on stones, etc. clouding of the skin, ichthyophthyriasis, carp louse, oodiniosis, parasite damage
Greedy swallowing air gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning skin clouding, parasite damage
Lack of coordination of movements fish tuberculosis, glucoseosis, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, spironucleosis, inflammation of the swimming bladder, poisoning
Anxiety, Apathy gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning skin clouding
Appearance changes
Emaciation intestinal inflammation, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease, spironucleosis glugeosis, oodiniosis
Bloating dropsy, inflammation of the swim bladder colds, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease
Deformation of body parts dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease fin rot
Irrigation scales dropsy, ichthyosporidosis neon disease
Growths dropsy fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis
Skin symptoms
Anal redness dropsy, intestinal inflammation, spironucleosis cold
Bluish white spots fish tuberculosis, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, parasite damage cold
Focal hemorrhage dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, spironucleosis, parasite damage clouding of the skin, ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease
Color changing spots fish tuberculosis, glucoseosis, neon disease
Subcutaneous gas vesicles gas embolism
Ulcers dropsy, fish tuberculosis, glugeosis, ichthyosporidosis, spironucleosis
Sores, rash on the body ichthyosporidosis
Exfoliation of the skin alkaline disease, oodiniosis, parasite damage skin clouding
Whitish beads or tubercles lymphocystis
Yellow nodules oodiniosis
Dark spots skin clouding, ichthyosporidosis, parasite damage
Felt plaque skin clouding, saprolegniosis
Fin changes
Pineal nodules lymphocystis
Mucous darkening fin rot, ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease, parasite damage, saprolegniosis skin clouding
Bonding fins skin clouding, parasite damage
Whitening the edges of the fins lymphocystis, parasite damage fin rot
Fin destruction fish tuberculosis, fin rot, clouding of the skin, ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease, oodiniosis, parasite damage
Gill Changes
Gills bulging parasite
Swelling, inflammation alkaline disease, parasite damage, poisoning skin clouding
Bluish white fading skin clouding, parasite damage
Whitening ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease, parasite damage
Bead Nodules ichthyophthyriasis parasite
Worm-shaped spots parasite
Eye changes
Eye-eye dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, constipation
Dots and specks ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis
Tarnish ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis parasite
Destruction of the surface ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis, parasite damage

Even very mild symptoms should be taken seriously. We must try to start treatment with increasing the body's resistance to fish: it must be isolated and favorable water and temperature conditions must be provided, as well as nutrition, which means: do not overfeed and do not overheat. Both for a separate tank and for the aquarium from which the fish was removed, you need to carefully monitor. To strengthen the body's resistance to fish, vitamin preparations can be added to food. But if her condition worsens, then it is necessary to take, the next step, to begin treatment. First of all, you need to make a short or long bath. Further, according to the directions on the package, you need to treat the fish in its quarantine vessel. And please, never exceed the indicated dose “for good reasons” - this may lead to the speedy death of the fish.

Pests of fish and methods of dealing with them

Along with live food, dangerous pests often get into the aquarium, which causes major trouble to its owner and forces them to resort to radical measures, so the aquarist should know the enemies of the fish and methods of dealing with them.

Argulus (scientific name) - the most unpleasant "guests" of the aquarium. These include gill-tailed crustaceans, commonly referred to as fish louse, or carp-eating. Crustaceans feed on the blood of fish, parasitizing on their skin. They are quite large, reach 4-8 mm in length and, most importantly, have a broad, leaf-like (flattened) translucent body, painted in greenish-yellow or grayish-green color, which is why they are hardly visible on the body of the fish. The cephalothorax of the parasite is equipped with attachment organs with curved hooks, a sucking proboscis, sucker-like organs, four pairs of swimming legs, two faceted eyes. Very mobile, easily separated from fish and swim freely in the water with the help of swimming legs. Having a positive reaction to light, crustaceans and their larvae tend to the light layers of water, where their development is faster. From eggs laid by the female on the ground, plants, stones, larvae appear. If the larvae, swimming freely in water for 2-3 days, do not encounter fish, they die. Once on fish, they grow so fast that in 15-18 days they reach puberty and can lay their eggs themselves.

Arguli are thermophilic and photophilous, therefore, they usually enter the aquarium, as a rule, in the hot season with water, soil, vegetation, live food from natural reservoirs. Entering them in an aquarium is a real disaster. Attached to the fish, parasites pierce the skin with a proboscis and not only suck blood, but also inject into the wound the toxic secret of the poisonous gland. The wound site becomes inflamed, swells, hemorrhage occurs, and in more severe cases, deep wounds form on the body of the fish. Destroying the skin, contribute to the penetration of microorganisms through the wounds and the development of infectious diseases.

The struggle with arguli is quite difficult and mainly consists in their mechanical separation. Affected fish are placed in a wet swab and parasites are removed with fine tweezers. After this, the wound can be treated with a treatment solution (1 g of crystalline potassium permanganate per 1 liter of water), for which a cotton swab is applied to the affected area, wound on a match (without a sulfur head) and soaked in the indicated treatment solution. After that, the fish is immediately released into an uninfected aquarium.

The main methods of struggle are based on knowledge of the nature of the development of the parasite. We recommend leaving the aquarium without fish and raising the temperature to 26 ° C, lighting well and keeping it like this for a week. You should not catch food in hot weather in the reservoirs where the fish lives. It is very important to carefully look through, sort the food caught and bought on the market.

Hydra. The mass development of dangerous representatives of intestinal cavity protozoa, hydra, can become very unpleasant for the inhabitants of the aquarium. Having attached to the glass of the aquarium, plants, other objects with the sole, the hydra attacks with the help of stinging tentacle threads on larvae and fry. The tentacles are equipped with stinging capsules containing thin strings with poison, with which the hydra paralyzes the victim, and then captures and absorbs. In this case, the predator increases significantly in size. The body length of a hydra without tentacles reaches 1 cm. In larger fry, the hydra violates the skin, opening up access to infection. Hydra can multiply very quickly by budding. It is photophilous, and you can see a cluster of hydras in a brightly lit area of ​​the glass of the aquarium.

Getting rid of hydras is not easy. We can offer the easiest way - to lure into the light, given their positive phototaxis. Thin glass is lowered into the water, which is pressed tightly against the glass of the aquarium. Aquarium shade and direct a beam of light on this glass. When hydras accumulate in a lighted area, the glass with them is removed, removing animals from it. This method can not completely get rid of hydra.

The use of ammonium sulfate [(NH4) 2SO] or ammonium nitrate (NHNO): ammonium sulfate is dissolved at the rate of 0.05 g of the preparation per 1 liter of water and introduced into the general aquarium, since it is harmless to fish at these doses. Hydras must die within 3-5 days. Using ammonium nitrate, fry and juvenile fish are removed from the aquarium, adult fish and hydras are fed intensively for two weeks with daphnia. Hydras actively breed at this time. Then, ammonium nitrate is added to the aquarium at the rate of 0.6-1 g of the drug per 10 l of water, having dissolved the substance previously in 250-500 ml of water. For better mixing include aeration. The temperature is raised to 27-28 ° C and maintained until the end of the course of treatment. After three days, make the initial dose of the same concentration. Hydras should die on the 5-6th day. After the destruction of hydra, the water in the aquarium is not completely changed. Ammonium nitrate in such concentrations is not harmful to fish, and even serves as a fertilizer to plants.

If there are no plants in the aquarium and you can temporarily remove fish, use hydrogen peroxide at the rate of two teaspoons of a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide per 10 liters of water. The calculated amount is diluted in 100-150 ml of water and introduced into the aquarium without fish and plants. The free oxygen formed in this case acts destructively.

You can place two balls of copper wire (without insulation) at different ends of the aquarium. In water, copper begins to oxidize, and the resulting products have a detrimental effect on the hydra, in which the tentacles are lost (fall to the bottom of the aquarium, from where they are removed with a hose). After being released from the Hydra, the wire is removed.

When using a solution of copper sulfate (0.05 g per 1 liter of water), hydra death occurs within an hour, after another 3-4 hours, a partial cleaning and a complete change of water are carried out. Fish are removed from the aquarium during these operations. Copper sulfate must be chemically pure or pure for analysis. Complicating this event is the complete replacement of water, that is, in fact the re-creation of the aquarium. However, for spawning and growing special aquariums where there is no soil, plants are usually kept in pots or ditches (they are portable), water is taken from large aquariums, diluting it with tap water, this method is quite acceptable.

The method of dealing with hydra with the help of electric current was tested and proposed by aquarist E. Dotsenko from Kharkov. It consists in connecting a 9-12 V DC source to two bundles of copper wire (without insulation) immersed in water at opposite ends of the aquarium (for which it is possible to use a 9-12 volt transformer with a diode one or two half-wave rectifier ) The current is turned on after installing the wiring, provided that the current-carrying wires are carefully isolated from the metal frame of the aquarium. One or two inclusions for 1-2 minutes are enough to destroy all hydras in a 60-liter aquarium. At the same time, fish and plants feel normal.

Together with water plants, flatworms can be brought into the aquarium. They are called planaria (Planaria gonocephala and P. maculata). These worms with a head in the shape of a triangle stick to the glass and are especially dangerous for fry.

Planaria. Three types of planaria are known: brown (Planaria torva), black (Policoelis nigra) and the less common large milk-white planaria (Dendrocoellum lacteum), reaching a length of 2.5 cm. These flat worms, having, in the words of one biologist, "a robbery throat ", Getting into the aquarium with live food, destroy eggs, larvae and fry of fish. Planaria is not at all harmless in relation to adult fish. Her predatory attack on adult Malawian cichlids was observed, for example, by scientists in the Dnepropetrovsk aquarium complex. A large number of planaria were discovered on the gills of dead fish. The death of cichlids occurred as a result of severe anemia. The remaining fish were saved by adding sodium chloride (2.5 g per 1 liter of water).

In contrast to hydra planaria, they lead a twilight life, hiding in the plants during the day, under stones. If you look at the caught planaria under a magnifying glass, you can see two eyes on the front of the body. The body of the planaria is covered with cilia and the movements look smooth. The worms are covered with specific mucus, so fish, with the exception of some, do not take them. Planaria is unusually tenacious. Getting into adverse conditions, they lose mobility, turning into a shapeless mass, but the pharynx, which can live independently, breaks away from the body and enters the environment, continuing to move. Worms are capable of amazing regeneration: divided into more than two hundred parts, they retain the ability to fully recover from each part.

Methods of dealing with this tenacious predator are based on its highly developed sense of smell. A little scraped beef is placed in a gauze bag and lowered on a fishing line into an aquarium, not far from plants or from the ground. The aquarium is obscured.

Planarians quickly gather on the bait. The bag is pulled out with a net and lowered into cool boiling water. The procedure is repeated with an interval of several days.

It is detrimental to planaria and an increase in water temperature to 30–32 ° С, which many tropical fish can withstand (provided that there is sufficient aeration).

Chemical methods for controlling planarians are also acceptable. Copper sulfate (1.5 mg per 1 liter of water) and ammonium nitrate (25-50 mg per 1 liter of water with double treatment) are used.

Experienced aquarists in order to destroy the planarium launch into the aquarium 2–3 days old that have been matured without eating young gourami, macropods, males, black-striped cichlases, bichi chromis, plecost.

In the event of an epidemic, only complete cleaning and disinfection of not only the aquarium itself, but each item that has recently come into contact with its contents will help. To do this, it is best to use formalin, a strong odor liquid that is usually used in a diluted form for the manufacture of drugs. This high percentage poison will kill the fish immediately.

Together with food, other equally dangerous fish pests can be brought into the aquarium. Some of them, for example, the larvae of a swimming beetle, dragonfly mollusks suitable for feeding adult cichlomas and other large predatory fish, are completely unacceptable in an aquarium with small species and, especially, young ones. One dragonfly larva not seen by the aquarist can destroy all fry and kill adult fish, such as neons.

Swimming beetle. The head of the swimming larva is provided with crescent jaws. He grabs the prey with them, injects paralyzing liquid through the channels, after which he burps out enzymes from the stomach into the victim’s wound, which dissolve the tissues to a liquid state, and this liquid is sucked out until practically nothing remains of the prey. Diving beetles themselves tear prey to pieces and eat greedily. Cases are described when, in natural reservoirs and spawning ponds, swimming beetles and their larvae destroyed almost all young fish. The larvae of a swimmer at an early stage of development are small, and therefore may not be noticed by an aquarist and entered into an aquarium with a bloodworm and crustaceans.

Dangerous pests that destroy fish are water insects such as smoothies, ranatra, floats, water mites, shields, water striders, water bugs apheliochirus, as well as the larvae of water scorpion, aquatic beetle, and beetle. All of them are visible to the naked eye, so with some caution, sorting and carefully looking at live food, you can avoid getting pests in the aquarium.

Disease name Cause Therapy
Dropsy, ruffling scales Pseudomona punctata-induced destruction of the liver. Due to the penetration of water into the abdominal cavity - protruding scales. Treatment is impossible; You can only try to make a bath outside the aquarium (!): 80 mg / l Chloramphenicol .
Intestinal inflammation or infection May be a side effect of spironucleosis; then treat like this disease. Depending on the reason.
Cold Due to a sharp change in temperature or too cold water. Content in a separate tank: slowly increase the temperature by 4-5 ° C; after eight days, gradually reduce it over eight days to the temperature of the aquarium.
Tuberculosis fish Microbacteria (Myobacterium piscium) nodularity. The disease is slow; not contagious. Catch diseased fish and destroy. Treatment is not possible. Stronger fish can invisibly pass the infection.
Fin rot Damage and loss of fins caused by water deterioration. As a first aid: water change! Treatment with Ek t ozon, Exrapid (as directed by the manufacturer) or separate long-term baths: a) tripaflavin (10 mg / l) or b) Chloramphenicol (6 - 8 mg / l); a) for many days, b) after eight hours
Gas embolism The formation of air bubbles under the skin and in blood vessels due to oversaturation with oxygen (rarely) or the pressure of the water filling the aquarium (when changing water). Preventing this disease is easier than curing! Fill the tank with only settled water. In case of illness, aerate the aquarium water strongly to relieve excess pressure.
Glugeosis The causative agent is microsporidia Glugea pseudotu m efaciens; primarily affects the ovaries (especially Brachydanio rerio), but also other internal organs. Treatment is impossible! If it is established that the fish are sick with this disease, they must be caught and destroyed.
Ichthyodobiasis (bone disease) Defeat with debilitating parasites (Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina Cyclochaeta); may spread like an infection. Separate (!) Baths with tripoflavin (see fin rot) or short baths with sodium chloride (10-15 g / l) after 20 minutes with a temperature increase of 2-3 ° C.
Ichthyosporidiosis (ichthyophonosis) Caused by the fungal fungus Ichthyosporidiurn hofe ri and an easily spreading infection. It affects mainly internal organs. If this disease is established, treatment is impossible.
Ichthyophthyriasis The most famous of fish diseases is caused by the equi-ciliary infusoria Ichthyophthirius multifilius, which lives under the skin of fish. Treatment with long baths in the aquarium! In specialized stores there are medicines. They most often contain coloring matter. Be careful: plants in the aquarium do not tolerate certain drugs,
Carpoed A parasite shaped like lentils; visible to the naked eye. Yellow-green color with dark dots. If you catch fish from the aquarium, the lice's mouth apparatus disappears; it can be removed by washing with a brush.
Alkaline disease The disease is caused by a high pH, ​​as well as strong solar radiation or a low content of lime in water, which is not able to bind carbon dioxide. Constantly carry out a partial change of water or move fish to another aquarium. Subsequently monitor the correct pH. When CO2 is added, if done correctly, the disease cannot occur.
Lymphocystis Viral disease, which is especially susceptible to dwarf cichlids and macropods; easily transmitted. If the fins are affected, they can be (shallowly) cut. If the disease passes to the body, further treatment is not possible. Fish must be caught and destroyed.
Neon disease The causative agent of the disease is called Plistophora hyphessobryconis; parasitizes in the muscles of fish, forming spores. The disease can spread like an epidemic (importers are well aware of this). Treatment is impossible: fish must be closely monitored, infected individuals should be immediately caught and destroyed.
Oodiniosis; velvet disease The disease causes Oodinium pillularis, a flagellar infusoria; the symptoms are the same as with ichthyophthyroidism. The drug is “Exrapid”; separate short baths in a solution of sodium chloride (10-15 g / l) for 20 minutes or immersion in a net (25 g / l) for 10-20 seconds.
Parasite Pathogens: Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina, (Cyclochaeta), gill worms, Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Monocoelium Neodactylogyrus, etc. See also “Ichthyodobiasis (bone disease)”. In case of gill parasite damage - “Gyrotox” (in the pet store), according to the instructions. Short baths in a solution of sodium chloride are possible (repeat after a few days).
Saprolegniosis Organic pollution (corpses of fish, residues of feed, etc.). Most often, on the affected areas (open wounds), mold appears, caused by a fungal disease. Lubricate with a preparation against fungus or mold; possible short baths in potassium permanganate (1 g / 100 l), 20 - 30 minutes.
Bladder inflammation It can be a concomitant phenomenon with dropsy or a consequence of hypothermia. Depending on the reason; see “Dropsy” and “Colds.”
Spironucleosis Most often, this flagellate is imported along with fish from East Asia. It usually affects the discus (whitish filamentous excrement). It is found in other cichlids. Final stage: holes in the head. Special drugs with metronizadol (such as “Clont”) are sold by prescription. In the pet shop you can buy "Nekhaekh." The tablet of the first of these drugs should be dissolved in about 60 liters of water; 4-day course of treatment in the aquarium. Use the second drug according to the instructions. Prevention courses are recommended (2 times a year). In pharmacies, BP 80 metronizadol, packaged in 10 g vials, is also sold. Unlike Clont, it is a pure substance without fillers, therefore its price is higher. (Dosage: 4 mg per liter of aquarium water.)
Poisoning The reason should be established. Have you been working recently on the aquarium and its design? Have chemicals been used? Have insect repellents sprayed in the room? Is ammonia or nitrite poisoning possible? If a cause is found, it is necessary to eliminate it and thereby poisoning. In case of doubt, it is recommended to gradually change the water in small portions.
Constipation The reason most often lies in the uniformity of nutrition; happens due to colds. Optimal care and care with a variety of nutrition: live and freshly frozen food (animal protein).




Argulez

fish diseases
A parasitic disease of aquarium fish, the cause of which is an attack on a fish by the blood-sucking crustacean of a carnivore (Argulus foliaceus), or, as it is also called, fish louse that enters an aquarium with food from stocked reservoirs. The carp-eater has the appearance of a flat rounded translucent turtle of gray-green color with four pairs of cirrus swimming legs. In the initial stage, the crustacean is barely noticeable to the naked eye, but in the adult state it can reach 4-6 mm. He is very mobile, swims freely, but prefers to accumulate in the thick of plants. Attacking the fish, the carps eater digs into the skin, bites it and sucks blood. From biting him, wounds form on the body of the fish, which often become the gateway to infection. Karpoed is destroyed mechanically, taking out the affected fish from the aquarium and removing the parasite with tweezers. This method is not easy, but the use of anti-carboedid chemicals in a general aquarium is practically excluded, because he dies at doses dangerous to the fish. In order to exclude the ingestion of carpoeids into the aquarium, it is necessary to carefully check the composition of live feed caught from natural reservoirs.


Aeromonosis

fish diseases
Carp aeromonosis (rubella) is an infectious abdominal dropsy, allegedly caused by the bacterium Aeromonas punctata. An infection introduced into an aquarium with sick fish or live food from stocked ponds affects the fish. The disease progresses markedly in heavily contaminated aquariums with cold water. Ill fish become sedentary, lie down on the ground, stop eating, there is ruffling of scales, bloating of the abdomen, blood streaks appear on the body and fins. The disease is acute and difficult to cure. Sick fish are usually destroyed, and a complete disinfection of the aquarium is performed. However, in some cases, in the initial stage of the disease, after thoroughly cleaning the aquarium while maintaining a temperature of 26-28 ° C, active aeration and adding a therapeutic dose of tripaflavin or a weak solution of potassium permanganate to the water, the disease attenuates and the fish recover.


Botriocephalosis

fish diseases
The causative agent is the tape helminth Bothriocephalus opsarhchthydis and Botriocephalus acheilognathi from the order Pseudophyllide (Pseudophyllidea) of this. Bolhriocephalidae. In a mature form, it lives in fish in the anterior intestine, attaching itself to its wall with suction cups, causes inflammation of the mucous membrane and injures it. May cause bowel blockage and fish death. Sick fish swims near the surface of the water, does not take food, becomes lethargic and exhausted. The disease of botriocephalosis occurs mainly in the summer, when the fish are fed the cyclops, in which the procercoid is located (intermediate stage of development). Treatment is carried out with kamala, phenothiazine, phenasal, which are mixed with food.


Branchiomycosis

fish diseases
The causative agents are the fungi Branchiomyces sanguinis and Branchiomyces demigrans (Branchiomyces demigrans and Branchiomyces sanguinis). They are localized in the blood vessels of the gill lobes, causing blockage of the vessels and necrosis of the gills. A sick fish swims near the surface, greedily capturing the air, eats poorly and soon dies. At the opening of such a fish, the mosaic of gills formed by the alternation of red and white sections is clearly visible. Treatment is carried out with solutions of copper sulfate, formalin, violet K, nystatin sodium and levorin sodium.


Gastrointestinal tract inflammation
It is noted in aquarium fish in most cases when feeding with a uniform and poor quality food, it can cause the simultaneous death of a significant number of fish, especially juveniles. In addition to feeding fish with a spoiled and contaminated tubule, rotten bloodworm, corvette, overexposed compound feeds, the disease quite often occurs when feeding starving fish with dry daphnia. In a sick fish, the abdomen swells, redness appears in the anus, constipation or excrement with undigested food is observed, breathing is difficult, the fish stop eating, go to the bottom. Sick fish must first of all ensure normal conditions of detention - cleanliness, heat, aeration, water change. After 2-3 days of fasting, start feeding small portions of benign, easily digestible feeds - live daphnia, cyclops, fresh corvette. Karpovyh and others similar in nutrition should be fed with cooked semolina. In therapeutic doses, one of the disinfectants is added in therapeutic doses - table salt, tripaflavin, rivanol.


Gas embolism

fish diseases
Blockage of blood vessels by air bubbles appears in fish when using unsteady tap water, excessive and prolonged aeration. Often it is necessary to observe how many air bubbles settle on the walls of a vessel filled with white tap water, similar to milk. If such water is not allowed to settle and put fish in it or to pour a lot of such water into the aquarium, then excess air through the gills will enter the blood of the fish and, having secreted into the vesicles, can clog small blood vessels. In patients with a gas embolism, gills darken, and blood puffiness appears on the body and fins. Once normal gas exchange has been established in the aquarium, these symptoms may disappear and the fish recover. With severe blockage of blood vessels, ulceration appears and the fish may die. Prevention consists in preventing the use of large amounts of unstated tap water and excessive aeration for the aquarium. It is possible to accelerate the exit of air from water by heating and cooling it .


Hexamitosis

fish diseases
"Hole ailment" occurs in aquarium fish, mainly in pihlovye, especially often in discus, for which aquarists also call it discus. The causative agent of the disease is the flagellate Hexamita symphysodoni. Clinical signs: one or several barely noticeable whitish tubercles appear on the scaleless surface of the fish head, which then increase to 1-5 mm and look like a grayish curd mass emerging from the hole formed in the body. It seems that this mass, like a mole heap, is pushed out by a parasite that gnaws at the body of the fish. After a week or two, the process decays, the mass ceases to stand out, and holes remain in the affected areas, sometimes of rather considerable depth, without any signs of inflammation. Over time, the hole is tightened, and in this place a cavity forms, which, after a little smoothing, remains with the fish for life. Sick fish do not show much concern, continue to eat, but their painful condition is generally noticeable. There are facts when they are involved in spawning. When treating in a general aquarium, a positive result is noted with the use of Trichopolum. For treatment in a separate vessel by aquarists, a composition of erycycline (50 mg / l) is used in combination with griseofulvin (10 mg / l) and trichopolum (10 mg / l) for 10-15 days, and at a temperature of 35-37 ° C - 1-3 days. Hexamitosis can recur, occurs both with rarely replaced water, and when replacing a significant part of the water with soft water.


Gyrodactyles

fish diseases
A parasitic invasive disease of aquarium fish caused by the fluke worm of the genus Gyrodactilus, reaching a length of up to 1 mm. In the head part there is a socket with a mouth opening surrounded by hook-shaped protrusions with which the parasite is attached to the fish. Gyrodactylus enters the aquarium with acquired sick fish or with food from infected ponds. In aquariums contaminated with decaying organic matter, gyrodactylus multiplies rapidly. Parasites, covering a significant part of the body of the fish, destroy the skin and suck blood, which greatly depletes the fish. If measures are not taken to treat the fish, ulcers appear on their body, leading to inevitable death. The disease is easily detected visually. Fish behave uneasily, constantly itching on stones, soil, plants. The body of the fish is covered with whitish matte spots, which are numerous clusters of parasites that, when the fish are in a calm state, make oscillatory movements, which can be observed with the naked eye. The temperature of the water does not affect the survivability of the gyrodactylus. The most effective fight against this parasite is achieved by the use of one of the medical solutions - rivanol, copper sulfate, bicillin-5 or tripaflavin with active aeration and repeated replacement of water in small parts.


Glugea

fish diseases
The causative agent is the sporiginum Glugea (Glugea pseudotumefaciens and Glugea hertwigi from the genus Glugea). It is localized in the cells of connective tissue. The affected fish swims on its side, nodules appear on the body, and buccal eye is observed. There are no remedies yet. Sick fish are destroyed, the aquarium is disinfected.


Fin rot

fish diseases
The causative agents of the disease are bacteria from the pseudomonas group. In diseased fish, fins (usually the tail) begin to rot, which may even fall away. The causes of the disease are: low water temperature, disturbed biological balance, as a result of which pathogenic microbes begin to multiply. Treatment is carried out with solutions of tripaflavin (1: 10000), nitrate silver, morphopiclin.


Dactylogyrosis

fish diseases
The parasitic invasive disease of aquarium fish caused by a fluke-worm of the genus Dactilogyrus (Dactilogyrus) is similar in structure to a gyrodactylus, but differs from the latter in that it parasitizes mainly on the gills of fish and is therefore difficult to detect. Once in the aquarium in ways characteristic of many types of parasites, it multiplies rapidly and attacks fish. In diseased fish, the gills swell, they breathe with difficulty, and if measures are not taken to treat the initial stage of the disease, they die from suffocation. Treatment is similar to treatment for gyrodactylysis.


Dermatomycosis (saprolegniosis)

fish diseases
Infectious disease caused by fungi of the genus saprolegnia (Saprolegnia). On the body and fins of diseased fish, often on the eyes and lips, white threads (hyphae) appear, growing into cotton-like formations. Sick fish become inactive, stop eating. If untreated, ulcers appear on the body of the fish, gills are affected, and the fish die. In most cases, fish contained in tight containers with dirty and cold water - below 20 ° C, become sick with dermatomycosis. In the initial stage, the disease is not dangerous and can be easily cured, for which it is necessary to create normal conditions for keeping sick fish. Dermatomycosis is treated with a solution of copper sulfate. In the initial stage, you can use kitchen salt. In the local form of mushroom growths, the affected area is treated 2-3 times with a daily interval with a cotton swab dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or rivanol, eliminating the drug from getting into the eyes and gills of the fish.


Ichthyophthyroidism

fish diseases
One of the most common aquarium fish diseases. It arises as a result of an attack on them of the equi-ciliary infusoria of ichthyophthirius (Ichthyophthirius multifilis). When enlarged, it has the appearance of a rounded plaque bordered around the circumference by cilia converging to the mouth opening, with the help of which the ciliator moves, and also attaches to the body of the fish. The disease is detected visually. Several grayish tubercles up to 1 mm in size appear on the body and fins of the fish, the number of which increases rapidly, and the fish appears to be sprinkled with semolina, which is why aquarists call ichthyophthyroidism semolina. The parasite penetrates the epithelial cover, drains the blood, with a severe defeat, the fish is depleted and dies. Sick fish become restless, constantly itch on surrounding objects, trying to free themselves from the parasite, stop eating. The parasite is introduced into the aquarium, like other pathogenic ciliates, with sick fish and food from stocked ponds. An outbreak of infection is favored by a sharp drop in water temperature in the direction of lowering and other changes in the regime of detention. The infusoria ichthyophthyrius has a life cycle consisting of three stages, which is useful to consider when treating: attacks on fish and parasites on its body; reproduction in a cyst; free swimming of the young infusoria "vagrant" before the attack on the fish. After ripening to adulthood, under the skin of the fish, the infusoria, breaking through the capsule shell formed around it, falls into the water and sinks to the bottom or attaches to some object, envelops itself with mucus and turns into a gelatinous mass. In this state, it can stay for a long time. Under favorable conditions, reproduction by division takes place in the cyst and from several hundred to a thousand or more microscopic new ciliates, “strollers,” are formed, which after some time break the cyst and enter the water. Having strengthened, they "wander" around the aquarium and, having attacked the fish, penetrate under the epithelial layer of the skin, after which the cycle repeats. Outside the fish, "strollers" can last no more than 2-3 days, which should be taken into account when combating ichthyophthyroidism. If treatment measures are taken in a timely manner, it is not difficult to deal with ichthyophthyroidism. The parasite does not tolerate the high temperature of water. It is enough to increase the temperature in the aquarium to 30-32 ° C with intensive aeration and frequent water changes in order to rid the fish of the disease within a few days. It is helpful to add a therapeutic dose of tripaflavin to the water. With severe lesions by ichthyophthyrius, bicillin-5 is used.


Ichthyophonosis

fish diseases
The causative agent is the fungus ichthyophonus (Ichthyophonus hoferi). It affects the internal organs, muscles, nervous tissue. A sick fish has deep sores on the body, dead fins, which disappear over time. When the nervous system is damaged, the fish loses coordination of movements. There are no effective therapeutic agents for this disease yet. Sick fish should be destroyed and the aquarium disinfected.


Caryophyllosis

fish diseases
The causative agent of karyophyllosis is the tapeworm karyophyllius fimbriceps (Caryophyllacus fimbriceps and Caryophyllacus laticeps). The worm parasitizes in the middle section of the intestines of the fish, which swallows it with the affected tubule. In this case, the fish dies from a blockage in the intestinal tract. Treatment is carried out with Kamala or powder from the dried rhizome and the rudimentary leaves of fern, prickly thyroid, which are mixed with dry food or make an aqueous suspension.


Kostiosis

fish diseases
Disease of fish of all ages, the causative agent of which is the flagellated infusoria Costia necatrix. The surface of the body of fish, fins and gills are affected. The disease is especially dangerous for the young. Intruding into the epithelial cover of the skin, the parasite, sucking blood, causes severe skin irritation. The body and fins are covered with a layer of gray-matte mucus. Sick fish are restless, constantly rubbing on objects, stop eating. With severe depletion and damage to the bones, gills, they die. They treat fish with bicillin-5, rivanol, tripaflavin, potassium permanganate, and kitchen salt.


Lepidortosis

fish diseases
The causative agent of this disease is a group of microorganisms, of which Aeromonas punctata and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Aeromonas punctata and Pseudomonas fluorescens) play the leading role. A sick fish swims uneasily, its scales are raised as a result of filling scaly pockets with liquid. Treatment is carried out with potassium permanganate, a solution of sodium chloride. You can also apply nitrate silver and morphocycline (in 1 liter of 100,000 units) with an exposure of 5 minutes.


Octomitosis

fish diseases
The causative agent is the flagellate Octomitus Hexamita (Octomitus) truttae. The parasite is localized in the gallbladder and intestines of the fish. Affected fish gradually lose weight and poorly take food. Often the outcome of the disease ends in the death of the fish. Treatment is carried out with calomel, mixing it with food .


Oodiniumosis

fish diseases
The causative agent is from the class of pest bearers of the dinoflagellate oodinium (Oodinium limneticum). The parasite affects the skin of the fish and its fins. Sick fish as if covered with fine grayish-yellow sand. She often swims near the surface of the water, rubs against stones and plants and gradually loses weight. Treatment is carried out with solutions of sodium chloride (1: 1000), copper sulfate, silver nitrate, formalin.


Aquarium fish poisoning
It occurs as a result of the ingestion of poisonous substances into the body of the fish when consuming poor-quality feed or ingesting poisoned aquarium water. Poisoning may be the result of feeding fish spoiled food during improper storage or food caught from dysfunctional reservoirs; ingress of toxic substances into the aquarium water from the putty used in the manufacture of the aquarium; getting into the aquarium or vessel for storing live food of domestic insects poisoned with pesticides; use for storing feed utensils for non-food purposes; the use of increased doses of drugs, etc. Clinical signs of poisoning: the appearance of convulsive movements in fish, the weakening of the orientation of fish, moving around, stumble on oncoming objects, loss of bright color. With the timely detection of signs of poisoning of diseased fish, it is necessary to immediately transplant it into clean water, arrange aeration and create other optimal conditions. The aquarium should be recharged by thoroughly rinsing the plants in clean water and flushing the soil.


Plistophorosis (neon disease)

fish diseases
Infectious disease caused by the parasites Plistophora hyphessobryconis from the class of sporozoans that penetrate the cells of the tissue and cavity of the body of the fish. Enlightened areas appear on the body of the fish. More often than others, neon fish suffer from plistophorosis. Their blue and red stripes fade, the back as if through through. Small cyprinids also get sick. The disease has been little studied and, according to many sources, is practically incurable. Therefore, it is recommended to destroy diseased fish. However, there is evidence of attenuation of the disease when moving sick fish into old peat water. Medications are also recommended.


Cold
In aquarium fish, it occurs with strong and prolonged cooling, which most often happens when transporting fish in the cold season without appropriate insulation, installing the aquarium near the window, keeping the fish without heating, timely unnoticed failure of the electric heater, and for other reasons. Cold fish become inactive, lose their color, become covered with gray mucus, their gills become inflamed. Fish weakened by colds are often affected by infectious diseases. Sick fish need to create normal conditions - heat, aeration of water, easily digestible food. To prevent the occurrence of an infectious disease, it is necessary to use one of the therapeutic agents - table salt, tripaflavin, rivanol.


Pseudomoniasis (fin rot)

fish diseases
Infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. A sick fish appears subtle lowering of the edges of the fins with their subsequent destruction and shortening. Then, ulcers form at the base of the fins, and if the treatment is not taken, the fish die. It is necessary to start treatment immediately after detecting the signs of the disease, using one of such agents as bicillin-5, copper sulfate, biomycin. Fin rot should be distinguished from injuries and alkaline disease, when in highly alkaline water fins in fish without visible damage are shortened, as if melting. In this case, it is necessary to normalize the quality of the water in the aquarium.


Saprolegniosis

fish diseases
The causative agents of the disease are fungi from the saprolegniacea and achlia family. Usually affect depleted fish or occur as a secondary disease. Sick fish is covered in patches or sometimes completely white fluff, which consists of a fungus neck. Germinating in the skin, they kill adjacent tissues, resulting in the formation of dead sites. Treatment is carried out with solutions of copper sulfate, formalin, nitrate silver, violet K, sodium salt of nystatin (in 1 liter of 100,000 units), sodium salt of levorin.


Chylodonellosis

fish diseases
An invasive disease caused by the equi-ciliary infusoria chylodonella (Chilodonella cyprini). Once in the aquarium, the parasite, especially in old water, may not manifest itself in relation to fish for a long period of time. However, a sharp change in the oxygen regime and chemical composition of water, the substitution of a significant part of it, and the decay of feed residues cause rapid propagation of chylodonella, which is noticeable in a significant turbidity of the water (infusorous turbidity). With an increase, you can see in it a lot of oval shaped ciliates with cilia on the front side, making oscillatory movements. In fish affected by chylodonellosis, the body is covered with a bluish-matte coating, they sway, rub against the soil and plants, their fins stick together. Getting into the gills of fish, ciliates, damaging the epithelial cover, envelop their surface with a continuous film, which leads to the death of fish from suffocation. These parasites do not spare even the largest and most powerful aquarium fish, such as astronotuses, tilapias, etc. As follows from the above, the main thing to do to prevent an outbreak of chylodonellosis in the aquarium is to avoid replacing a large part of the water and to prevent overfeeding of fish with rapidly decomposing in water feed. Chylodonellosis is especially dangerous for fish fry and often leads to their mass death. To combat chylodonellosis, a therapeutic solution of one of such drugs as rivanol, tripaflavin, methylene blue, chloramine is used. After the recovery of the fish, it is necessary to change the water.


Peptic ulcer

fish diseases
The causative agent - pseudomonas fluorescence is introduced into the aquarium with live food, water, soil, plants and diseased fish specimens. Sick fish have small sores on the surface of the body, which, if you do not take appropriate measures, increase and penetrate deeper. Quite often, fungi penetrate the sites of ulceration, which aggravate the disease and lead to the death of the fish. Treatment is carried out with potassium permanganate solutions, tripaflavin.


Disease prevention
It is important for the prevention of diseases of aquarium fish resulting from violations of the rules for keeping and introducing infection through different channels. In order to preserve the health of the inhabitants of the aquarium and create a normal ecological situation, it is recommended to observe the following rules:
- systematically carry out weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with a change of an average of 1/10 of the volume of water; prevent overpopulation of the aquarium;
- avoid unreasonable and partial fish transplantation;
- Do not place objects that can cause poisoning or injury to fish in the aquarium;
- strictly monitor the quality of fish food and ensure its proper storage;
- observe the feeding regimen (twice a day), do not leave the fish hungry for a long time and do not allow overfeeding;
- maintain the optimum temperature in the aquarium recommended for specific fish species, exclude the possibility of sudden changes in temperature in the aquarium and hypothermia;
- to ensure reliable transportation of fish, using soft, sufficient in carrying volume, excluding injury to fish;
- In winter, use thermos containers, and for large fish and a large number of fry, special portable insulated boxes;
- quarantine newly acquired fish by placing them in a designated hider filled with water from an existing aquarium;
- so as not to arrange a separate heating, small fish can be placed in a glass jar and allowed to swim in the aquarium;
- the inventory (nets, siphons, etc.) that served sick or quarantined fish should be thoroughly disinfected (potassium permanganate, rivanol, table salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish;
- in order to avoid fish jumping out of the aquarium, it is necessary to cover it with glass or a net, providing free access to air;
- when treating fish with medicines and chemicals, strictly observe the dosage in order to prevent poisoning.