Diseases and diseases of fish
The fish organism, like the organisms of all other living creatures, has a certain strength of resistance to pathogens, for example, parasites. But if for some reason the fish is weakened, or, conversely, the causative agents of the disease have become stronger due to some circumstances, then the disease may appear. To prevent fish diseases, as always, is better than adding chemicals to the water, even controlling (more or less) this process. In aquarium, you should not work on the principle of a watering can for watering flowers! You will not swallow medicines if you have a sick neighbor or someone in the family? But in the aquarium, it often turns out that all the inhabitants of a home reservoir are constantly under the influence of drugs (most often antibiotics!), And only because any one fish seems unhealthy. Well, fish don’t know how to speak ... Here is one example. If bacterial inflammation is suspected after a bite, antibacterial agents are often added to the water “for prophylaxis” (and they can only be used in a separate tank). Yes, in this case, bacteria that excite, possibly an inflammatory process, die. But at the same time, all other bacteria are destroyed - those contained in the soil, or, for example, those that participate in the so-called nitrification (oxidation of ammonia through nitrites to nitrates). The best and most effective way to avoid the disease is to monitor biological purity, the correct temperature and indicators of water. Fill the aquarium with soil, plant plants, but wait a week or two (!) And do not run fish into it until a sufficient number of bacteria are formed in the soil and in the filter that convert harmful substances. Without a developed bacterial fauna, the concentration of poisons (ammonia, nitrites) rapidly increases in the aquarium; little by little they can be removed by partial replacement of water. At the same time, it is necessary to constantly check the nitrite content in the water. Fresh water must be mixed (!) In the aquarium to absorb as much oxygen as possible. If, despite carefully following these tips, your fish get sick, then first you need to seriously examine the symptoms. Therapeutic intervention is possible only when a diagnosis is made. Special tables contain information about the most common fish diseases, their symptoms and treatment methods.
Better to prevent disease than to treat it
The following are the phenomena and factors that can affect the well-being of fish and possibly contribute to disease. The best way to deal with these diseases is to prevent them.
1. Hunger and emaciation. Both that, and another can easily lead to infectious damage to the integument; fish are secondarily affected by fungus (Saprolegnia).
2. Bad and inappropriate food. It easily leads to diseases of the stomach and intestines. If the food is too oily, it can lead to obesity. If the food is too monotonous and poor in vitamins, it can cause a general weakening and degeneration of the liver. Some abstinence will not hurt the fish. It’s the same as with people: it’s better to be hungry and alert than well-fed and listless.
3. The temperature is too low. Fish can catch a cold too. The result of hypothermia is most often inflammation of the swimming bladder, and thereby a decrease in the body's resistance. Unexpected and abrupt changes in temperature and arbitrary transport of fish should be avoided.
4. Lack of oxygen. Most often makes the fish breathe heavily and thereby weakens them.
5. Too soft water or too low pH. Not every fish tolerates an unusually low pH, although this is recommended for some species (red neon, discus, etc.). Fish (like other viviparous animals), if they live in the coastal zone, cannot tolerate particularly soft water or too low pH. The latter causes them an “acid disease”.
6. Too strong solar radiation. Fortunately, modern luminaires mounted in the top cover now help to avoid the common
mistakes: installing the aquarium on the windowsill. Due to increased solar radiation, as well as due to the concomitant increase in pH to 10 or more, burns on the skin and fins (alkaline disease) are possible.
7. Injuries due to contact with appliances or biting neighbors. They lead to fungal infection or bacterial infection of wounds. You need to think well in advance of the selection of fish in the aquarium.
8. Bad insulation. If unsuitable means (metals, glue, paint, hoses) were used in the manufacture or repair of the aquarium at home, this can lead to poisoning.
9. Harmful gases. Furnace gas, factory emissions, tobacco smoke, etc., are drawn in by an air pump and enter the aquarium water. They are harmful or even deadly to fish. Therefore, it is recommended to include an air filter (with filter carbon) between the pump or the flow filter or to suck in air outdoors.
Fish disease. Diagnosis and therapy
In addition to numerous diseases. which can be prevented by the preventive measures mentioned above, there are, unfortunately, others; but the aquarist can successfully treat them as well. We are talking about defeat by external parasites. Internal diseases of fish are very difficult to cure, because they are usually recognized too late. In case of doubt, you need to quickly tap on the glass of the avarium: if the fish is healthy, then it will rush hastily down. A sick fish swims slowly, oscillating movements. If the fish rises up without moving its fins, or hardly rises from the bottom, then this also indicates a disease. The same applies to fish that stay directly below the surface of the water and swim away only if you touch them with your hand. Our table provides a list of the most common diseases and diagnoses.
|Main indications||Individual symptoms|
|Lowering to the bottom||dropsy, colds, inflammation of the swim bladder|
|Fin necrosis||intestinal inflammation, colds, fin rot, gas embolism, clouding of the skin, ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease, oodiniosis, parasite damage, inflammation of the bladder, poisoning, constipation|
|Food rejection||intestinal inflammation, colds, fish tuberculosis, gas embolism, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, spironucleosis, oodiniosis, parasite damage, poisoning, constipation||dropsy, fin rot, ichthyophthyriasis, neon disease|
|Bottom jumping||dropsy, intestinal inflammation, colds, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, swimming bladder inflammation||neon disease, constipation|
|Cramps||gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning|
|Spasmodic movement||dropsy, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis, parasite damage, inflammation of the swimming bladder||skin clouding, constipation|
|Shiver||dropsy, colds, fish tuberculosis, fin rot, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis, parasite damage, inflammation of the swimming bladder, poisoning|
|Friction on stones, etc.||clouding of the skin, ichthyophthyriasis, carp louse, oodiniosis, parasite damage|
|Greedy swallowing air||gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning||skin clouding, parasite damage|
|Lack of coordination of movements||fish tuberculosis, glucoseosis, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, spironucleosis, inflammation of the swimming bladder, poisoning|
|Anxiety, Apathy||gas embolism, alkaline disease, poisoning||skin clouding|
|Emaciation||intestinal inflammation, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease, spironucleosis||glugeosis, oodiniosis|
|Bloating||dropsy, inflammation of the swim bladder||colds, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease|
|Deformation of body parts||dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, neon disease||fin rot|
|Irrigation scales||dropsy, ichthyosporidosis||neon disease|
|Growths||dropsy||fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis|
|Anal redness||dropsy, intestinal inflammation, spironucleosis||cold|
|Bluish white spots||fish tuberculosis, clouding of the skin, ichthyosporidosis, alkaline disease, neon disease, parasite damage||cold|
|Focal hemorrhage||dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, spironucleosis, parasite damage||clouding of the skin, ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease|
|Color changing spots||fish tuberculosis, glucoseosis, neon disease|
|Subcutaneous gas vesicles||gas embolism|
|Ulcers||dropsy, fish tuberculosis, glugeosis, ichthyosporidosis, spironucleosis|
|Sores, rash on the body||ichthyosporidosis|
|Exfoliation of the skin||alkaline disease, oodiniosis, parasite damage||skin clouding|
|Whitish beads or tubercles||lymphocystis|
|Dark spots||skin clouding, ichthyosporidosis, parasite damage|
|Felt plaque||skin clouding, saprolegniosis|
|Mucous darkening||fin rot, ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease, parasite damage, saprolegniosis||skin clouding|
|Bonding fins||skin clouding, parasite damage|
|Whitening the edges of the fins||lymphocystis, parasite damage||fin rot|
|Fin destruction||fish tuberculosis, fin rot, clouding of the skin, ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease, oodiniosis, parasite damage|
|Swelling, inflammation||alkaline disease, parasite damage, poisoning||skin clouding|
|Bluish white fading||skin clouding, parasite damage|
|Whitening||ichthyophthyriasis, alkaline disease, parasite damage|
|Eye-eye||dropsy, fish tuberculosis, ichthyosporidosis, constipation|
|Dots and specks||ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis|
|Tarnish||ichthyosporidosis, ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis||parasite|
|Destruction of the surface||ichthyophthyriasis, oodiniosis, parasite damage|
Even very mild symptoms should be taken seriously. We must try to start treatment with increasing the body's resistance to fish: it must be isolated and favorable water and temperature conditions must be provided, as well as nutrition, which means: do not overfeed and do not overheat. Both for a separate tank and for the aquarium from which the fish was removed, you need to carefully monitor. To strengthen the body's resistance to fish, vitamin preparations can be added to food. But if her condition worsens, then it is necessary to take, the next step, to begin treatment. First of all, you need to make a short or long bath. Further, according to the directions on the package, you need to treat the fish in its quarantine vessel. And please, never exceed the indicated dose “for good reasons” - this may lead to the speedy death of the fish.
Pests of fish and methods of dealing with them
Along with live food, dangerous pests often get into the aquarium, which causes major trouble to its owner and forces them to resort to radical measures, so the aquarist should know the enemies of the fish and methods of dealing with them.
Argulus (scientific name) - the most unpleasant "guests" of the aquarium. These include gill-tailed crustaceans, commonly referred to as fish louse, or carp-eating. Crustaceans feed on the blood of fish, parasitizing on their skin. They are quite large, reach 4-8 mm in length and, most importantly, have a broad, leaf-like (flattened) translucent body, painted in greenish-yellow or grayish-green color, which is why they are hardly visible on the body of the fish. The cephalothorax of the parasite is equipped with attachment organs with curved hooks, a sucking proboscis, sucker-like organs, four pairs of swimming legs, two faceted eyes. Very mobile, easily separated from fish and swim freely in the water with the help of swimming legs. Having a positive reaction to light, crustaceans and their larvae tend to the light layers of water, where their development is faster. From eggs laid by the female on the ground, plants, stones, larvae appear. If the larvae, swimming freely in water for 2-3 days, do not encounter fish, they die. Once on fish, they grow so fast that in 15-18 days they reach puberty and can lay their eggs themselves.
Arguli are thermophilic and photophilous, therefore, they usually enter the aquarium, as a rule, in the hot season with water, soil, vegetation, live food from natural reservoirs. Entering them in an aquarium is a real disaster. Attached to the fish, parasites pierce the skin with a proboscis and not only suck blood, but also inject into the wound the toxic secret of the poisonous gland. The wound site becomes inflamed, swells, hemorrhage occurs, and in more severe cases, deep wounds form on the body of the fish. Destroying the skin, contribute to the penetration of microorganisms through the wounds and the development of infectious diseases.
The struggle with arguli is quite difficult and mainly consists in their mechanical separation. Affected fish are placed in a wet swab and parasites are removed with fine tweezers. After this, the wound can be treated with a treatment solution (1 g of crystalline potassium permanganate per 1 liter of water), for which a cotton swab is applied to the affected area, wound on a match (without a sulfur head) and soaked in the indicated treatment solution. After that, the fish is immediately released into an uninfected aquarium.
The main methods of struggle are based on knowledge of the nature of the development of the parasite. We recommend leaving the aquarium without fish and raising the temperature to 26 ° C, lighting well and keeping it like this for a week. You should not catch food in hot weather in the reservoirs where the fish lives. It is very important to carefully look through, sort the food caught and bought on the market.
Hydra. The mass development of dangerous representatives of intestinal cavity protozoa, hydra, can become very unpleasant for the inhabitants of the aquarium. Having attached to the glass of the aquarium, plants, other objects with the sole, the hydra attacks with the help of stinging tentacle threads on larvae and fry. The tentacles are equipped with stinging capsules containing thin strings with poison, with which the hydra paralyzes the victim, and then captures and absorbs. In this case, the predator increases significantly in size. The body length of a hydra without tentacles reaches 1 cm. In larger fry, the hydra violates the skin, opening up access to infection. Hydra can multiply very quickly by budding. It is photophilous, and you can see a cluster of hydras in a brightly lit area of the glass of the aquarium.
Getting rid of hydras is not easy. We can offer the easiest way - to lure into the light, given their positive phototaxis. Thin glass is lowered into the water, which is pressed tightly against the glass of the aquarium. Aquarium shade and direct a beam of light on this glass. When hydras accumulate in a lighted area, the glass with them is removed, removing animals from it. This method can not completely get rid of hydra.
The use of ammonium sulfate [(NH4) 2SO] or ammonium nitrate (NHNO): ammonium sulfate is dissolved at the rate of 0.05 g of the preparation per 1 liter of water and introduced into the general aquarium, since it is harmless to fish at these doses. Hydras must die within 3-5 days. Using ammonium nitrate, fry and juvenile fish are removed from the aquarium, adult fish and hydras are fed intensively for two weeks with daphnia. Hydras actively breed at this time. Then, ammonium nitrate is added to the aquarium at the rate of 0.6-1 g of the drug per 10 l of water, having dissolved the substance previously in 250-500 ml of water. For better mixing include aeration. The temperature is raised to 27-28 ° C and maintained until the end of the course of treatment. After three days, make the initial dose of the same concentration. Hydras should die on the 5-6th day. After the destruction of hydra, the water in the aquarium is not completely changed. Ammonium nitrate in such concentrations is not harmful to fish, and even serves as a fertilizer to plants.
If there are no plants in the aquarium and you can temporarily remove fish, use hydrogen peroxide at the rate of two teaspoons of a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide per 10 liters of water. The calculated amount is diluted in 100-150 ml of water and introduced into the aquarium without fish and plants. The free oxygen formed in this case acts destructively.
You can place two balls of copper wire (without insulation) at different ends of the aquarium. In water, copper begins to oxidize, and the resulting products have a detrimental effect on the hydra, in which the tentacles are lost (fall to the bottom of the aquarium, from where they are removed with a hose). After being released from the Hydra, the wire is removed.
When using a solution of copper sulfate (0.05 g per 1 liter of water), hydra death occurs within an hour, after another 3-4 hours, a partial cleaning and a complete change of water are carried out. Fish are removed from the aquarium during these operations. Copper sulfate must be chemically pure or pure for analysis. Complicating this event is the complete replacement of water, that is, in fact the re-creation of the aquarium. However, for spawning and growing special aquariums where there is no soil, plants are usually kept in pots or ditches (they are portable), water is taken from large aquariums, diluting it with tap water, this method is quite acceptable.
The method of dealing with hydra with the help of electric current was tested and proposed by aquarist E. Dotsenko from Kharkov. It consists in connecting a 9-12 V DC source to two bundles of copper wire (without insulation) immersed in water at opposite ends of the aquarium (for which it is possible to use a 9-12 volt transformer with a diode one or two half-wave rectifier ) The current is turned on after installing the wiring, provided that the current-carrying wires are carefully isolated from the metal frame of the aquarium. One or two inclusions for 1-2 minutes are enough to destroy all hydras in a 60-liter aquarium. At the same time, fish and plants feel normal.
Together with water plants, flatworms can be brought into the aquarium. They are called planaria (Planaria gonocephala and P. maculata). These worms with a head in the shape of a triangle stick to the glass and are especially dangerous for fry.
Planaria. Three types of planaria are known: brown (Planaria torva), black (Policoelis nigra) and the less common large milk-white planaria (Dendrocoellum lacteum), reaching a length of 2.5 cm. These flat worms, having, in the words of one biologist, "a robbery throat ", Getting into the aquarium with live food, destroy eggs, larvae and fry of fish. Planaria is not at all harmless in relation to adult fish. Her predatory attack on adult Malawian cichlids was observed, for example, by scientists in the Dnepropetrovsk aquarium complex. A large number of planaria were discovered on the gills of dead fish. The death of cichlids occurred as a result of severe anemia. The remaining fish were saved by adding sodium chloride (2.5 g per 1 liter of water).
In contrast to hydra planaria, they lead a twilight life, hiding in the plants during the day, under stones. If you look at the caught planaria under a magnifying glass, you can see two eyes on the front of the body. The body of the planaria is covered with cilia and the movements look smooth. The worms are covered with specific mucus, so fish, with the exception of some, do not take them. Planaria is unusually tenacious. Getting into adverse conditions, they lose mobility, turning into a shapeless mass, but the pharynx, which can live independently, breaks away from the body and enters the environment, continuing to move. Worms are capable of amazing regeneration: divided into more than two hundred parts, they retain the ability to fully recover from each part.
Methods of dealing with this tenacious predator are based on its highly developed sense of smell. A little scraped beef is placed in a gauze bag and lowered on a fishing line into an aquarium, not far from plants or from the ground. The aquarium is obscured.
Planarians quickly gather on the bait. The bag is pulled out with a net and lowered into cool boiling water. The procedure is repeated with an interval of several days.
It is detrimental to planaria and an increase in water temperature to 30–32 ° С, which many tropical fish can withstand (provided that there is sufficient aeration).
Chemical methods for controlling planarians are also acceptable. Copper sulfate (1.5 mg per 1 liter of water) and ammonium nitrate (25-50 mg per 1 liter of water with double treatment) are used.
Experienced aquarists in order to destroy the planarium launch into the aquarium 2–3 days old that have been matured without eating young gourami, macropods, males, black-striped cichlases, bichi chromis, plecost.
In the event of an epidemic, only complete cleaning and disinfection of not only the aquarium itself, but each item that has recently come into contact with its contents will help. To do this, it is best to use formalin, a strong odor liquid that is usually used in a diluted form for the manufacture of drugs. This high percentage poison will kill the fish immediately.
Together with food, other equally dangerous fish pests can be brought into the aquarium. Some of them, for example, the larvae of a swimming beetle, dragonfly mollusks suitable for feeding adult cichlomas and other large predatory fish, are completely unacceptable in an aquarium with small species and, especially, young ones. One dragonfly larva not seen by the aquarist can destroy all fry and kill adult fish, such as neons.
Swimming beetle. The head of the swimming larva is provided with crescent jaws. He grabs the prey with them, injects paralyzing liquid through the channels, after which he burps out enzymes from the stomach into the victim’s wound, which dissolve the tissues to a liquid state, and this liquid is sucked out until practically nothing remains of the prey. Diving beetles themselves tear prey to pieces and eat greedily. Cases are described when, in natural reservoirs and spawning ponds, swimming beetles and their larvae destroyed almost all young fish. The larvae of a swimmer at an early stage of development are small, and therefore may not be noticed by an aquarist and entered into an aquarium with a bloodworm and crustaceans.
Dangerous pests that destroy fish are water insects such as smoothies, ranatra, floats, water mites, shields, water striders, water bugs apheliochirus, as well as the larvae of water scorpion, aquatic beetle, and beetle. All of them are visible to the naked eye, so with some caution, sorting and carefully looking at live food, you can avoid getting pests in the aquarium.
|Dropsy, ruffling scales||Pseudomona punctata-induced destruction of the liver. Due to the penetration of water into the abdominal cavity - protruding scales.||Treatment is impossible; You can only try to make a bath outside the aquarium (!): 80 mg / l Chloramphenicol .|
|Intestinal inflammation or infection||May be a side effect of spironucleosis; then treat like this disease.||Depending on the reason.|
|Cold||Due to a sharp change in temperature or too cold water.||Content in a separate tank: slowly increase the temperature by 4-5 ° C; after eight days, gradually reduce it over eight days to the temperature of the aquarium.|
|Tuberculosis fish||Microbacteria (Myobacterium piscium) nodularity. The disease is slow; not contagious.||Catch diseased fish and destroy. Treatment is not possible. Stronger fish can invisibly pass the infection.|
|Fin rot||Damage and loss of fins caused by water deterioration.||As a first aid: water change! Treatment with Ek t ozon, Exrapid (as directed by the manufacturer) or separate long-term baths: a) tripaflavin (10 mg / l) or b) Chloramphenicol (6 - 8 mg / l); a) for many days, b) after eight hours|
|Gas embolism||The formation of air bubbles under the skin and in blood vessels due to oversaturation with oxygen (rarely) or the pressure of the water filling the aquarium (when changing water).||Preventing this disease is easier than curing! Fill the tank with only settled water. In case of illness, aerate the aquarium water strongly to relieve excess pressure.|
|Glugeosis||The causative agent is microsporidia Glugea pseudotu m efaciens; primarily affects the ovaries (especially Brachydanio rerio), but also other internal organs.||Treatment is impossible! If it is established that the fish are sick with this disease, they must be caught and destroyed.|
|Ichthyodobiasis (bone disease)||Defeat with debilitating parasites (Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina Cyclochaeta); may spread like an infection.||Separate (!) Baths with tripoflavin (see fin rot) or short baths with sodium chloride (10-15 g / l) after 20 minutes with a temperature increase of 2-3 ° C.|
|Ichthyosporidiosis (ichthyophonosis)||Caused by the fungal fungus Ichthyosporidiurn hofe ri and an easily spreading infection. It affects mainly internal organs.||If this disease is established, treatment is impossible.|
|Ichthyophthyriasis||The most famous of fish diseases is caused by the equi-ciliary infusoria Ichthyophthirius multifilius, which lives under the skin of fish.||Treatment with long baths in the aquarium! In specialized stores there are medicines. They most often contain coloring matter. Be careful: plants in the aquarium do not tolerate certain drugs,|
|Carpoed||A parasite shaped like lentils; visible to the naked eye. Yellow-green color with dark dots.||If you catch fish from the aquarium, the lice's mouth apparatus disappears; it can be removed by washing with a brush.|
|Alkaline disease||The disease is caused by a high pH, as well as strong solar radiation or a low content of lime in water, which is not able to bind carbon dioxide.||Constantly carry out a partial change of water or move fish to another aquarium. Subsequently monitor the correct pH. When CO2 is added, if done correctly, the disease cannot occur.|
|Lymphocystis||Viral disease, which is especially susceptible to dwarf cichlids and macropods; easily transmitted.||If the fins are affected, they can be (shallowly) cut. If the disease passes to the body, further treatment is not possible. Fish must be caught and destroyed.|
|Neon disease||The causative agent of the disease is called Plistophora hyphessobryconis; parasitizes in the muscles of fish, forming spores.||The disease can spread like an epidemic (importers are well aware of this). Treatment is impossible: fish must be closely monitored, infected individuals should be immediately caught and destroyed.|
|Oodiniosis; velvet disease||The disease causes Oodinium pillularis, a flagellar infusoria; the symptoms are the same as with ichthyophthyroidism.||The drug is “Exrapid”; separate short baths in a solution of sodium chloride (10-15 g / l) for 20 minutes or immersion in a net (25 g / l) for 10-20 seconds.|
|Parasite||Pathogens: Chilodonella, Costia, Trichodina, (Cyclochaeta), gill worms, Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Monocoelium Neodactylogyrus, etc.||See also “Ichthyodobiasis (bone disease)”. In case of gill parasite damage - “Gyrotox” (in the pet store), according to the instructions. Short baths in a solution of sodium chloride are possible (repeat after a few days).|
|Saprolegniosis||Organic pollution (corpses of fish, residues of feed, etc.). Most often, on the affected areas (open wounds), mold appears, caused by a fungal disease.||Lubricate with a preparation against fungus or mold; possible short baths in potassium permanganate (1 g / 100 l), 20 - 30 minutes.|
|Bladder inflammation||It can be a concomitant phenomenon with dropsy or a consequence of hypothermia.||Depending on the reason; see “Dropsy” and “Colds.”|
|Spironucleosis||Most often, this flagellate is imported along with fish from East Asia. It usually affects the discus (whitish filamentous excrement). It is found in other cichlids. Final stage: holes in the head.||Special drugs with metronizadol (such as “Clont”) are sold by prescription. In the pet shop you can buy "Nekhaekh." The tablet of the first of these drugs should be dissolved in about 60 liters of water; 4-day course of treatment in the aquarium. Use the second drug according to the instructions. Prevention courses are recommended (2 times a year). In pharmacies, BP 80 metronizadol, packaged in 10 g vials, is also sold. Unlike Clont, it is a pure substance without fillers, therefore its price is higher. (Dosage: 4 mg per liter of aquarium water.)|
|Poisoning||The reason should be established. Have you been working recently on the aquarium and its design? Have chemicals been used? Have insect repellents sprayed in the room? Is ammonia or nitrite poisoning possible?||If a cause is found, it is necessary to eliminate it and thereby poisoning. In case of doubt, it is recommended to gradually change the water in small portions.|
|Constipation||The reason most often lies in the uniformity of nutrition; happens due to colds.||Optimal care and care with a variety of nutrition: live and freshly frozen food (animal protein).|
Gastrointestinal tract inflammation
It is noted in aquarium fish in most cases when feeding with a uniform and poor quality food, it can cause the simultaneous death of a significant number of fish, especially juveniles. In addition to feeding fish with a spoiled and contaminated tubule, rotten bloodworm, corvette, overexposed compound feeds, the disease quite often occurs when feeding starving fish with dry daphnia. In a sick fish, the abdomen swells, redness appears in the anus, constipation or excrement with undigested food is observed, breathing is difficult, the fish stop eating, go to the bottom. Sick fish must first of all ensure normal conditions of detention - cleanliness, heat, aeration, water change. After 2-3 days of fasting, start feeding small portions of benign, easily digestible feeds - live daphnia, cyclops, fresh corvette. Karpovyh and others similar in nutrition should be fed with cooked semolina. In therapeutic doses, one of the disinfectants is added in therapeutic doses - table salt, tripaflavin, rivanol.
Aquarium fish poisoning
It occurs as a result of the ingestion of poisonous substances into the body of the fish when consuming poor-quality feed or ingesting poisoned aquarium water. Poisoning may be the result of feeding fish spoiled food during improper storage or food caught from dysfunctional reservoirs; ingress of toxic substances into the aquarium water from the putty used in the manufacture of the aquarium; getting into the aquarium or vessel for storing live food of domestic insects poisoned with pesticides; use for storing feed utensils for non-food purposes; the use of increased doses of drugs, etc. Clinical signs of poisoning: the appearance of convulsive movements in fish, the weakening of the orientation of fish, moving around, stumble on oncoming objects, loss of bright color. With the timely detection of signs of poisoning of diseased fish, it is necessary to immediately transplant it into clean water, arrange aeration and create other optimal conditions. The aquarium should be recharged by thoroughly rinsing the plants in clean water and flushing the soil.
Plistophorosis (neon disease)
In aquarium fish, it occurs with strong and prolonged cooling, which most often happens when transporting fish in the cold season without appropriate insulation, installing the aquarium near the window, keeping the fish without heating, timely unnoticed failure of the electric heater, and for other reasons. Cold fish become inactive, lose their color, become covered with gray mucus, their gills become inflamed. Fish weakened by colds are often affected by infectious diseases. Sick fish need to create normal conditions - heat, aeration of water, easily digestible food. To prevent the occurrence of an infectious disease, it is necessary to use one of the therapeutic agents - table salt, tripaflavin, rivanol.
Pseudomoniasis (fin rot)
It is important for the prevention of diseases of aquarium fish resulting from violations of the rules for keeping and introducing infection through different channels. In order to preserve the health of the inhabitants of the aquarium and create a normal ecological situation, it is recommended to observe the following rules:
- systematically carry out weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with a change of an average of 1/10 of the volume of water; prevent overpopulation of the aquarium;
- avoid unreasonable and partial fish transplantation;
- Do not place objects that can cause poisoning or injury to fish in the aquarium;
- strictly monitor the quality of fish food and ensure its proper storage;
- observe the feeding regimen (twice a day), do not leave the fish hungry for a long time and do not allow overfeeding;
- maintain the optimum temperature in the aquarium recommended for specific fish species, exclude the possibility of sudden changes in temperature in the aquarium and hypothermia;
- to ensure reliable transportation of fish, using soft, sufficient in carrying volume, excluding injury to fish;
- In winter, use thermos containers, and for large fish and a large number of fry, special portable insulated boxes;
- quarantine newly acquired fish by placing them in a designated hider filled with water from an existing aquarium;
- so as not to arrange a separate heating, small fish can be placed in a glass jar and allowed to swim in the aquarium;
- the inventory (nets, siphons, etc.) that served sick or quarantined fish should be thoroughly disinfected (potassium permanganate, rivanol, table salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish;
- in order to avoid fish jumping out of the aquarium, it is necessary to cover it with glass or a net, providing free access to air;
- when treating fish with medicines and chemicals, strictly observe the dosage in order to prevent poisoning.