Secrets of feeding aquarium fish
The vast majority of diseases and deaths in our domestic fish occur due to their improper feeding. The trouble is that the beginner lover sometimes does not even understand the importance and responsibility for their actions in matters of feeding.
The biggest and most common mistake - feeding fish with dry feed. A hungry fish snatches on such food, swallows. Further, this food in the stomach begins to rot. A very small part of it is absorbed, the rest enters the water and changes its chemistry. The more dry food you give, the faster the water spoils. Unwanted organisms develop. Dry high quality branded feed contains almost all the elements necessary for fish, but you need to use them carefully.
The second mistake - a monotonous diet. With all the diversity and availability of all kinds of food, the novice lover “feeds” his pets day after day with the same food. The choice of feed is very large, skillful combination and alternation of them will allow you to grow healthy fish and focus on the more interesting aspects of the life of the underwater kingdom.
Do not forget that the fish are mostly predators, there are very few species that feed exclusively on vegetable food.
Live food is necessary for fish during spawning. Receiving a hefty portion of the moth, the pipe maker, the fish are more likely to spawn. The fry who grew up on live food is life-resistant and less susceptible to disease in the future.
Much has been written about the dangers of the trumpet. In fact, this harm is greatly exaggerated. In the pipemaker can contain anything, but there are some simple ways to clean it. To clean the tubule, it is enough to wash it for a week, two or three times a day. When it gets pink, you can give it to fish without any fear. Some lovers “soak” the pipe pipe in the milk, which also needs to be changed.
It is worth staying on the storage of live feed. The straw tube is stored on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator in a wide and low pot with a small amount of water replaced daily. Bloodworms can be kept between two wet wipes. Photo cuvettes can be used as tableware.
It is advisable to feed both the bloodworm and the strawberry through special feeders. Snooty food remains in the feeder, and live comes out through small holes in the aquarium. A good quality pipe maker “coagulates” instantly when tapped. When buying, you need to pay attention to its appearance. Keep long live food is not recommended.
Without any problems you can grow daphnia yourself. In addition to fodder tasks, daphnia is also of interest for observations. Especially for the fry, it is desirable to have a few cans with rotifers. For a very small fry, amateurs “keep at hand” ciliates.
As an additional food fry use yogurt.
Some lovers cultivate enkhitreusa at home. Keep it pretty easy. To enrich the worm with vitamins, it is necessary to add waste of vegetables, etc. to its diet. Feeding fish with enhitreus can cause obesity, therefore, like any other, this kind of food must be alternated.
As a vegetable feed, it is good to use cereals. Before using them, the cereal must be filled with boiling water and cooled, fed. With great pleasure, many carp, catfish, cichl eater semolina.
When the content of a large number of fish there is a need for a well-balanced and inexpensive feed.
Any heat treatment, as a rule, reduces the value of the product, therefore the components used in the preparation of minced meat are mainly used raw.
- Sea fish. Milk, caviar.
- Squids, octopuses, shrimps, etc. Vegetable components.
- Nettle. Can be harvested independently and used dry. Dandelions, etc. No more than 10%.
- Red sweet pepper ("Bulgarian"). Improving the color of the fish. Not more than 5%.
- Parsley, spinach, apple. Not more than 2%.
- Bow. Not more than 1%.
- Juice of garlic or lemon. Not more than 1%.
- Carrots, pumpkin and other vegetables. Before addition it is necessary to cook 5 - 8 minutes. Not more than 5%.
- Beef liver Rich source of active substances. In stuffing - no more than 5%. You can feed the fish and just pieces of the liver no more than once a week.
- Egg. Binding element stuffing.
- Food for dogs and cats. Should not contain feather meal. May cause intestinal inflammation.
- Dry and frozen fish food. Gamarus, daphnia, etc. As well as high-quality brand mix. Not more than 10%.
- Ground eggshell. Source of minerals. Poorly absorbed.
- Vitamins. 1-2 tablets per 1 kg of minced meat. Sometimes I take vitamin D from the pharmacy in oil and slightly moisten the mince pieces with it before feeding.
- Iodized salt. On the tip of a knife. Compensates for iodine deficiency.
It is undesirable to use in stuffing
- Meat warm-blooded animals. In cases of feeding fish to beef, you should choose lean meat.
- River fish. Perhaps poisoning, parasites.
- Herbs and plants used in medicine. The effect of their use can lead to very sad and unpredictable consequences.
Components of minced meat are washed, mixed and ground in any available way (meat grinder, mixer). For an aquarium with large fish, grinding the ingredients with a knife is quite suitable.
Put the prepared mass in a plastic bag and roll it out with your hands in a 1-2 cm layer. Store in the freezer.
Before feeding, break off the required amount, and after thawing, place it in the aquarium. You can throw frozen pieces without thawing.
However, if you have bottom fish, they can lose their dinner because the ice does not sink in water, and as it thaws, all food can be eaten by other fish.
Gelatin, agar-agar are used as binding elements. In addition, you can pour the mince with strong broth obtained after boiling the bones.
- 1 kg of putas (in our market it is one of the cheapest marine fish).
- 200 g squid. They must be cleaned beforehand.
- A bag of dry branded feed.
- Tablespoon dry nettle.
- One raw egg.
Fish and squid skip twice through the meat grinder. Add dry food, nettle, egg. Stir well. Stuffing ready.
Theoretically, you can store minced meat at a low temperature in the freezer for quite a long time. In fact, the activity of certain substances and their suitability for feeding fish can vary greatly. It is advisable to make a volume that is completely eaten by the fish in a week.
The amount of feed specified is determined experimentally. Feed should be given in small portions, observing the reaction of the fish. It is better if the fish is a little undernaught. Residues of feed should not lie on the bottom. The frequency of feeding depends on the age of the fish. Fry is fed more often, adult fish will be enough one or two times a day.
Much has been written about the benefits of fasting for humans, and this is also true for fish. The gastrointestinal tract needs rest. During fasting, the body is cleaned. Sick fish is recovering faster, and newly acquired fish better acclimatize. Once a week it is useful to arrange a full hunger strike. The exception is the fry, who need food all the time.
An adult fish without visible damage can go hungry for a week.
FOOD FOR AQUARIUM FISH
In natural waters, fish nutrition is very diverse. For example, living in an aquarium, gorchaks, beachpipections, mollies, gourami in nature eat mostly plant food, haplochiluses pick up insects falling on water, and cichlids (angelfish and others) are predators. In the aquarium, all species receive the same ordinary aquarium feed, the set of which is very limited.
Most of the aquarium species for many generations live in indoor conditions and perfectly adapted to the aquarium diet. If the fish are taken from a river or pond, the usual aquarium feed is not always sufficient for them. So, for example, according to the description of the famous Russian aquarist N. F. Zolotnitsky, the bitters begin to degenerate in the second generation: the color turns pale, the fishes become lethargic, weak, reproduce poorly. In this and similar cases, you have to look for the food you need for the fish.
For example, bitters should be given filamentous algae. There are natural and artificial food. In all cases, when possible, you need to feed the fish with natural feed, which feed on fish and in natural conditions. But of course, we can not give African fish for African fish. Just pick the right ones.
The most common natural food is bloodworm. A bloodworm is a larva of unsightly mosquitoes of jasper, or bellies, having the appearance of bright red, divided into segments of a worm from 0.5 to 2 centimeters in length. These larvae are caught at the bottom of ponds, lakes and slowly flowing rivers. Having tied a rope to the handle of the bucket, they throw it into the pond. When the bucket sinks to the bottom, the scooped silt is dragged ashore and, having washed it in the sieve, choose the moth remaining on the bottom.
The case is not easy and, moreover, very dirty. Therefore, when the bloodworm can be bought (it is sold in the zoological shops of most large cities), you should not catch it yourself, especially in the winter: you have to chop ice for this purpose, and ice water.
Bloodworm - a great food for all aquarium fish larger than 1.5 centimeters. It should be given on the basis of one to five worms for each fish once or twice a day. You can not throw into the aquarium once a lot of bloodworms. If the fish do not have time to eat it, then the crank buries itself in the sand, where it often dies and, rotting, spoils the water.
Bloodworm - a great food for all aquarium fish larger than 1.5 centimeters. It should be given on the basis of one to five worms for each fish once or twice a day. You can not throw into the aquarium once a lot of bloodworms. If the fish do not have time to eat it, then the crank buries itself in the sand, where it often dies and, rotting, spoils the water. In an aquarium, even in the middle of winter, it is often possible to observe the appearance of headless creatures with clearly visible horns and articulated tails down, floating near well-lit glass. It is a bloodworm, but now it is no longer a larva, but a pupa. If in a few days you see a mosquito, do not be surprised. It is from the pupa hatched adult form. Bloodworms can feed and fish fry the size of 6-7 millimeters. For them, the larvae have to cut into tiny pieces.
A bundle of moths (20-30 pieces) is put on the glass and cut with sharp movements of sharp scissors, turning it into a pasty mass. Tilting the glass, give blood to drain, after which the slurry is thrown into the aquarium. Feed the fish with a cutworm must be especially careful. If in the aquarium there are at least a few unmatched pieces, the rot immediately begins and the water becomes cloudy.
You can keep the bloodworm in a clean, damp cloth, laying it in a thin layer and placing it in a cool place (preferably with a temperature of 2-5 degrees). Sometimes the bloodworm is kept mixed with sleeping tea. In this case, he lives longer, but it is difficult to choose him when feeding. In the summer, it is convenient to store the larvae in a plate set with bright light with water and a Riccia aquarium plant.
There is another very good way to store moths. If the larvae are spread out in a thin layer in a flat vessel with a tight-fitting lid and slightly sprinkle it with water, then you get a so-called wet chamber. The air there is saturated with water vapor, and a lot of oxygen. The larvae in such a chamber, installed in a cool place, live a long time. There are other storage methods. Bloodworm can be prepared in advance by drying live larvae. Most fish eat a dry bloodworm well, but when feeding it is easy for them to stir up the water, and the fish do not grow fast enough. Better than dry moth ice cream. You can not feed the fish dead, spoiled bloodworms.
In very heavily polluted water bodies, the surface of the sludge is often, like a carpet, covered with a multitude of thin red worms, half buried in the silt. These worms sometimes multiply strongly in an aquarium if it is poorly lit and kept untidy. This is a tube maker, or tubifix. This worm is a good food for fish. Store it the same as bloodworm, or in a plate with water, changed twice a day. This method is the best, pipe makers can live in such conditions for months. Before feeding, the worm is cut, otherwise it is immediately buried in the sand. If it is difficult to wash the tubifices from the sludge of a natural reservoir with a sieve (when the sludge is heavily polluted), they are placed in a bucket along with the dirt and heated from the bottom. Escaping from the heat, the pipe workers crawl to the surface, from where they are easy to pick.
Live food - Daphnia and Cyclops
In standing and slowly flowing waters there is an excellent food for fry and small adult fish: various floating crustaceans and mainly cyclops and daphnids. They are small, translucent and move in the water with the help of the rowing movements of their joyous antennae. Their size is often less than a millimeter, and they are indispensable when feeding young. The dirtier the pond, the better, as a rule, there is live food in it - the crustaceans here have adapted to transferring all sorts of hardships.
They catch crustaceans by passing water through a long net on a long stick. A net bag is best made from silk or nylon and perlon. Often the net is made combined: the lower part is sewn from dense fabric (for example, calico), the upper part, attached to the hoop, is made from a fabric that passes water well (for example, an old nylon stocking). Nets of gauze are suitable only for catching large daphnids; Cyclops and young Daphnia pass through them.
It is better to make a net stick up to three meters long, integral or collapsible. Often for this use thin duralumin tubes, and the joints are made on the thread. It is most convenient to carry live food from a pond home in a special vessel - canne. You can also use a bucket, a can, or a jar for this purpose. The water in the vessel must be poured in such a way that its depth is less than the width of the vessel. And sometimes they wear food in a different way - on fabric sieves strung on a frame.
Crayfish lay a layer of approximately 0.5 centimeters, and the frame is placed in a vessel at the bottom of which is poured a little water. Part of the crustaceans with this method dies, but in the "dry" form they can bring a lot. Brought Cyclops placed in the basin, from time to time changing the water in it. To do this, the upper layers of water are filtered through the net, and dead crustaceans settled on the bottom are thrown away. Too many cyclops should not be kept - they die when repacking and become unsuitable for feeding fish. In the aquarium you need to let as many cyclops and daphnids as fish eat within 1 to 2 hours. Do I have to catch cyclops myself? Is not it easier to buy them at the zoological store? Of course, easier. But for many aquarists, foraging is an interesting activity. In addition, it hardens the person physically.
Daphnia can be specially bred anywhere in the barrel. In a soft water throw a little dry cow dung and let the crustaceans. Feed them need yeast, and so that the water all the time was a little bit (not much!) Unclear. Daphne harvested, drying. The best are large crustaceans, dried in the sun in early summer. If you feed the fish with one dry food, they grow poorly and multiply. When vitamin D is added to dried daphnia in fish, growth and fecundity are improved. On the matchbox of dry daphnids add one or two drops of an oil solution of vitamin "D" or fish oil. Powdered dry daphnia are ground into a special feeder floating on the surface of an aquarium from sealed glass tubes. Like moths, cyclops and daphnids can be harvested for the winter, freezing.
dry food crayfish-crab (gammarus)
Crustacean-bokoplav (gammarus). Live bokoplavy - tasty food for many commercial fish. No wonder even the winter fishing hook (snake) is shaped like a scud, which is sometimes called mormysh. When dried, the crustacean is quite hard. No fish aquarium can eat it all. But if the crustaceans are crushed into dust, the fish eat them very willingly. Nutritionally, this food is better than dry daphnia, but, of course, it is inferior to live food. This feed is suitable for many fish. It is good to feed the fish with dry food, mixed with a cut bloodworm.
Live food - Coretra
In the same place where cyclops and daphnias are caught, a long transparent cortera often falls into the net. This is a mosquito larva. The dimensions of the corret are about a centimeter. Without being inferior in nutritional value to the crank, the coretre has some advantages over it: it does not bury itself in the sand and is very insensitive to the amount of oxygen dissolved in water. In this glass you can put a few hundred coretr. These larvae are very resistant to adverse conditions. Once, when my canna was full of cyclops, I came across a puddle in which a lot of the rimmer swam. I had nowhere to plant them, and, having caught thousands, I simply put them in a newspaper and put them in my pocket. Only two hours later they got into the water, and not a single larva died. I think that this is the way, without water, the coreter must be carried home from the pond. Or maybe they can be stored in a wet chamber? Try to put this experience. Keep the corelet at low temperatures; in the warmth, it quickly pupates and becomes unsuitable for feeding. The fish, accustomed to the crank, catch the rigger reluctantly, however, having become hungry, they begin to eat it greedily.
In the warm season, along with the cyclops, the net is often caught by a huge number of the smallest living creatures: ciliates, rotifers, cyclops and daphnia larvae. When viewed with the naked eye, they seem to be barely noticeable moving points. Anything that can be separated by straining through the awnings or nylon nets, aquarists call "living dust." This is the best food for fish larvae that have just hatched from caviar. It is necessary to feed "live dust" two or three times a day, giving as much as can be eaten in 1 - 2 hours. Perfectly bred infusoria replace the “living dust” perfectly. The best shoe is for this purpose.
Dilute it is a snap. Take rotten parts of aquarium plants and squeeze them into the tube. When the dregs have settled, looking at the light, they catch them with a pipette of shoes, which can be easily recognized by their characteristic shape. Ciliates are placed in a jar (volume of 2-3 liters) with cooled boiled water, adding two or three drops of milk or yeast diluted in water. The water temperature should be 20-25 degrees. After the water clarifies, the ciliates are again fed with milk or yeast. After 10-15 days, a lot of shoes are usually already in the bank.
Infusoria are well bred if throwing a banana peel into a jar, fresh or dry, makes no difference. In this case, feeding with milk or yeast is not necessary. And slices of banana peel can be put every 10-15 days. For feeding the larvae take 1 - 2 cups of water with infusoria per day. In the jar, immediately you need to pour cooled boiled or just raw tap water and feed the infusoria. The more often you replace water, the better the shoes will multiply. One three-liter jar of shoes is usually enough to feed a hundred fish larvae.
An interesting way to breeding ciliates is used by aquarists of the German Democratic Republic. At the bottom of a liter glass vessel they put a thin layer of silt taken from the bottom of some small pond or for a long time not drying out puddle (marsh silt is not suitable). Water is poured into the vessel marsh. A small cube of turnip or rutabaga is placed as feed for infusoria, and the vessel is tightly covered with glass from above. In this method, only shoes are bred in a vessel. The oxygen in the vessel is small, so millions of ciliates are collected in the upper layer, forming a whitish "infusion milk" on the surface. From there it is not difficult to dial them with a pipette.
How to make the aquarium with infusoria less dirty water? There are many ways, but one of them is simple and good. Pour water into the long, narrow tube with infusoria and set it vertically. Within two hours, ciliates will gather on the surface, where there is more oxygen. It remains only to choose a pipette "infusorial plug" and feed it to the fish. You can speed up the movement of shoes up by darkening the bottom of the tube. You can drop a cotton swab into the upper end of the tube, and pour a little fresh water on top of it. Ciliates through cotton wool climbed. Apply other ways. Filter the infusion water through blotting paper, or, discharging water with infusoria from the surface of the can (but without a banana), leave it for 4-6 days.